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Encyclopedia > Realpolitik

Realpolitik (German: real ("realistic", "practical" or "actual") and politik ("politics")) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. The term realpolitik is often used pejoratively to imply politics that are coercive, amoral, or Machiavellian. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A Rush of Blood to the Head is the second album by English rock band Coldplay, released on August 26, 2002 in the UK and on August 27 in the U.S.. It was as successful as, if not more than, its predecessor, Parachutes, debuting at #1 in the United... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ...

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Origin and use of the term

The term was coined by Ludwig August von Rochau, a German writer and politician in the 19th century, following Klemens von Metternich's lead in finding ways to balance the power of European empires. Balancing power to keep the European pentarchy was the means for keeping the peace, and careful Realpolitik practitioners tried to avoid arms races. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ... The Pentarchy, a Greek word meaning government of five, designates the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, which were the five major centres of the Christian church in Late Antiquity. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ...


As used in the U.S., the term is often similar to power politics, while in Germany, Realpolitik is to describe modest (realistic) politics in opposition to overzealous (unrealistic) politics, though it is associated with the nationalism of the 19th century. The most famous German advocate of “Realpolitik” was Otto von Bismarck, the First Chancellor (1862-1870) to Wilhelm I of the Kingdom of Prussia. Bismarck used Realpolitik to achieve Prussian dominance in Germany, as he manipulated political issues such as Schleswig-Holstein and the Hohenzollern candidature to antagonize other countries and possibly with the intention of war. Characteristic of Bismarck's political action was an almost Machiavellian policy; he acted with little regard to ethics, morals or legalities. Prussia's seemingly illogical move of not demanding territory from a defeated Austria, a move that later led to the unification of Germany, is one of the often-cited examples of Realpolitik. Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Bismarck redirects here. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ...


Similarly, in the German Green Party, people willing to compromise are referred to as Realos (realists), and opponents as Fundis (fundamentalists or ideologues). The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...


Realpolitik in contrast to ideological politics

The policy of realpolitik was formally introduced to the Nixon White House by Henry Kissinger. In this context, the policy meant dealing with other powerful nations in a practical manner rather than on the basis of political doctrine or ethics — for instance, Nixon's diplomacy with the People's Republic of China, despite the U.S.'s opposition to communism and the previous doctrine of containment. Another example is Kissinger's "shuttle diplomacy" after the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, where he persuaded the Israelis to withdraw partially from the Sinai in deference to the political realities created by the oil crisis. Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about foreign policy. ...


Realpolitik is distinct from ideological politics in that it is not dictated by a fixed set of rules, but instead tends to be goal-oriented, limited only by practical exigencies. Since realpolitik is ordered toward the most practical means of securing national interests, it can often entail compromising on ideological principles. For example, the U.S. under the Nixon and Reagan administrations often supported authoritarian regimes that were human rights violators, in order to, theoretically, secure the greater national interest of regional stability. Detractors would characterize this attitude as amoral, while supporters would contend that they are merely operating within limits defined by practical reality.


Most recently, former ambassador Dennis Ross advocated this approach to foreign policy in his 2007 book Statecraft: And how to Restore America's Standing in the World. Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ...


In contrast, political ideologues tend to favor principle over all other considerations. Such groups often reject compromises which they see as the abandonment of their ideals, and so may sacrifice political gain in favor of adhering to their principles. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ...


Relation to realism

A foreign policy guided by realpolitik can also be described as a realist foreign policy. Realpolitik is related to the philosophy of political realism and can be regarded as one of its foundations, as both implicate power politics. Realpolitik, however, is a prescriptive guideline for policy-making (like foreign policy), while realism is a paradigm that includes a wide variety of theories that describe, explain and predict international relations. Realpolitik also focuses on the balance of power among nation-states, which is also a central concern in realism. Both also imply operation according to the belief that politics is based on the pursuit, possession, and application of power. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ...


See also

Chanakya- The Great Politics and Education Guru (Master) of India The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Noopolitik is an alternative way of politics raising beside hard power driven realpolitik. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... The ends justify the means is a phrase encompassing two beliefs: Morally wrong actions are sometimes necessary to achieve morally right outcomes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large and mild influence and recognized internationally. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... Superpowers redirects here. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the telecommunications and multimedia company, see Pacific Century Cyberworks. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Realpolitik - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (139 words)
Realpolitik (German: real ("realistic", "practical" or "actual") and Politik ("politics")) is a term to describe or prescribe politics based on strictly practical rather than idealistic notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions.
Realpolitik is related to Realism in international relations and can be regarded as one of its foundations, as both implicate power politics.
Realpolitik however is a prescriptive guideline for policy making (like foreign policy), while Realism is a paradigm that includes a wide variety of theories that describe, explain and predict international relations.
Realpolitik - definition of Realpolitik in Encyclopedia (306 words)
Realpolitik (German for "politics of reality") is foreign politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics.
However, during the early 20th century, realpolitik was abandoned and arms races and alliances increased, culminating in World War I.
Realpolitik in many cases has been for the advancement of the national interests of a country over ethical or principled concerns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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