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Encyclopedia > Reagan administration
President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981)
President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981)

Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. It also liked to think of itself as supportive of business interests and being tough on crime. During its two term tenure, it saw the release of American hostages in Tehran, an attempted assassination, economic recovery, increases in military spending to fight the Cold War, and a tripling of the national debt. The administration declared a renewed war on drugs, but was criticized for being slow to respond to the AIDS epidemic. One of Reagan's most controversial early moves was to fire most of the nation's air traffic controllers who took part in an illegal strike. Download high resolution version (900x709, 97 KB) Front row: Alexander Haig, Secretary of State; President Reagan; Vice President Bush; Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense Second row: Raymond Donovan, Secretary of Labor; Donald Regan, Secretary of Labor; Terrel Bell, Secretary of Education; David Stockman, Director, Office of Management & Budget; Andrew Lewis... Download high resolution version (900x709, 97 KB) Front row: Alexander Haig, Secretary of State; President Reagan; Vice President Bush; Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense Second row: Raymond Donovan, Secretary of Labor; Donald Regan, Secretary of Labor; Terrel Bell, Secretary of Education; David Stockman, Director, Office of Management & Budget; Andrew Lewis... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conservatism is a political philosophy that usually favors traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Get tough on crime (or simply tough on crime) is a slogan often used by supporters of law and order political platforms. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report Prevalance of drug use 1991-2002 The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances. ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ...


Instead of détente, the administration confronted the Soviet Union through arms reduction treaties, increased military spending, and supporting anti-communist rebel groups. Proposed programs, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative sought to outspend the USSR. Many Reagan supporters credit the Reagan administration with winning the Cold War, although critics claim the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union may have been due to internal problems as well. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... A military budget of an entity, most often a nation or a state is the budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining armed forces for that entity. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic...


Some foreign interventions, such as the one in Lebanon, ended in failure, while others, such as the invasion of Grenada, were successful. Involvement in the Iran-Iraq War at times favored Iraq, believing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was less dangerous. The Administration also engaged in covert arms sales to Iran in order to fund anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua. The resulting Iran-Contra Affair became a scandal to which Reagan professed ignorance. A significant number of officials in the Reagan Administration were either convicted or forced to resign as a result of the scandal. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also called the Iran-Contra Matter and Iran-gate) was one of the largest political scandals in the United States during the 1980s. ...


However, by the end of the Reagan Presidency, strong approval (64% of the nation) indicated that the administration had indeed recovered its image among the American public. This was mainly due to the Reagan Administration's perceived ability in delivering on its promise of strong economic growth after decades of stagflation and a troubled economy. As time went by, the reputation of the administration only continued to climb so much so, that most Americans today (mainly conservatives and moderates and to a lesser extent liberals) cite the Reagan years as a glorious time. Stagflation is a term in macroeconomics used to describe a period characteristic of high inflation combined with economic stagnation, unemployment, or economic recession. ...

Contents

Presidency

Assassination attempt

Chaos outside the Washington Hilton Hotel after the assassination attempt on President Reagan.
Chaos outside the Washington Hilton Hotel after the assassination attempt on President Reagan.

On March 30, 1981, 69 days into his Presidency, while leaving the Hilton Hotel in Washington, DC, President Reagan, Press Secretary James Brady, a Secret Service agent, and MPDC officer Thomas Delehanty were shot by John Hinckley, Jr. Shortly before surgery to remove the bullet from his chest (which barely missed his heart) he remarked to his surgeons, "I hope you're all Republicans," [1] and to his wife Nancy he jokingly commented, "Honey, I forgot to duck." Apparently he was quoting a remark made by boxer Jack Dempsey in 1926 explaining his loss of his heavyweight championship. After Dempsey lost to Gene Tunney, his wife Estelle Taylor asked him "What happened?" His reply was "Honey, I forgot to duck." Reagan often creatively quoted such witticisms. File links The following pages link to this file: Ronald Reagan James Brady John Hinckley, Jr. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Ronald Reagan James Brady John Hinckley, Jr. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hilton Hotel chain is owned by Hilton Hotels Corporation and is based in Beverly Hills, California. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... A press secretary is a senior advisor (usually to a politician) who provides advice on how to deal with the media and, using news management techniques, helps them to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage. ... James Brady James Scott “Jim” Brady (born August 29, 1940) was Assistant to the President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ... MPDC Chief Charles Ramsey with his staff The Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, also known as the D.C. Police, or MPDC, is the municipal police force for Washington, DC. Headed by a Chief of Police it was formed in 1861 in accordance with the personal wishes... Thomas K. Delehanty (born c. ... John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... William Harrison Jack Dempsey (June 24, 1895–May 31, 1983) was an American Boxer who held the world heavyweight title between 1919 and 1926, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest champions of all time. ... James Joseph Gene Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was the heavyweight boxing champion from 1926-28 who defeated Jack Dempsey in 1926 and 1927 in what became known as The Long Count Fight and retired undefeated after winning against Tom Heeney in 1928. ...


Positions

As a politician and as President, he portrayed himself as being:

American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... The Small Business Administration, or SBA, is a United States Government agency that provides support to small businesses. ... Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ...

Policies and decisions

He is credited with:

The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ... The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ... START, officially the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a strategic arms limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... Economist Paul Adolph Volcker (September 5, 1927 - ) born in Cape May, New Jersey, is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Islamic-Arabic term for Muslims fighting in a war, or involved in any other struggle. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report Prevalance of drug use 1991-2002 The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated BanġāzÄ«) is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 granted reparations to Japanese Americans who had been interned by the United States government during World War II. Each internee was granted $20,000 in compensation. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese American Internment refers to the forced removal of approximately 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans (62 percent of whom were United States citizens)[1][2] from the West Coast of the United States during World War II. While approximately 10,000 were... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ...

Major legislation approved

The Kemp-Roth Tax Cut (officially the Economic Recovery Tax Act, or ERTA) of 1981 reduced marginal income tax rates in the United States by approximately 25% over three years (the top rate falling to 50% from 70% while the bottom rate dropped to 11% from 14%) and indexed them... The United States Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 rescinded some of the effects of the huge Kemp-Roth Tax Cut passed the year before. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... President Ronald Reagan signs the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on the South Lawn. ... The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 (PL 99-433) was a reorganization plan which focused the chain of command in military operations undertaken by the United States Department of Defense. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (Simpson-Mazzoli Act, IRCA, Pub. ...

Administration and Cabinet

President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981)
President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981)
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Ronald Reagan 1981–1989
Vice President George H. W. Bush 1981–1989
State Alexander M. Haig 1981–1982
  George P. Shultz 1982–1989
Treasury Donald Regan 1981–1985
  James A. Baker III 1985–1988
  Nicholas F. Brady 1988–1989
Defense Caspar Weinberger 1981–1987
  Frank C. Carlucci 1987–1989
Justice William F. Smith 1981–1985
  Edwin A. Meese III 1985–1988
  Richard L. Thornburgh 1988–1989
Interior James G. Watt 1981–1983
  William P. Clark, Jr. 1983–1985
  Donald P. Hodel 1985–1989
Commerce Malcolm Baldrige 1981–1987
  C. William Verity, Jr. 1987–1989
Labor Raymond J. Donovan 1981–1985
  William E. Brock 1985–1987
  Ann Dore McLaughlin 1987–1989
Agriculture John Rusling Block 1981–1986
  Richard E. Lyng 1986–1989
HHS Richard S. Schweiker 1981–1983
  Margaret Heckler 1983–1985
  Otis R. Bowen 1985–1989
Education Terrell H. Bell 1981–1984
  William J. Bennett 1985–1988
  Lauro Cavazos 1988–1989
HUD Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 1981–1989
Transportation Drew Lewis 1981–1982
  Elizabeth Hanford Dole 1983–1987
  James H. Burnley IV 1987–1989
Energy James B. Edwards 1981–1982
  John S. Herrington 1985–1989


Download high resolution version (900x709, 97 KB) Front row: Alexander Haig, Secretary of State; President Reagan; Vice President Bush; Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense Second row: Raymond Donovan, Secretary of Labor; Donald Regan, Secretary of Labor; Terrel Bell, Secretary of Education; David Stockman, Director, Office of Management & Budget; Andrew Lewis... Download high resolution version (900x709, 97 KB) Front row: Alexander Haig, Secretary of State; President Reagan; Vice President Bush; Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense Second row: Raymond Donovan, Secretary of Labor; Donald Regan, Secretary of Labor; Terrel Bell, Secretary of Education; David Stockman, Director, Office of Management & Budget; Andrew Lewis... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Donald Thomas Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury, from 1981 to 1985, and Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Reagan administration, where he advocated supply-side economics and tax cuts to create jobs and stimulate production. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in the President Ronald Reagans first administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush and as United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in... Nicholas F. Brady Nicholas Frederick Brady (born April 11, 1930, in New York City) was United States Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, and is also known for articulating the Brady Plan in March 1989. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States associated with the Republican Party who was United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 until 1989. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... William French Smith (August 26, 1917–October 29, 1990) was an American lawyer and the 74th Attorney General of the United States. ... Edwin Meese III (born December 2, 1931) served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985 - 1988). ... Categories: People stubs | 1932 births | U.S. Attorneys General | Governors of Pennsylvania ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... James Gaius Watt (born January 31, 1938 in Lusk, Wyoming) served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1983. ... William Patrick Clark, Jr (born October 23, 1931), American politician, served under President Ronald Reagan as the United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 until 1985. ... Categories: 1935 births | U.S. Secretaries of Energy | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | People stubs ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Malcolm Baldrige Howard Malcolm Mac Baldrige (October 4, 1922 – July 25, 1987) was the 26th United States Secretary of Commerce. ... Calvin William Verity Jr. ... Raymond J. Donovan (August 31, 1930-) is an American politician and former federal office-holder. ... Bill Brock William Emerson Bill Brock III (born November 23, 1930) was a Republican United States Senator from Tennessee from 1971 to 1977. ... Categories: People stubs ... John Rusling Block was born in 1935 in Galesburg, Illinois. ... Richard Edmund Lyng (June 29, 1918-February 1, 2003) was a U.S. administrator. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Richard S. Schweiker Richard Schultz Schweiker (born June 1, 1926) is a former U.S. Congressman and Senator representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Margaret M. Heckler Margaret Mary Heckler (born June 21, 1931) is a Republican politician from Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1967 until 1983 and was later the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Ambassador to Ireland under President Ronald Reagan. ... Otis Ray Bowen (born 26 February 1918) is a retired U.S. politician and physician. ... Terrell H. Bell (born November 11, 1921) was the first United States Secretary of Education in the Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan, initially appointed with the expectation that he would preside over the dismantling of his department. ... This article is about William Bennett the US politician. ... Lauro Fred Cavazos (born January 4, 1927) is a U.S. educator. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Samuel Riley Silent Sam Pierce, Jr. ... Andrew Lindsay Lewis, Jr. ... Sen. ... James H. Burnley IV is an American politician and lawyer born in 1948 and from DC. He graduated magna cum laude from Yale University in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts and got his Juris Doctor from Harvard in 1973. ... James Burrows Edwards (born June 24, 1927) is an American politician and administrator. ... John S. Herrington was the Secretary of Engergy of the United States under Ronald Reagan during his second term. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Reagan nominated the following jurists to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ...

Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... Douglas H. Ginsburg (born May 25, 1946) is the Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. ... Justice Anthony Kennedy Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) has been a US Supreme Court Associate Justice since 1988. ...

Domestic Policy

Reaganomics

Main article: Reaganomics

Part of President Reagan's first term in office focused on reviving an inherited economy exhibiting stagflation, a high rate of inflation combined with an economic recession. Partially based on supply-side economics (derided by opponents as "trickle down economics"), Reagan's policies sought to stimulate the economy with large across-the-board tax cuts. George H. W. Bush had called Reagan's economic ideas "voodoo economics" during the Republican primary campaign, prior to becoming his running mate. The tax cuts were to be coupled with commensurate reductions in social welfare spending; it was also anticipated that economic growth would offset projected revenue losses from lower marginal tax rates. Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry the free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from 1981 to 1989. ... Stagflation is a term in macroeconomics used to describe a period characteristic of high inflation combined with economic stagnation, unemployment, or economic recession. ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys real Gross Domestic Product in two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the supply part of supply and demand. ... This article or section should be merged with Trickle-down effect Trickle-down theory, also known as trickle down economics, was a term used by detractors and advocates alike for some of the policies of Ronald Reagan. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


After less than two years in office, Reagan rolled back a large portion of his corporate income tax cuts. Not only did Reagan retreat from proposed cuts in the Social Security budget, but he also appointed the Greenspan Commission which resolved the solvency crisis through reforms including acceleration of previously-enacted increases in the payroll tax. Although Reagan achieved a marginal reduction in the rate of expansion of government spending, his overall fiscal policy was expansionary. Social programs grew apace at the behest of the Democrat-controlled Congress. Reagan's fiscal policies soon became known as "Reaganomics", a nickname used by both his supporters and detractors. Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... In the United States, payroll tax is tax that pays for two social insurance systems: Medicare and Social Security. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party...


President Reagan's tenure marked a time of economic prosperity for the wealthy in the United States. GDP growth recovered strongly after the 1982 recession. Unemployment peaked at over 11 percent in 1982 then dropped steadily, and inflation dropped even more significantly & wages fell. This economic growth generated greater tax revenue, although the new revenue did not cover an increased federal budget that included the military buildup and expansions of social programs, in violation of the doctrine of fiscal conservatism. The result was greater deficit spending and a dramatic increase in the national debt, which tripled in unadjusted dollar terms during Reagan's presidency. The U.S. trade deficit expanded significantly, particularly with buoyant Japan. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... The balance of trade (or net exports, NX) is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports in an economy over a certain period of time. ...


There is disagreement over how much Reagan's policies contributed to the severe recession that took place in 1982, the strong economic expansion that began late in his first term and ran throughout his second term, and the inequal distribution of the benefits of economic growth among the rich and the poor. A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys real Gross Domestic Product in two or more successive quarters of a year. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economy

As Reagan entered office the American economy faced the highest rate of inflation since 1947, and this was considered the nation's principal economic problem. Reagan was considered a small-government conservative and supported income tax cuts, cuts domestic government programs, and deregulation, but no one knew what concrete steps he meant to take, or whether the House, controlled by Democrats, would support him. Deregulation is the process by which governments remove restrictions on business in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ...


Reagan's first official act was to terminate oil price controls, a policy designed to boost America's domestic production and exploration of oil.[1]


In the summer of 1981, Reagan, backing up a pledge he made when the union threatened to strike, fired a majority of federal air traffic controllers (members of the PATCO union) when they went on an illegal strike. Since this union was one of only two unions to support Reagan in the prior election, this action proved to be a political coup. Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ... The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a labor union which formerly represented air traffic controllers in the United States in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. ...


A major focus of Reagan's first term was reviving the economy, which was plagued by a new phenomenon known as stagflation (a stagnant economy combined with high inflation). He fought double-digit inflation by supporting Federal Reserve Board chairman Paul Volcker's decision to tighten the money supply by dramatically hiking interest rates. This support was largely symbolic since Paul Volker was appointed by President Carter in 1979 to a 14 year term and federal law prevents political influence over the Federal Reserve. While successful at reducing inflation, this plunged the economy into its most severe recession since the Great Depression. The unemployment rate increased from 7.5% when Reagan took office to a peak of 10.8% in late 1982. By mid-1984, however, unemployment was back down to its early-1981 level, and continued to drift downward for the next five years, a period of strong economic growth. During the Reagan presidency, the inflation rate dropped from 13.6% in 1980 (President Carter's final year in office) to 4.1% by 1988, the economy added 16,753,000 jobs and the unemployment rate fell from 7.5% to 5.3%. In addition, the poverty rate fell from 14% to 12.8%.[2] Stagflation is a term in macroeconomics used to describe a period characteristic of high inflation combined with economic stagnation, unemployment, or economic recession. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ... Economist Paul Adolph Volcker (September 5, 1927 - ) born in Cape May, New Jersey, is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ...


Reagan pursued a strategy of combining this tight-money policy with broad tax cuts designed to boost business investment (in Reagan's words: "Chicago school economics, supply-side economics, call it what you will — I noticed that it was even known as Reaganomics at one point until it started working...").[3] Ridiculed by George H.W. Bush as "voodoo," and others as "trickle-down," and "Reaganomics," he managed to push across-the-board tax cuts in 1981, although in 1982 and 1983 he signed tax increases.[4] The Chicago School of Economics is a school of thought in economics; it refers to the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the supply part of supply and demand. ... Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry the free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from 1981 to 1989. ...


Reagan's 1981 income tax cuts, the largest in American history, were passed with bipartisan support by the Democratic-controlled House and Senate. Reagan's support for an increased defense budget also was supported by Congressional Democrats. These Democrats, however, were not so willing to go along with Reagan's proposed cuts in domestic programs. The resulting increase of the national budget deficit led Reagan and Congress to approve tax increases in 1982 and 1983.


The Tax Reform Act of 1986 both lowered tax rates and eliminated tax shelters and deductions. For some this caused taxes to go up, for others to go down, but the act was intentionally designed so that it would neither increase nor decrease tax federal revenue compared to previous baselines. President Ronald Reagan signs the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on the South Lawn. ...


One of the Reagan Administration's cost-cutting moves was abolition of the U.S. Metric Board, established by President Gerald R. Ford, thereby ending the attempt to harmonize U.S. measurements with the majority of first world nations. The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ...


Alarmed by the growth in Social Security outlays, Reagan appointed a Social Security reform commission, headed by Alan Greenspan. This commission reached a bipartisan consensus on a two-part plan to slow the growth: raising the Social Security tax base by staged increases in the age required to begin receiving benefits (reflecting rising life expectancy); and increasing government revenues by accelerating a previously enacted (by Ronald Reagan) increase in the rates of social security payroll taxes. Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ...


In order to cover the federal budget deficit, the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, and by the end of Reagan's second term the national debt held by the public rose from 26% of Gross Domestic Product in 1980 to 41% in 1989, the highest level since 1963. By 1988, the debt totaled $2.6 trillion. The country owed more to foreigners than it was owed, and the United States moved from being the world's largest international creditor to the world's largest debtor nation. [3] Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ...


During Reagan's presidency, all economic groups saw their income rise in real terms, including the bottom quintile, whose income rose 6 percent (Bureau of the Census, 1996.) The increases were stronger for the middle class and wealthier Americans, as they benefitted from the growth of the stock market, tax cuts, and the increasingly high returns of college and post-graduate education. See also: Economic inequality. Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...


Response to AIDS

Then-Vice President Bush, right, meets with President Reagan, left, in 1984.
Then-Vice President Bush, right, meets with President Reagan, left, in 1984.

Reagan's presidency saw the advent of HIV-AIDS as a widespread epidemic in the United States. Although AIDS was first identified in 1981, Reagan did not mention it publicly for several more years. Critics of Reagan typically state that he did not do so until 1987, but this claim is false, as he discussed funding for AIDS research in a press conference in 1985.[4] The death from AIDS of his friend Rock Hudson helped motivate Reagan to support more active measures to contain the spread of AIDS, although in retrospect those measures are still seen by Reagan's critics as inadequate. File links The following pages link to this file: George H. W. Bush Ronald Reagan Reagan Administration Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: George H. W. Bush Ronald Reagan Reagan Administration Categories: U.S. history images ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 – October 2, 1985) was a popular American film and television actor, noted for his good looks, and most remembered as a romantic leading man during the 1950s and 1960s. ...


Possibly in deference to the views of the powerful religious right, which saw AIDS as a disease limited to the gay male community and spread by immoral behavior, Reagan prevented his Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop, from speaking out about the epidemic. When in 1986 Reagan finally authorized Koop to issue a report on the epidemic, he expected it to be in line with conservative policies; instead, Koop's Surgeon General's Report on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome greatly emphasized the importance of a comprehensive AIDS education strategy, including widespread distribution of condoms, and rejected mandatory testing. This approach brought Koop into conflict with other administration officials such as Education Secretary William Bennett. Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the Chief Executive Officer of the United States Public Health Service, and - ex Officio - is the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the Government... C. Everett Koop Charles Everett Koop, M.D. (born October 14, 1916 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American physician. ... A 67 m long condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... William Bennett on NBCs Meet the Press William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) served as United States Secretary of Education from 1985 to 1988. ...


Social action groups such as ACT UP worked to raise awareness of the AIDS problem. In 1987, Reagan responded by appointing the Watkins Commission on AIDS, which was succeeded by a permanent advisory council, and subsequently (under the administration of President Clinton) by the "AIDS czar". ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ... The President’s Commission on the HIV Epidemic was a commission formed by then-President Ronald Reagan in 1987 to investigate the AIDS epidemic. ...


Many socially conservative commentators saw Reagan's handling of the AIDS crisis as a common sense approach to a problem they believed was caused by social immorality. Members of the gay and lesbian communities, and other people who had AIDS or knew someone who did, saw his policies as anything from politically motivated willful blindness to outright contempt for groups affected by the disease. Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... The idea of a gay community is complex and can be very controversial. ...


Regardless of the aesthetic merits (or lack thereof) of the administration's approach to the disease, discretionary spending by the Federal government on AIDS research programs for both prevention and treatment increased steadily during Reagan's two terms in office, and afterwards. [5]


Air traffic controllers

On August 5, 1981, Reagan fired 11,359 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order to return to work, notwithstanding the fact that the strike was illegal under federal law. Ironically, PATCO, the air traffic controllers union, had been one of the few unions that had supported Reagan over Carter in the election nine months previously. Reagan's handling of the strike proved to be a political coup for him when public opinion turned against the controllers and the union, who were perceived as being concerned more with money than with public safety. August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ... The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a labor union which formerly represented air traffic controllers in the United States in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. ...


The breaking of the strike also had a significant impact on labor-management relations in the private sector. Although private employers nominally had the right to permanently replace striking workers under the National Labor Relations Act, that option was rarely used prior to 1981, but much more frequently thereafter. Some, including Alan Greenspan, have credited Reagan's action restoring flexibility to the business environment that had prevented American companies from hiring and held back the economy. The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of... Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ...


"War on Drugs"

Reagan's policies in the "War on Drugs" emphasized imprisonment for drug offenders while cutting funding for addiction treatment. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the U.S. prison population[citation needed]. Critics charged that the policies did little to actually reduce the availability of drugs or crime on the street while resulting in a great financial and human cost for American society. Due to this policy and various cuts in spending for social programs during his Presidency, some critics regarded Reagan as indifferent to the needs of poor and minority citizens. Nevertheless, some surveys showed that illegal drug use among Americans declined significantly during Reagan's presidency, leading supporters to argue that the policies were successful. Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report Prevalance of drug use 1991-2002 The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a global black market activity consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ...


The Judiciary

During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that if given the opportunity, he would appoint the first female Supreme Court justice. That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Potter Stewart. In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren Burger as chief justice and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat. All of these appointments were confirmed by the Senate with relative ease. However in 1987 Reagan lost a significant political battle when the Senate rejected the nomination of Robert Bork. Anthony Kennedy was eventually confirmed in his place. Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Justice Potter Stewart Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915 – December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Burger at a press conference in May 1969 shortly after he was nominated to be Chief Justice of the United States. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Anthony Kennedy For other people of the same name, see Anthony Kennedy (disambiguation). ...


Reagan also nominated a large number of judges to the United States district court and United States court of appeals benches: most of these nominations were not controversial, although a handful of candidates were singled out for criticism by civil rights advocates and other liberal critics, resulting in occasional confirmation fights. Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ...


Both his Supreme Court nominations and his lower court appointments were in line with Reagan's express philosophy that judges should interpret law as enacted and not "legislate from the bench". By the end of the 1980s, a conservative majority on the Supreme Court had put an end to the perceived "activist" trend begun under the leadership of Earl Warren. Critics pointed out that the conservatives justices were equally activist, but that their sympathies with corporate America. However, general adherence to the principle of stare decisis along with minority support, left most of the major landmark case decisions (such as Brown, Miranda, and Roe v. Wade) of the previous three decades still standing as binding precedent. Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... A landmark decision is the outcome of a legal case (often thus referred to as a landmark case) that establishes a precedent that either substantially changes the interpretation of the law or that simply establishes new case law on a particular issue. ...


Abortion

As governor in 1970, Reagan signed into law California's liberalized abortion rights legislation, before Roe v. Wade was decided. However, he later took a strong stand against abortion. He published the book Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation, which described what Reagan saw as disrespect for life, promoted by the practice of abortion. Two of the three Supreme Court justices he selected, Sandra Day O'Connor and Anthony Kennedy, voted in a 5-4 decision to uphold Roe v. Wade, although it is likely that another of his nominees, Robert Bork, would not have. Holding Texas laws criminalizing abortion violated womens Fourteenth Amendment right to choose whether to continue a pregnancy. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Anthony Kennedy For other people of the same name, see Anthony Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Holding A Pennsylvania law that required spousal notification prior to obtaining an abortion was invalid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it created an undue burden on married women seeking an abortion. ... Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ...


Other matters

Although Reagan's second term was mostly noteworthy for matters related to foreign affairs, he supported significant pieces of legislation on domestic matters. In 1982, Reagan signed legislation reauthorizing the Voting Rights Act of 1965 for another 25 years, even though he had opposed such an extension during the 1980 campaign.[5] This extension added protections for blind, disabled, and illiterate voters. The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ...


Other significant legislation included the overhaul of the Internal Revenue Code in 1986, as well as the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which compensated victims of the Japanese-American internment during World War II. Reagan also signed legislation authorizing the death penalty for offenses involving murder in the context of large-scale drug trafficking; wholesale reinstatement of the federal death penalty did not occur until the presidency of Bill Clinton. President Ronald Reagan signs the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on the South Lawn. ... The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 granted reparations to Japanese Americans who had been interned by the United States government during World War II. Each internee was granted $20,000 in compensation. ... Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American internment refers to the exclusion and subsequent removal of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, officially described as persons of Japanese ancestry, 62% of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


In 1987 Reagan signed the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ...


Milton Friedman has pointed to the number of pages added to the Federal Register each year as evidence of the anti-regulatory nature of Reagan's presidency.[6] The number of pages added to the Register each year declined sharply at the start of the Ronald Reagan presidency, breaking a steady and sharp increase since 1960. The increase in the number of pages added per year resumed an upward, though less steep, trend after Reagan left office. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist and public intellectual who made major contributions to the fields of macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history and statistics while advocating laissez-faire capitalism. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


The "war on drugs" during his presidency involved Nancy Reagan's high-profile "Just Say No" series of messages. Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report Prevalance of drug use 1991-2002 The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances. ... Mrs. ...


In 1983 and again in 1984, Reagan was heard to say -- by Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir of Israel and by Simon Wiesenthal and Rabbi Martin Hier of Los Angeles -- that he personally filmed the Auschwitz death camps; he was in a film unit in Hollywood that processed raw footage for newsreels, but he was not in Europe during the war.[7] (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Simon Wiesenthal Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who became a Nazi hunter after surviving the Holocaust. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...


Foreign Policy

His foreign polciy labled President Reagan as the Great Communicator. ...

Foreign Interventions

Further information: Foreign Interventions of the Reagan Administration

As part of the policies that became known as the Reagan Doctrine, the United States also offered financial and logistics support to the anti-communist opposition in central Europe (most notably the Polish Solidarity movement) and took an increasingly hard line against Communist governments in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, and Nicaragua. ...

The Arts

As Ronald and Nancy Reagan were both former actors and he had served as president of the Screen Actor's Guild, via a 1982 Executive Order, President Reagan established the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities. In each year of his presidency, Reagan increased funding for the National Endowment for the Arts. In a 1983 speech he declared, "We support the National Endowment for the Arts to stimulate excellence and make art more available to more of our people." [6] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) is the labor union representing film actors in the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Presidents Committee on the Arts and Humanities was established in Washington, DC in 1982 by an Executive Order from President Ronald Reagan. ... The National Endowment for the Arts is a United States federally funded program that offers support and funding for projects that exhibit artistic excellence. ...


The Oldest President

As Reagan was the oldest person to be inaugurated as president (age 69), and also the oldest person to hold the office (age 77), his health, although generally good, became a concern at times during his presidency. His age even became a topic of concern during his re-election campaign. In a debate on October 21, 1984 between Reagan and his opponent Walter Mondale, panelist Henry Trewhitt brought up how President Kennedy had to go for days on end without sleep during the Cuban Missile crisis. He then asked the President if he had any doubts about if or how he could function in a time of crisis, given his age. Without hesitation, Reagan remarked, "Not at all Mr. Trewhitt, and I want you to know I am not going to make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponents youth and inexperience." Walter Mondale years later said in an interview that he knew at that moment he had lost the election. Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey). ...


On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon, causing the first-ever invocation of the Acting President clause of the 25th Amendment. On January 5, 1987, Reagan underwent surgery for prostate cancer which caused further worries about his health, but which significantly raised the public awareness of this "silent killer." July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... Acting President of the United States is a temporary office in the government of the United States, established under the auspices of the Constitution of the United States, particularly its 25th Amendment (ratified in 1967). ... Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ronald Reagan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7915 words)
Reagan's landslide win in the 1984 presidential election is often attributed by political commentators to be a result of his conversion of the "Reagan Democrats," the traditionally Democratic voters who voted for Reagan in that election.
Reagan's fiscal and tax policies were purported to have increased social inequality and economic instability, his efforts to cut welfare and income taxes becoming common flashpoints between critics who charged that this primarily benefited the well off in America.
Ronald Reagan in the 1920 and 1930 Census
Reagan administration - definition of Reagan administration in Encyclopedia (4285 words)
There is disagreement over how much Reagan's policies contributed to the severe recession that took place in 1982, the strong economic expansion that began late in his first term and ran throughout his second term, and the distribution of the benefits of economic growth among the rich and the poor.
Reagan professed ignorance of the plot, but admitted that he had supported the initial sale of arms to Iran, on the grounds that such sales were supposed to help secure the release of Americans being held hostage by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah in Lebanon.
Although Reagan himself was considered personally honest by most Americans, other scandals occurred involving bribery, corruption, and influence peddling among some of Reagan's aides and subordinates, resulting in a significant number of officials in the Reagan Administration either being convicted or forced to resign their posts to avoid prosecution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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