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Encyclopedia > Reality television

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Reality television Documentaries and nonfictional programming such as the news and sports shows are usually not classified as reality shows. Zone Reality (formerly Reality TV) is a European reality television channel. ...


Reality television covers a wide range of programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning shows produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki no tsukai), to surveillance- or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother. Downtowns Gaki no Tsukai ya Arahende!! ) (Downtowns This Aint No Job for Kids!) is a Japanese variety show hosted by the two very popular Japanese owarai duos, Downtown (consisting of Hitoshi Matsumoto (松本人志) and Masatoshi Hamada (浜田雅功), Cocorico (consisting of Naoki Tanaka (田中直樹) and Shouzo Endo (遠藤章造), and comedian Housei Yamazaki... Big Brother is a reality television format. ...


Origins of reality television

Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the 1940s. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's Candid Camera, (based on his previous 1947 radio show, Candid Microphone), broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. It has been called the "granddaddy of the reality TV genre." [1] Debuting in the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences, involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. The Miss America Pageant, first broadcast in 1954, was a competition where the winner achieved status as a national celebrity.[2] Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Producer-director Allen Funt Allen Funt - The father of Reality TV(September 16, 1914 – September 5, 1999) was an American producer-director, best known as the creator and host of Candid Camera from the 1940s to 1980s, as either a regular show or a series of specials. ... Candid Camera is a long-running television series, created and produced by Allen Funt, which initially began on radio as Candid Microphone June 28, 1947. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Beat the Clock (disambiguation). ... Action Comics #127 (December 1948), featuring Superman appearing on the show with Ralph Edwards Truth or Consequences was an American quiz show, originally hosted on radio by Ralph Edwards from 1940 to 1957, and later on television by Edwards himself from 1950 to 1951, Jack Bailey from 1954 to 1955... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Original Amateur Hour was an American television program from the mediums early days. ... Arthur Godfreys Talent Scouts (also known as Talent Scouts) was a television variety show which ran on CBS from 1948 until 1958. ... For the patriotically-themed comic book superheroines, see Miss America (comics). ...


The radio series Nightwatch (1954-1955), which tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers, also helped pave the way for reality television. Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ...


First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television series Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary seven-year olds from a broad cross section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life. Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals in the intervening years, titled Seven Plus Seven, 21 Up, etc. The series was structured simply as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did convey the individuals' character development over time. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the soft drink, see 7 Up. ...


The first reality show in the modern sense was the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family, which showed a nuclear family going through a divorce. In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. In 1992, Australia saw Sylvania Waters, about the nouveau riche Baker-Donaher family of Sydney. All three shows attracted their share of controversy. For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Considered televisions first reality show, An American Family was shot documentary style in 1971 and first aired in the United States on PBS in early 1973. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Family was a 1974 television series made by the BBC. It was a fly-on-the-wall documentary series, seen by many as the precursor to reality television. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... , Reading is a town, unitary authority (the Borough of Reading) and urban area in the English county of Berkshire. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Sylvania Waters was an Australian reality television series which followed the lives of an Australian family. ... For the band Nouveau Riche, see Nouveau Riche (band). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Some talk shows, most notably The Jerry Springer Show, which debuted in 1991, try to present real-life drama within the talk show format by hosting guests likely to conflict on the set. A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... The Jerry Springer Show is an internationally known[1] American television tabloid talk show, hosted by Jerry Springer, a former politician. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Reality television as it is currently understood, though, can be traced directly to several television shows that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. COPS, which first aired in the spring of 1989 and came about partly due to the need for new programming during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike,[3] showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals; it introduced the camcorder look and cinéma vérité feel of much of later reality television. The series Nummer 28, which aired on Dutch television in 1991, originated the concept of putting strangers together in the same environment for an extended period of time and recording the drama that ensued. It also pioneered many of the stylistic conventions that have since become standard in reality television shows, including a heavy use of soundtrack music and the interspersing of events on screen with after-the-fact "confessionals" recorded by cast members, that serve as narration. One year later, the same concept was used by MTV in their new series The Real World; Nummer 28 creator Erik Latour has long claimed that The Real World was directly inspired by his show. Changing Rooms, a British TV show that began in 1996, showed couples redecorating each others' houses, and was the first reality show with a self-improvement or makeover theme. The Swedish TV show Expedition Robinson, created by TV producer Charlie Parsons, which first aired in 1997 (and was later produced in a large number of other countries as Survivor), added to the Nummer 28/Real World template the idea of competition and elimination, in which cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained. Not to be confused with C.O.P.S. (TV series). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1988 Writers Guild of America strike was a strike action taken by members of both the Writers Guild of America, East (WGAE) and the Writers Guild of America, west (WGAw). ... Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... This article is about filmmaking. ... Nummer 28 was a Dutch reality soap, directed by Joost Tholens and produced by Today TV, shown as part of the youth show 1-4-U of public broadcaster KRO in 1991. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... For other uses, see The Real World (disambiguation). ... Changing Rooms is a British Entertainment television programme. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The W. Edwards Deming Institute. ... A makeover is a term applied to changing ones appearance, usually through cosmetics. ... Expedition: Robinson was a popular Swedish reality television program, that debuted in 1997. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the television show. ...


Types of reality TV

There are a number of sub-categories of reality television:


Documentary-style

In many reality television shows, the viewer and the camera are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities; this style of filming is often referred to as "fly on the wall" or cinéma vérité. MTV's Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County may be the epitome of this style of show, with unscripted situations, real-life locations, and no tasks given to the cast (at least, no known ones). Often "plots" are constructed via editing or planned situations, with the results resembling soap operas — hence the term docusoap. Fly on the wall is a style of documentary-making used in film and television. ... This article is about filmmaking. ... The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television...


Within documentary-style reality television are several subcategories or variants:


Special living environment

Some documentary-style programs place cast members, who in most cases previously did not know each other, in artificial living environments; The Real World is the originator of this style. In almost every other such show, cast members are given a specific challenge or obstacle to overcome. Road Rules, which started in 1995 as a spinoff of The Real World, started this pattern: the cast traveled across the country guided by clues and performing tasks. Many other shows in this category involve historical re-enactment, with cast members forced to live and work as people of a specific time and place would have; The 1900 House is one example. 2001's Temptation Island achieved some notoriety by placing several couples on an island surrounded by single people in order to test the couples' commitment to each other. For other uses, see The Real World (disambiguation). ... Road Rules, MTVs second reality show, debuted on July 19, 1995. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is an activity in which participants recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... The 1900 House is a historical reality television programme made by Wall to Wall/Channel 4 in 1999. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Temptation Island was a U.S. reality television program broadcast on the Fox network in which several couples agreed to live with groups of singles of the opposite sex, in order to test the strength of their relationships. ...


U8TV: The Lofters combined the "special living environment" format with the "professional activity" format noted below; in addition to living together in a loft, each member of the show's cast was hired to host a television program for a Canadian cable channel. U8TV: The Lofters was a Canadian reality television series which aired on Life Network and online through its website, . The show followed the lives of eight young Canadians who moved into a loft in Toronto, Ontario for a period of one year and had to host television programs for Life... Look up Loft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Celebrity reality

Another subset of fly-on-the-wall-style shows involves celebrities. Often these show a celebrity going about their everyday life: examples include The Anna Nicole Show, The Osbournes, Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica and Hogan Knows Best. In other shows, celebrities are put on location and given a specific task; these include The Simple Life, Tommy Lee Goes to College and The Surreal Life . VH1 has created an entire block of shows dedicated to celebrity reality: "Celebreality". The Anna Nicole Show first season DVD The Anna Nicole Show was a reality sitcom, starring the late model and Playboy Playmate Anna Nicole Smith. ... The Osbournes was an Emmy Award-winning American reality television program broadcast by MTV in the U.S., by CTV in Canada, Channel 4 in the UK and MTV UK and Ireland in Ireland and the UK, RTÉ Two in Ireland, Network Ten, MTV Australia in Australia and TV2 in... Hogan Knows Best is an American reality television show, centered around the family life of professional wrestling legend Hulk Hogan (Terry Bollea), and often focusing on the Hogans raising of their children, and on Hulk Hogans attempts to manage and assist in his childrens burgeoning careers. ... For other uses, see Simple living. ... Tommy Lee Goes to College is an NBC reality television show that began broadcasting on Tuesday, August 16, 2005 and on VH1 on Friday, August 19, 2005. ... The Surreal Life is a reality television series that sets a select group of out-of-the-spotlight celebrities and films them as they live together in a mansion in the Hollywood Hills for two weeks. ... VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently part of the MTV Networks division... Celebreality is a term that combines the words celebrity and reality and is generally used to refer to television programming in which celebrities star and participate in reality television shows. ...


Professional activities

Some documentary-style shows portray professionals either going about day-to-day business or performing an entire project over the course of a series. No outside experts are brought in (at least, none appear on screen) to either provide help or to judge results. The earliest example(and the longest running reality show of any genre) is COPS which has been airing since 1989, preceding by many years the current reality show phenomenon. Not to be confused with C.O.P.S. (TV series). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Other examples of this type of reality show include Miami Ink, American Chopper, The First 48 and Deadliest Catch. The US cable networks TLC and A&E in particular show a number of this type of reality show. Miami Ink is a reality show on TLC that follows the events that take place at 305 Ink (also known as Miami Ink), a tattoo shop in Miami Beach. ... American Chopper: The Series is a Learning Channel reality television series produced by Pilgrim Films & Television Inc. ... The First 48 is an American reality television show based on homicide detective units in various cities across America, including Dallas, Memphis, Phoenix, Miami, and San Francisco. ... Deadliest Catch is a documentary-style television series that documents the events aboard fishing boats in the Bering Sea during the Alaskan king crab and Opilio crab fishing seasons. ... TLC is a cable TV network in the US and Canada, that carries a variety of informational and reality-based programming. ... A&E is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A&E Network (Arts and Entertainment), an American television network the Accident and Emergency department of a hospital This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with...


VH1's 2001 show Bands on the Run was a notable early hybrid, in that the show featured four unsigned bands touring and making music as a professional activity, but also pitted the bands against one another in game show fashion to see which band could make the most money. VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently part of the MTV Networks division... An unsigned band is a rock band that has not been signed to a record label. ...


Elimination/Game shows

Another type of reality TV is "reality-competition", or so-called "reality game shows", in which participants are filmed competing to win a prize, often while living together in a confined environment. In many cases, participants are removed until only one person or team remains, who/which is then declared the winner. Usually this is done by eliminating participants one at a time, in balloon debate style, through either disapproval voting or by voting for the most popular choice to win; voting is done by either the viewing audience or by the show's own participants. (These programs have also been called "game operas," a pejorative term coined by Steve Beverly, a college professor in Tennessee and webmaster of TVGameShows.net.) A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... A balloon debate is a debate in which a number of speakers attempt to win the approval of an audience. ... Disapproval voting is any voting system that allows many voters to express formal disapproval simultaneously, in a system where they all share some power. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... A webmaster is a person responsible for designing, developing, marketing, or maintaining Web site(s). ...


A well-known example of a reality-competition show is the globally-syndicated Big Brother, in which cast members live together in the same house, with participants removed at regular intervals by either the viewing audience or, in the case of the American version, by the participants themselves. Big Brother is a reality television format. ...


There remains some controversy over whether talent-search shows such as the Idol series, America's Got Talent, Dancing with the Stars, and Celebrity Duets are truly reality television, or just newer incarnations of shows such as Star Search. Although the shows involve a traditional talent search, the shows follow the reality-competition conventions of removing one or more contestants per episode and allowing the public to vote on who is removed; the Idol series also require the contestants to live together during the run of the show (though their daily life is never shown onscreen). Additionally, there is a good deal of interaction shown between contestants and judges. As a result, such shows are often considered reality television, and the American Primetime Emmy Awards have nominated both American Idol and Dancing with the Stars for the Outstanding Reality-Competition Program Emmy. Countries that have their own versions of an Idol series. ... Americas Got Talent is an American reality television series on the NBC television network. ... For the video game based on the American series, see Dancing with the Stars (video game) Countries with their own version Dancing with the Stars is the name for a number of international television series based on the format of the British series Strictly Come Dancing. ... Celebrity Duets, a U.S. reality television show of the progressive game-show type, combined celebrities of different backgrounds with professional singers in a weekly elimination competition. ... Star Search is a television show from 1983 to 1995 hosted by Ed McMahon, which also appeared as a remake in 2003-2004. ... The Primetime Emmy Awards are awards presented by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in recognition of excellence in American primetime television programming. ... American Idol is an annual American televised singing competition, which began its first season on June 11, 2002. ... Outstanding Reality-Competition Program is a Primetime Emmy Award given out during the primetime telecast. ...


Modern game shows like Weakest Link, Greed, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, Dog Eat Dog and Deal or No Deal also lie in a gray area: like traditional game shows, the action takes place in an enclosed TV studio over a short period of time; however, they have higher production values, more dramatic background music, and higher stakes than traditional shows (done either through putting contestants into physical danger or offering large cash prizes). In addition, there is more interaction between contestants and hosts, and in some cases they feature reality-style contestant competition and/or elimination as well. These factors, as well as these shows' rise in global popularity at the same time as the arrival of the reality craze, lead many people to group them under the reality TV umbrella instead of the traditional game show one. A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... Weakest Link (early episodes had the on-screen title The Weakest Link) is a television game show which first appeared in the United Kingdom on BBC Two on 14 August 2000. ... Greed (or Greed: The Series) was a short-lived American television game show where a team of contestants answered a series of multiple-choice trivia questions for a potential prize of up to $2 million (later $4 million during the five Super Greed episodes). ... For other uses, see Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (disambiguation). ... Ulrika Jonsson, UK Host of Dog Eat Dog Dog Eat Dog was a reality British game show on the BBC hosted by Ulrika Jonsson, which ran from 2001 to 2003. ... Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related television game shows, the first of which (launching the format) was produced by Dutch producer Endemol. ...


There are various hybrid reality-competition shows, like the worldwide-syndicated Star Academy, which combines the Big Brother and Pop Idol formats, The Biggest Loser and The Pick-up Artist which combine competition with the self-improvement format, and American Inventor, which uses the Pop Idol format for products instead of people. Some shows, such as Making the Band and Project Greenlight, devote the first part of the season to selecting a winner, and the second part to showing that person or group of people working on a project. Location of different versions of Star Academy Star Academy is a highly successful television show format produced by Endemol, that has been broadcasted in over 50 countries. ... The Biggest Loser is an NBC reality television show that began broadcasting on October 19, 2004. ... This article is about the 2007 VH1 reality series. ... American Inventor is a reality television series based on a search for Americas best inventor. ... Making the Band is an ABC/MTV reality television series that exists in separate iterations, each iteration focusing on a specific music act. ... Project Greenlight is a contest and documentary series focusing on amateur filmmaking. ...


Popular variants of the competition-based format include the following:


Dating-based competition

Dating-based competition shows follow a contestant choosing one out of a group of suitors. Over the course of either a single episode or an entire season, suitors are eliminated until only the contestant and the final suitor remains. For a time, in 2001-2003, this type of reality show dominated the other genres on the major US networks. Shows that aired included The Bachelor, its spinoff The Bachelorette, as well as Temptation Island, For Love or Money and Average Joe. More recent such shows include Flavor of Love and its spinoffs I Love New York and Rock of Love. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1999 movie The Bachelor starring Chris ODonnell, see The Bachelor (film). ... A spin-off (or spinoff) is a new organization or entity formed by a split from a larger one such as a new company formed from a university research group. ... The Bachelorette is a reality television dating game show that debuted in 2003 on ABC, which took the runner-up date from the first season of The Bachelor (Trista Rehn), and let her choose a husband. ... Temptation Island was a U.S. reality television program broadcast on the Fox network in which several couples agreed to live with groups of singles of the opposite sex, in order to test the strength of their relationships. ... For Love or Money is also a reality television show initially broadcasted on NBC. It is basically a dating show where the chosen winner will choose to stay with the central bachelor or will take home a million dollars but without any further contact with the bachelor. ... For common usage of this term, see Average Joe. ... Flavor of Love is an American reality television dating game show starring Flavor Flav of the rap group Public Enemy. ... I Love New York logo, by Milton Glaser. ... Rock of Love with Bret Michaels is a reality show on VH1 set to air July 15, 2007. ...


Job search

In this category, the competition revolves around a skill that contestants were pre-screened for. Competitors perform a variety of tasks based around that skill, are judged, and are then kept or removed by a single expert or a panel of experts. The show is invariably presented as a job search of some kind, in which the prize for the winner includes a contract to perform that kind of work. Examples include The Apprentice (which judges business skills), America's Next Top Model (for modeling), the Idol series (for singers), Hell's Kitchen (for chefs), Project Runway (for clothing design), Top Design (for interior design), Last Comic Standing (for comedians), The Starlet (for actresses), On the Lot (for filmmakers) and the MuchMusic VJ Search (for television hosts). The Apprentice is a television franchise that originated in 2004 in the United States. ... ANTM redirects here. ... Countries that have their own versions of an Idol series. ... Hells Kitchen is the name of a cooking-based reality show. ... Project Runway is an American reality television series on the Bravo network that focuses on fashion design. ... Top Design is a reality television series airing on the Bravo network which features 12 aspiring interior designers to get cash and receive a spot in New Yorks Designer showcases. ... Last Comic Standing is an American reality television talent show that premiered in 2003. ... Vivica A. Fox, Faye Dunaway and Joseph Middleton The Starlet was a reality television program on The WB. Ten young actresses live together in Marilyn Monroes old house while competing in a series of acting challenges for the chance to win a role on the WB drama One Tree... On the Lot is a reality show competition produced by Steven Spielberg and Mark Burnett[1]. The show, which airs on FOX, features filmmakers competing in weekly elimination competitions, with the ultimate prize of a million dollar development deal at DreamWorks. ... VJ Search is the title of a reality television program aired on Canadian music video TV station MuchMusic. ...

Christina freaking out on camera. From the pilot of MTV's Fear.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... MTVs Fear was an MTV reality show in 2000, that placed a group of 5 or more contestants in a reputedly haunted location and led them on a series of dares over two nights to explore whether or not the place was haunted. ...

Fear-centric

Introduced in 2000 by MTV's Fear, where six participants were locked alone in a supposedly haunted location, fear-centric shows place people in situations or locations aimed at generating emotions of fright, panic, or revulsion. Shows in the genre include Fear Factor, Scare Tactics and Celebrity Paranormal Project. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... MTVs Fear was an MTV reality show in 2000, that placed a group of 5 or more contestants in a reputedly haunted location and led them on a series of dares over two nights to explore whether or not the place was haunted. ... This article refers to the American television show by this title. ... For the political strategy, see Tactical politics Scare Tactics is a reality show on the Sci-Fi Channel which began airing April 2003. ... Celebrity Paranormal Project is a reality show, which debuted on VH1 on October 22, 2006. ...


Sports

These programs create a sporting competition among athletes attempting to establish their name in that sport. The Club, in 2002, was one of the first shows to immerse sport with reality TV, based around a fabricated club competing against real clubs in the sport of Australian rules football; the audience helped select which players played each week by voting for their favourites. The Big Break was a reality show in which aspiring golf players competed against one another and were eliminated. The Contender, a boxing show, unfortunately became the first American reality show in which a contestant committed suicide after being eliminated from the show. In The Ultimate Fighter participants have voluntarily withdrawn or expressed the desire to withdraw from the show due to competitive pressure. The Club was a short-lived Australian reality television show about an Australian rules football sporting side, the Hammerheads, which was screened the Seven Network in 2002. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... For the BBC game show, see Big Break For the Soviet TV miniseries, see Big School-Break The Big Break is The Golf Channels reality television program. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses of this term, see Contender. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... The Ultimate Fighter is a reality television series and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition, originating from United States, and produced by Spike TV and the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). ...


In sports shows, sometimes just appearing on the show, not necessarily winning, can get a contestant the job. The owner of UFC declared that the final match of the first season of Ultimate Fighter was so good, both contestants were offered a contract. Many of the losers from World Wrestling Entertainment's Tough Enough and Diva Search shows have been picked up by the company. World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... WWE Tough Enough (originally known as WWF Tough Enough) was a reality television show produced by World Wrestling Entertainment and Music Television wherein a selection of hopefuls competed for a contract with the WWF (and later WWE). ... The official logo of the 2007 WWE Diva Search. ...


Self-improvement/makeover

Some reality television shows cover a person or group of people improving their lives. Sometimes the same group of people are covered over an entire season (as in The Swan and Celebrity Fit Club), but usually there is a new target for improvement in each episode. Despite differences in the content, the format is usually the same: first the show introduces the subjects in their current, less-than-ideal environment. Then the subjects meet with a group of experts, who give the subjects instructions on how to improve things; they offer aid and encouragement along the way. Finally, the subjects are placed back in their environment and they, along with their friends and family and the experts, appraise the changes that have occurred. Other self-improvement or makeover shows include The Biggest Loser (which covers weight loss), Extreme Makeover (entire physical appearance), Queer Eye For The Straight Guy (style and grooming), Supernanny (child-rearing), Made (attaining difficult goals), What Not to Wear (fashion and grooming), Trinny & Susannah Undress (fashion makeover and marriage) and Flavor of Love Girls: Charm School (manners). Swan can mean: For the bird, see Swan. ... For the British version of the show, see Celebrity Fit Club (UK TV series). ... The Biggest Loser is an NBC reality television show that began broadcasting on October 19, 2004. ... Extreme Makeover:Gabriella Hetenyi edition is a television program from ABC where Gabriella volunteers to receive an extensive makeover in Sydney. ... Queer Eye (originally Queer Eye for the Straight Guy)[1] is an hour-long American Emmy award-winning television series that premiered on the Bravo cable television network on July 15, 2003, and promptly became both a surprise hit and one of the most talked-about television programs of 2003. ... Supernanny is a British reality television programme that has been broadcast or slightly adapted in other countries. ... Made is a Daytime Emmy Award-winning self-improvement reality television series broadcast on MTV. The series follows teens who wish to be made into singers, athletes, dancers, skateboarders, etc. ... This article is about the UK version. ... Trinny & Susannah Undress is a British makeover reality television programme on ITV1 starring fashion advisors Trinny Woodall and Susannah Constantine. ...


Renovation

Some shows, make over part or all of a person's living space, work space, or vehicle. The British show Changing Rooms, which began in 1996 (later remade in the U.S. as Trading Spaces) was the first such show. Other later shows in this category include Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, Debbie Travis' Facelift, Designed to Sell, While You Were Out, and Holmes on Homes. Changing Rooms is a British Entertainment television programme. ... Trading Spaces is an hour-long television reality program on the cable channel The Learning Channel. ... Extreme Makeover: Home Edition is an ABC reality television series that began broadcasting in 2003 in which a familys house, including all rooms, exterior and landscaping, is made over by a team of builders and designers in seven days. ... Debbie Travis Facelift is a home improvement reality television show produced in Canada for Home & Garden Television. ... Designed to Sell is an HGTV American reality television show hosted by Clive Pearse. ... While You Were Out was an hour-long American television reality program on the cable channel TLC. The format of the show is similar to TLCs Trading Spaces (which, in turn, is based on the BBC TV series Changing Rooms). ... Holmes on Homes is a Canadian television series airing on Home & Garden Television in Canada, and also on several other Alliance Atlantis networks in Canada (including BBC Canada and Life Network), as well as in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, and on Discovery Home in the United States. ...


As with game shows, a gray area exists between such reality TV shows and more conventional formats. The show This Old House, which began in 1979, shows people renovating a house; media critic Jeff Jarvis has speculated that it is "the original reality TV show."[4] This Old House is a magazine and television program which is aired on the American public broadcast network PBS that follows remodeling projects of houses over a number of weeks. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Jeff Jarvis (born 1954) is an American journalist. ...


Pimp My Ride and Overhaulin' show vehicles being rebuilt. This article is about the television show. ... This Oldsmobile 4-4-2 was featured on Overhaulin season 2 episode 3. ...


Some shows, such as Restaurant Makeover and Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares, show both the decor and the menu of a failing restaurant being remade. Restaurant Makeover is a television series hosted by chefs Brad Long, Renee Chauvin, Lynn Crawford, Massimo Capra, and David Adjey along with designers Robin De Groot, Merideth Heron, Cherie Nicole Stinson, and Glen Peloso, who perform renovation makeovers on restaurants in dire need for a transformation. ... For the US version of this show, see Kitchen Nightmares. ...


Dating shows

Unlike the aforementioned dating competition shows, some shows feature all new contestants each episode. This format was first used in the 1960s show The Dating Game. Modern examples include Blind Date, Room Raiders and Parental Control. The Dating Game was an ABC television show that first aired on December 20, 1965 and was the first of many shows created and packaged by Chuck Barris from the 1960s through the 1980s. ... A blind date is a date where the people involved have not met each other previously. ... Room Raiders is a dating/reality series on MTV. On the show, three single men or women have their rooms inspected, or raided by another single man or woman (usually a member of the opposite sex, but some episodes are gay-themed). ... Parental control is a dating TV series, broadcasted on MTV, with re-runs often on nights and overnights and new episodes in afternoons when a season is in session. ...


Talk shows

Though the traditional format of a talk show is that of a host interviewing a featured guest or discussing a chosen topic with a guest or panel of guests, the advent of trash TV shows has often made people group the entire category in with reality television. Programs like Ricki Lake, The Jerry Springer Show and others generally recruit guests by advertising a potential topic for a future program. Topics are frequently outrageous and are chosen in the interest of creating on-screen drama, tension or outrageous behaviour. Though not explicitly reality television by traditional standards, this (allegedly) real depiction of someone's life, even if only in a brief interview format, is frequently considered akin to broader-scale reality TV programming. A WNYW-TV full screen segment intro from 2005. ... Ricki Lake was a daytime talk show hosted by U.S. actress Ricki Lake. ... The Jerry Springer Show is an internationally known[1] American television tabloid talk show, hosted by Jerry Springer, a former politician. ...


Hidden cameras

Another type of reality programming features hidden cameras rolling when random passers-by encounter a staged situation. Candid Camera, which first aired on television in 1948, pioneered the format. Modern variants of this type of production include Punk'd and Trigger Happy TV. The series Scare Tactics and Room 401 is a hidden-camera program in which the goal is to frighten contestants rather than just befuddle or amuse them. A hidden camera is a still or video camera used to film people without their knowledge. ... Candid Camera is a long-running television series, created and produced by Allen Funt, which initially began on radio as Candid Microphone June 28, 1947. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Punkd is an American hidden camera practical joke television series on MTV, produced and hosted by Ashton Kutcher, which first aired in 2003. ... Trigger Happy TV is a British hidden camera television show, created, produced by and starring Dom Joly, originally aired on the British television channel Channel 4. ... For the political strategy, see Tactical politics Scare Tactics is a reality show on the Sci-Fi Channel which began airing April 2003. ... Room 401 is a television series on MTV, executive produced by Ashton Kutcher and Jason Goldberg. ...


Hoaxes

In hoax reality shows, the entire show is a prank played on one or more of the cast members, who think they are appearing in a legitimate reality show; the rest of the cast are actors who are in on the joke. Like hidden camera shows, these shows focus on pranks, although in these shows the hoax is more elaborate (lasting an entire season), the participants know they are appearing in a TV show (it is the true nature of the show that is kept secret from them), and the cameras are out in the open. Also, the point of such shows often is to parody the conventions of the reality TV genre. The first such show was 2003's The Joe Schmo Show. Other examples are My Big Fat Obnoxious Boss (modelled after The Apprentice), My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance, Space Cadets (which convinced the hoax targets that they were being flown into space) and Invasion Iowa (in which a town was convinced that William Shatner was filming a movie there). The Joe Schmo Show was a reality TV show (actually a parody of reality game shows) on the American cable network Spike TV that began airing in September 2003. ... My Big Fat Obnoxious Boss was a television show on the Fox Network in 2004-2005, similar to My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance. ... My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance was a one shot television reality show on the Fox Network during the 2003-2004 season. ... Space Cadets was a British television program made by Zeppotron (a division of Endemol UK) for Channel 4. ... Invasion Iowa is a television mini-series that aired on Spike TV beginning on March 29, 2005 and on ITV4 beginning on 3 November 2005. ... William Alan Shatner (born on March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor who gained fame for playing James Tiberius Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ...


Other shows, though not entirely hoax shows, have offered misleading information to some cast members in order to add a wrinkle to the competition. Examples include Boy Meets Boy and Joe Millionaire. Boy meets Boy was a somewhat controversial American television reality show that ran on the Bravo cable television network in 2003. ... Joe Millionaire was an American reality television show broadcast on Fox beginning in January 2003. ...


Analysis and criticism

Instant celebrity

Reality television has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities. This is most notable in talent-search programs such as the Idol series, which has spawned music stars in many of the countries in which it has aired. Many other shows, however, such as Survivor and Big Brother, have made at least temporary celebrities out of their participants; some participants have then been able to parlay this fame into media careers. For example, Elisabeth Hasselbeck, a contestant on Survivor: The Australian Outback, later became a host on morning talk show The View; and Kristin Cavallari, who appeared on Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, has gone on to become a television host and actress. Elisabeth Hasselbeck (née Filarski) (born May 28, 1977) is a former reality show contestant and current American talk show personality, one of the co-hosts on the daytime talk show The View. ... Survivor: The Australian Outback was the second installment of the popular United States reality show Survivor. ... This article is about the talk show. ... Kristin Elizabeth Cavallari (born January 14[1], 1987 in Denver, Colorado) is an American reality television star and actress, known mainly for her feature appearances on the MTV reality TV series Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County. ...


Reality TV contestants are sometimes derided as "Z-list celebrities", who have done nothing to warrant their newfound fame.[5]


Is "reality" a misnomer?

Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special living environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment, creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviors and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama." [6] Mark Burnett (born 17 July 1960), a British-born, naturalized citizen of the United States, is a US TV producer known for pioneering reality television as a genre. ...


Even in docusoap series following people in their daily life, producers may be highly deliberate in their editing strategies, able to portray certain participants as heroes or villains, and may guide the drama through altered chronology and selective presentation of events. A Season 3 episode of Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe included a segment on the ways in which selective editing can be used to this end.[7] Some participants of reality shows have also stated afterwards that they altered their behavior to appear more crazy or emotional in order to get more camera time. Screen wipe redirects here. ...


Several former reality show participants have spoken publicly about their experiences and the strategies used on reality shows. Irene McGee from The Real World Seattle has done public speaking tours about the negative and misleading aspects of reality TV. In 2004, VH1 aired a program called Reality TV Secrets Revealed, which detailed various misleading tricks of reality TV producers.[8] Among other things, it revealed that The Restaurant and Survivor had at times recreated incidents that had actually occurred but were not properly recorded by cameras to the required technical standard, or had not been recorded at all. In order to get the footage, the event was restaged for the cameras. Other shows (most notably Joe Millionaire) combined audio and video from different times, or from different sets of footage, to make it look like participants were doing something they were not. Irene McGee is a San Francisco State University graduate student, radio DJ and host of [No Ones Listening], a new radio podcast program about the mass media. ... The Seattle Season of The Real World first aired on MTV in 1998. ... VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently part of the MTV Networks division... The Restaurant is a reality television miniseries that broadcast on NBC in 2003, with a second season broadcasting in 2004. ... This article is about the television show. ... Joe Millionaire was an American reality television show broadcast on Fox beginning in January 2003. ...


Some shows have faced speculation that the participants themselves are involved in fakery, acting out storylines that have been planned in advance by producers.The Hills is one notable example; one TV critic wrote that the show's "situations and dialogue come straight from a page."[9] With Hell's Kitchen, it has been speculated that the customers eating meals prepared by the contestants are in fact paid actors.[10] Nevertheless, there has been no direct evidence presented yet that any such program has been scripted or "rigged," as with the 1950s television quiz show scandals. The Hills is a show of the reality television genre [1] on MTV and a spin-off of the popular MTV show Laguna Beach. ... Hells Kitchen is the name of a cooking-based reality show. ... The American quiz show scandals of the 1950s were the result of the revelation that contestants of several popular television quiz shows were secretly given assistance by the producers to arrange the outcome of a supposedly fair competition. ...


Political impact

Reality television's global success has been, in the eyes of some analysts, an important political phenomenon. In some authoritarian countries, reality television voting represents the first time many citizens have voted in any free and fair wide-scale elections. In addition, the frankness of the settings on some reality shows present situations that were formerly taboo in certain orthodox cultures, like the pan-Arab version of Big Brother, which shows men and women living together.[11] Journalist Matt Labash, noting both of these issues, wrote that "the best hope of little Americas developing in the Middle East could be Arab-produced reality TV." [12] Similarly, in China, after the finale of the 2005 season of Super Girl (the local version of Pop Idol) drew an audience of around 400 million people, and 8 million text message votes, the state-run English-language newspaper Beijing Today ran the front-page headline "Is Super Girl a Force for Democracy?"[13] The Chinese government has threatened to censor the show, citing both its democratic nature and its excessive vulgarity, or "worldliness".[14] The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Big Brother is a reality television format. ... Super Girl 超级女声 This article is about the singing contest. ... This article is about the British television series. ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... The China Youth Daily ( Chinese:中国青年报 Pinyin:Zhōngguó Qīngnián Bào ) is a popular official daily newspaper and the first independently operated central government news media portal in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


As substitute for scripted drama

Screenwriter Sheryl Longin, who describes herself as "a reality show addict", has written that, based on her experiences, "we may be approaching the death of drama." This is because, she says, seeing real people act naturally matches viewers' expectations of human body language in a way that not even the most talented actors can achieve: "Not even Sir Alec Guinness could give us the richness of body language and facial cues emanating from eliminated contestant 'Organic Josh' on this season’s Design Star. The difference to the brain between watching reality television and scripted drama is like the difference to our vision between High Definition television and 1970’s quality video."[15] Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... HGTV Design Star is a reality show currently airing on HGTV every Sunday night at 9 PM Eastern Daylight Time/Pacific Daylight Time, with encore presentations Thursdays at 8 PM E/P and Saturdays at 6 PM E/P. The host is Clive Pearse. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ...


Popularity and ratings

During the early part of the 2000s, U.S. and foreign network executives expressed concern that reality-television programming is limited in its appeal for DVD reissue and syndication, although it remains lucrative for short-term profits. This concern has been shown to be misguided, as DVDs for reality shows have sold briskly. Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, The Amazing Race, Project Runway, and America's Next Top Model have all ranked in the top DVDs sold on Amazon.com. DVDs of The Simple Life have outranked scripted shows like The O.C. and Desperate Housewives. Additionally, many reality shows have been successfully syndicated, including Fear Factor, The Amazing Race, America's Next Top Model, The Real World and American Idol Rewind. COPS has had huge success in syndication, direct response sales and DVD. A FOX staple since 1989, COPS is currently (2007) in its 20th season, having outlasted all competing scripted police shows. DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ... This article is about the reality show format in general. ... Project Runway is an American reality television series on the Bravo network that focuses on fashion design. ... ANTM redirects here. ... Amazon. ... For other uses, see Simple living. ... The O.C. was an American teen drama television series that originally aired on FOX in the United States from August 5, 2003, to February 22, 2007, running a total of four seasons. ... Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios - The Walt Disney Companys main television studio - and Cherry Productions. ... This article refers to the American television show by this title. ... This article is about the reality show format in general. ... ANTM redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Real World (disambiguation). ... American Idol Rewind is a television series for syndication, that premiered on September 30, 2006. ...


Two reality series - Survivor and American Idol - have been the top-rated series on American television for an entire season. Idol has topped the ratings three consecutive years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) and Survivor led the ratings in 2001-02. The year 2005 in television involved some significant events. ... The year 2006 in television involved some significant events. ... The year 2007 in television involves some significant events. ... The year 2002 in television involved some significant events. ...


Currently there are at least two television channels devoted exclusively to reality television: Fox Reality in the United States, and Zone Reality in the UK. In addition, several other cable channels, such as Viacom's MTV and NBC's Bravo, feature original reality programming as a mainstay.[16] Mike Darnell, head of reality TV for the US Fox network, says that the broadcast networks (NBC, CBS, ABC and Fox) "might as well plan three or four [reality shows] each season because we're going to have them, anyway."[17] Fox Reality is a reality TV network on U.S. cable and satellite. ... Zone Reality (formerly Reality TV) is a European reality television channel. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... Look up bravo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to the Learning and Skills Council, one in seven UK teenagers hopes to gain fame by appearing on reality television.[18] Cheylesmore House, Cheylesmore, Coventry. ...


Prior elements in popular culture

A number of fictional works since the 1940s have contained elements similar to elements of reality television. They tended to be set in a dystopian future, with subjects being recorded against their will, and often involved violence. This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ...

  • Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), a book by George Orwell, depicted a world in which two-way television screens are fitted in every room, so that people's actions are monitored at all times. (The all-seeing authority figure in the book, "Big Brother", inspired the name of the pioneering reality series Big Brother.)
  • "The Prize of Peril" [19] (1958) was a short story by science fiction author Robert Sheckley about a television show in which a contestant volunteers to be hunted for a week by trained killers, with a large cash prize if he survives. It was adapted in 1970 as the German TV movie Das Millionenspiel [20], and again in 1983 as the French movie Le Prix du Danger.
Spock and McCoy await their turn in the limelight in the Star Trek episode Bread and Circuses.
This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted after seven days from the date of nomination.
  • Survivor (1965), a science fiction story by Walter F. Moudy, depicted the 2050 "Olympic War Games" between Russia and the United States. The games are fought to show the world the futility of war and thus deter further conflict. Each side has one hundred soldiers who fight with rifles, mortars, and machine guns in a large natural arena. The goal is for one side to wipe out the other; the few who survive the battle become heroes. The games are televised, complete with color commentary discussing tactics, soldiers' personal backgrounds, and slow-motion replays of their deaths.
  • Bread and Circuses (1968) was an episode of the TV show Star Trek in which the crew visits a planet resembling the Roman Empire, but with 20th century technology. The planet's "Empire TV" features regular gladiatorial games, with the announcer urging viewers at home to vote for their favorites, stating, "This is your program. You pick the winner." The show included several jabs at real-world television, such as a praetorian threatening, "You bring this network's ratings down, Flavius, and we'll do a special on you!"
  • The Year of the Sex Olympics (1968) was a BBC television play in which a dissident in a dictatorship is forced onto a secluded island and taped for a reality show in order to keep the masses entertained.
  • The Continuous Katherine Mortenhoe (1974), a novel by D.G. Compton (also published as The Unsleeping Eye), was about a woman dying of cancer whose last days are recorded without her knowledge for a television show. It was later adapted as the 1980 French movie La Mort en Direct[21] (released in the USA as "Deathwatch").
  • Network (1976) was a film predictive of a number of trends in broadcast television, including reality programming. One subplot featured network executives negotiating with an urban terrorist group for the production of a weekly series, each episode of which was to feature an act of terrorism.
  • "Ladies And Gentlemen, This Is Your Crisis" (1976) was a short story by science fiction author Kate Wilhelm about a television show in which contestants (including a b-list actress who is hoping to revitalize her career) attempt to make their way to a checkpoint after being dropped off in the Alaskan wilderness, while being filmed and broadcast around the clock through an entire weekend. The story focuses primarily on the show's effect on a couple whose domestic tensions and eventual reconciliation parallel the dangers faced by the contestants.
  • The Running Man (1982) was a book by Stephen King depicting a game show in which a contestant flees around the world from "hunters" trying to chase him down and kill him; it has been speculated that the book was inspired by Robert Sheckley's The Prize of Peril. The book was loosely adapted as a 1987 movie of the same name. The movie removed most of the reality-TV element of the book: its competition now took place entirely within a large TV studio, and more closely resembled an athletic competition (though a deadly one).
  • Vengeance on Varos (1985) was an episode of the TV show Doctor Who in which the population of a planet watches live TV broadcasts of the torture and executions of those who oppose the government. The planet's political system is based on the leaders themselves facing disintegration if the population votes 'no' to their propositions. This episode is often credited as the origins of "voting someone off".
  • The film 20 Minutes into the Future (1985), and the spinoff TV show Max Headroom, revolved around television mainly based on live, often candid, broadcasts.

This article is about the Orwell novel. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Big Brother as portrayed in the BBCs 1954 production of Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Big Brother is a reality television format. ... Robert Sheckley (July 16, 1928 – December 9, 2005) was an American author. ... Le Prix du Danger is a 1983 French science fiction movie, directed by Yves Boisset. ... Image File history File links Empire_TV.jpg Summary A praetorian in the studios of Empire TV in Roddenberrys Bread and Circuses.SHIT Licensing This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely owned by the company... Image File history File links Empire_TV.jpg Summary A praetorian in the studios of Empire TV in Roddenberrys Bread and Circuses.SHIT Licensing This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely owned by the company... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Bread and Circuses is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, broadcast on March 15, 1968. ... Bread and Circuses is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, broadcast on March 15, 1968. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ... The Live-Life Show, the horrific public entertainment depicted in The Year of the Sex Olympics. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Continuous Katherine Mortenhoe is a 1974 science fiction novel by D.G. Compton. ... David Guy Compton (b. ... Network is a 1976 satirical New Hollywood film about a fictional television network, Union Broadcasting System (UBS), and its struggle with poor ratings. ... Kate Wilhelm (born 1928) is a writer who has written material including science fiction, mysteries, and fantasy. ... The Running Man (1982) is a science fiction novel by Stephen King, written under the pseudonym of Richard Bachman. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Robert Sheckley (July 16, 1928 – December 9, 2005) was an American author. ... The Running Man is a film loosely based on the Stephen King novel of the same name, released in 1987, and was directed by Paul Michael Glaser, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger as Ben Richards. ... Vengeance on Varos is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in two weekly parts from January 19 to January 26, 1985. ... This article is about the television series. ... Max Headroom: 20 Minutes into the Future was a 1985 cyberpunk television movie created by Chrysalis Visual Programming Ltd. ... It has been suggested that 20 Minutes into the Future be merged into this article or section. ...

Pop culture references

Some scripted works have used reality television as a plot device:

  • Real Life (1979) is a comedic film about the creation of a show similar to An American Family gone horribly wrong.
  • Louis the 19th, King of the Airwaves (1994) [1] is a Quebecois film about a man who signs up to star in a 24-hour-a-day reality TV show. It was later remade as Edtv (1999).
  • The Truman Show (1998) is a film about a man who discovers that his entire life is being staged and filmed for a 24-hour-a-day reality TV show.
  • Series 7: The Contenders (2001) is a film about a reality show in which contestants have to kill each other to win.
  • Tomb of the Werewolf (2004) is a film about a man searching for treasure while being followed by a reality show film crew, but he encounters a werewolf and a vampire instead.
  • "Bad Wolf" (2005) is an episode of the TV show Doctor Who in which the characters find themselves trapped in various real-life reality television shows.
  • The Comeback (2005) satirizes the indignity of reality TV by presenting itself as "raw footage" of a new reality show documenting the attempted comeback of has-been star Valerie Cherish.
  • American Dreamz (2006) is a film set partially on an American Idol-like show.
  • Total Drama Island (2007) is a Canadian animated series about teenagers on a Survivor-like show.

In addition, a number of scripted television shows have taken the form of documentary-type reality TV shows, in "mockumentary" style. The first such show was the BBC series Operation Good Guys, which premiered in 1997. Other examples include People Like Us, Trailer Park Boys, The Office, Drawn Together and Reno 911!. Real Life is a 1979 comedy film. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ... This article is about a movie. ... The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ... Tomb of the Werewolf is a 2004 horror film that is the twelveth in a long series about the werewolf Count Waldemar Daninsky, played by Paul Naschy. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Bad Wolf is an episode in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast on June 11, 2005. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Comeback was a television series produced by HBO that starred actress Lisa Kudrow as sitcom actress Valerie Cherish in modern-day Los Angeles, California. ... American Dreamz is a 2006 comedy film that satirizes both American politics and popular entertainment. ... American Idol is an annual American televised singing competition, which began its first season on June 11, 2002. ... Total Drama Island is an animated series which premiered on Teletoon July 8, 2007. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Operation Good Guys (OGG) is a 1997 British mockumentary, a fly-on-the-wall documentary series about an elite police units bid to snare one of Britains most powerful crime lords. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see People Like Us (disambiguation). ... This article is about the television series. ... This article is about the various versions of the television series The Office, comparing the UK, US, French, German, and French Canadian versions. ... Drawn Together is an American animated television series that uses a sitcom format with a TV reality show setting. ... For the 2007 film, see Reno 911!: Miami. ...


Films

Main article: Reality film

Some feature films have been produced that use some of the conventions of reality television; such films are sometimes referred to simply as documentaries.[22] Andy Warhol's 1966 film Chelsea Girls showed various of Warhol's acquaintances being filmed by a camera with no direction given; the Radio Times Guide to Film 2007 stated that the film was "to blame for reality television."[23] Allen Funt's 1970 hidden camera movie What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? was based on his reality-television show Candid Camera. The TV show Jackass spawned two films: Jackass: The Movie in 2001 and Jackass: Number Two in 2006. A similar Finnish show, Extreme Duudsonit, was adapted for the film The Dudesons Movie [2] in 2006. The producers of The Real World created The Real Cancun in 2003. Games People Play: New York [3] was released in 2004. Reality film, or reality movie, has come to describe a genre of films that have resulted from reality television,[1] such as The Real Cancun, MTVs film version of The Real World, which was originally titled Spring Break: The Reality Movie. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Chelsea Girls is a 1966 film directed by Paul Morrissey and Andy Warhol. ... Producer-director Allen Funt Allen Funt - The father of Reality TV(September 16, 1914 – September 5, 1999) was an American producer-director, best known as the creator and host of Candid Camera from the 1940s to 1980s, as either a regular show or a series of specials. ... What Do You Say To A Naked Lady is a candid documentary made in 1970 directed by Allen Funt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jackass: The Movie Jackass: The Movie directed by Jeff Tremaine was released on October 25, 2002 with the tagline Do not attempt this at home. ... The Extreme Duudsonit (mangled Finnish for Extreme Dudesons, known as The Dudesons in English showings) are a group of men from Seinäjoki, Finland, with a Finnish television show now also being shown on Spike TV in the United States and channel V in Australia. ... The Real Cancun is a 2003 American documentary film released on April 25, 2003 in the U.S. Inspired by the reality television genre, this film followed the lives of 16 Americans from March 13, 2003 to March 23, as they celebrated spring break in Cancun, Mexico and experienced romantic... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Quiz show redirects here. ... A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... A court show is a genre of television programming centered around a power base, regarded as the judge, adjudicating disputes between plaintiffs and defendants. ...

Further reading

  • A Marxist critique of Reality TV by Colin Sparks, in International Socialism journal
  • Hill, Annette (2005). Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26152-X.
  • Murray, Susan, and Laurie Ouellette, eds. (2004). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5688-3
  • Nichols, Bill (1994). Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34064-0.
  • Godard, Ellis (2004). "Reel Life: The Social Geometry of Reality Shows". pages 73-96 in Survivor Lessons, edited by Matthew J. Smith and Andrew F. Wood. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc.
  • Lord of the fly-on-the-walls - Observer article: Paul Watson's UK & Australian docusoaps
  • Big Brother - Why Bother? - Graham Barnfield's Spiked commentary
  • Zeven werklozen samen op zoek naar een baan by Raymond van den Boogaard, NRC Handelsblad, September 28, 1996 (Dutch) - about Nummer 28 being the inspiration for The Real World

International Socialism (ISJ) is a quarterly journal of socialist theory published by the Socialist Workers Party (Britain) and currently edited by Chris Harman. ... In 1993 Graham Barnfield began writing on cultural politics in the United States under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... NRC Handelsblad is a Dutch evening newspaper. ...

References

  1. ^ Rowan, Beth. "Reality TV Takes Hold." Infoplease.com; July 21, 2000. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  2. ^ Miss America Pageant. "1950's - Year in Review." Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  3. ^ "With writers on strike, expect more reruns and dose of reality", Karla Peterson, San Diego Union-Tribune, November 6, 2007
  4. ^ Jarvis, Jeff. "Tag the greatest — but not obvious — TV shows." BuzzMachine.com; August 6, 2005. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Z-list+celebrity
  6. ^ "Surviving and thriving", The Age, November 13, 2003
  7. ^ Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe - Reality TV Editing
  8. ^ IMDB listing, "Reality TV Secrets Revealed"
  9. ^ "Reality for 'The Hills' comes heavily scripted", Terry Morrow, Scripps Howard News Service, May 26, 2006
  10. ^ Hell's Kitchen review, Roger Holland, PopMatters, June 19, 2006
  11. ^ 'Reality is Not Enough': The Politics of Arab Reality TV, Marc Lynch, 2006
  12. ^ "When a Kiss Is Not Just a Kiss", Matt Labash, The Weekly Standard, October 18, 2004
  13. ^ "Democracy Idol", The Economist, September 8, 2005
  14. ^ "TV talent contest 'too democratic' for China's censors", Jane Macartney, The Times, August 29, 2005
  15. ^ "Confessions of a Reality Junkie", Sheryl Longin, Pajamas Media, August 11, 2007
  16. ^ Levin, Gary. "'Simple economics': More reality TV." USA Today; May 8, 2007.
  17. ^ Ibid.
  18. ^ "Jaded", The Economist, 2007-01-27, pp. 57. (English) 
  19. ^ "The Prize of Peril" e-text.
  20. ^ 'Das Millionenspiel website, imdb.com.
  21. ^ 'La Mort en Direct website, imdb.com.
  22. ^ "Jackass Number Two... the year's best, most twisted cross-over documentary-and don't forget it is, in every definition of the word, a documentary", Matt Prigge, "Repertory", Philadelphia Weekly, 3 January 2007
  23. ^ Warhol 'reality' film named in top 100, Alexa Baracaia, Evening Standard, October 4, 2006.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The E. W. Scripps Company is a media conglomerate founded by Edward W. Scripps on November 2, 1878 originally known as the Cleveland Penny Press. ... PopMatters is an international magazine of cultural criticism. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Pajamas Media, briefly known as Open Source Media, is a startup company founded in 2004 by mystery writer and Huffington Post blogger Roger L. Simon and Charles Johnson of Little Green Footballs with the intention of. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philadelphia Weekly (PW), is a free alternative newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, published every Wednesday. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4456 words)
Reality television is a genre of television programming which presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features "ordinary" people over professional actors.
Reality television as it is currently understood, though, can be traced directly to several television shows that began in the late 1980s and 1990s.
In many reality television shows, the viewer and the camera are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities; this style of filming is often referred to as "fly on the wall" or cinéma vérité.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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