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Encyclopedia > Reactive dye

In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ... In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ...

Contents

History

Reactive dyes first appeared commercially in 1956, after their invention in 1954 by Rattee and Stephens at the Imperial Chemical Industries Dyestuffs Division site in Blackley, Manchester, United Kingdom. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blackley (Pronounced blake-ley (/bleɪklɪ/)) is a district of Manchester, in North West England. ... Manchester shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Greater Manchester Admin HQ Manchester City Centre Founded 13th Century City Status 1853 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Manchester City Council Area  - Borough & City 115. ...


Usage

Reactive dyes are used to dye cellulosic fibres. The dyes contain a reactive group, either a haloheterocycle or an activated double bond, that, when applied to a fibre in an alkaline dye bath, forms a chemical bond with an hydroxyl group on the cellulosic fibre. Reactive dyeing is now the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibres. Reactive dyes can also be applied on wool and nylon; in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions. Reactive dyes has a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Heterocycles are organic chemical structures containing non-carbon elements. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, alpacas, llamas and rabbits may also... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ...


Monofunctional

Monofunctional dyes were the first. They consist of one chromophore and one functional group that binds the dyestuff to the fibre. All other reactive dyes consist of a combination of, or multiple, functional groups.


Reactive dyes are categorized by functional group[1].

Functional group Fixation Temperature Included in Brands
Monochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 80˚ Basilen E & P
Cibacron E
Procion H,HE
Monoflourochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 40˚ Cibacron F & C
Dichlortriazine Haloheterocycle 30˚ Basilen M
Procion MX
Difluorochloropyrimidine Haloheterocycle 40˚ Levafix EA
Drimarene K & R
Dichlorquinoxaline Haloheterocycle 40˚ Levafix E
Trichlorpyrimidine Haloheterocycle 80-98˚ Drimarene X & Z
Cibacron T
Vinyl sulphone activated double bond 40˚ Remazol
Vinyl amide activated double bond 40˚ Remazol

Bifunctional

Dyestuffs with only one functional group has a low degree of fixation. To overcome this a dyestuff containing two groups (one monochlorotriazin and one vinyl sulphone) were created.


Dyestuffs containing two groups are also known as a bifunctional dyestuff, though some still refers to the original combination. Other types of bifunctional dyes has been introduced. The first bifunctional dye made where more tolerant to temperature deviations (better proces). Other bifunctionals are created, some with fastness (better quality) or only fixation degree (better environment/economy) in mind.


Trifunctional dyestuffs also exist.


See also

A carbene dye is a reactive dye based on carbene chemistry. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Stig Hjortshøj (1999), pp. 44–45.

References

External links

For more info Fundamental Chemistry of reactive dyes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cold pad-batch process for dyeing silk or silk-containing fiber blends with reactive dyes - Patent 4568350 (3849 words)
A process according to claim 1, which comprises the use of a reactive dye of the formula (1), wherein D is the radical of a monoazo or disazo dye.
A process according to claim 1, which comprises the use of a reactive dye of the formula (1), wherein D is the radical of a copper or nickel phthalocyanine, of a copper formazan complex or of a triphendioxazine.
Substituents present in those reactive dyes, wherein D is the radical of an azo dye, are in particular methyl, ethyl, methoxy, ethoxy, benzoylamino, amino, acetylamino, ureido, sulfomethyl, hydroxy, carboxy, halogen or sulfo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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