FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Raymond E. Brown

Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. He was regarded as an expert on the hypothetical Johannine community connected to the Gospel of John. Brown was also professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in New York where he taught for 23 years. Brown’s legacy remains one of controversy among Catholics since he stated that the Bible contains some errors, but that it is inerrant in its saving message, and he argued against the historicity of parts of the Gospels, especially the Infancy Narratives.[1] He described himself as a centrist, opposed the literalism found among many fundamentalist Christians, and concluded that the earliest Christians did not call Jesus God. May 22 is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... . ... Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing himself to Man following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. ... The tower at Union Theological Seminary Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York is a preeminent independent graduate school of theology, located in the citys burrough of Manhattan. ... “New York, NY” redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in New York, the son of Robert H. Brown and Loretta Brown, Raymond studied at the Catholic University of America where he received a BA in 1948 and MA in 1949. In 1951 he joined the Society of Saint-Sulpice following the award of STB from St Mary's Seminary and University. In 1953 he was ordained a priest in the diocese of St. Augustine, Florida. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. ...


Brown was appointed in 1972 and in 1996 to the Pontifical Biblical Commission, after the commission had ceased to be an official organ of the Church and become simply an advisory group for the pontiff. He was also professor emeritus at the Protestant Union Theological Seminary in New York where he taught for 23 years. The Pontifical Biblical Commission is a committee of Cardinals, aided by consultors, who meet in Rome to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture. ... The tower at Union Theological Seminary Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York is a preeminent independent graduate school of theology, located in the citys burrough of Manhattan. ... “New York, NY” redirects here. ...


He served as president of the Catholic Biblical Association, the Society of Biblical Literature (1976-7) and the Society of New Testament Studies (1986-7). He was a member of the scholarly Society of Saint-Sulpice and a Roman Catholic priest in the diocese of Baltimore, Maryland. The Society of Saint-Sulpice (Latin: ) is a Catholic Society of Apostolic Life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33...


Widely regarded as one of America's preeminent biblical scholars, Brown was awarded 24 honorary doctoral degrees by universities in the USA and Europe, many from Protestant institutions.[2]


He died at St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo Park, California. Cardinal Mahony spoke of him as "the most distinguished and renowned Catholic biblical scholar to emerge in this country ever" whose death was "a great loss to the Church".[2] A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... Menlo Park is a city in San Mateo County, California in the United States of America. ...


Scholarly views

Brown was an expert on the Gospel of John; he has been described as 'the premier Johannine scholar in the English-speaking world'.[3] The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


Brown advocated applying historical-critical methods to Christian scriptures. This, in itself, would be fairly uncontroversial, since historical investigation into the Biblical texts is encouraged by the Catholic Church, so long as it is done faithfully, and so long as it is not held to be the final word on interpreting scripture.[4] Far more controversial, however, was Brown’s claim that using this method leads to the conclusion that the Bible contains errors, including the accounts of the birth of Jesus.[5] Brown considered his approach acceptable and according with Catholic teachings because he thought his position, that on matters of salvation the Bible is inerrant, was sufficient. Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ...


In his encyclical, Divino Afflante Spiritu, Pius XII had affirmed the traditional teaching of the Church that, “it is absolutely wrong and forbidden ‘either to narrow inspiration to certain passages of Holy Scripture, or to admit that the sacred writer has erred,’ since divine inspiration ‘not only is essentially incompatible with error but excludes and rejects it as absolutely and necessarily as it is impossible that God Himself, the supreme Truth, can utter that which is not true. This is the ancient and constant faith of the Church.”[6] Dei Verbum, a dogmatic document of the Second Vatican Council, stated that “the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings for the sake of salvation.”[7] Much of Brown’s position hinged on his own interpretation of the phrase, “for the sake of salvation”, in a delimiting sense. However, Dei Verbum, besides citing the previous papal encyclicals of Divino Afflante Spiritu, Providentissimus Deus, and Spiritus Paraclitus (in which no such interpretation is give, and is indeed denied), was also more specific concerning the Gospels. The document stated that the Church “unhesitatingly asserts” the “historical character” of the Gospels and that they present their contents "always in such fashion that they told us the honest truth about Jesus."[8] Lastly, Dei Verbum had emphasized that "interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgment of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and ministry of guarding and interpreting the word of God."[9] Nonetheless, Brown considered his work to be in line with Church teaching. Much of Brown's work was given a Nihil obstat and an Imprimatur, which identify the work as being without error in regard to Catholic doctrine and morals and thus acceptable to be printed. Brown could issue a Nihil obstat himself, and he did so with many of his own works such as in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary[10]. In 1988, Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) gave a lecture that was criticial of some excesses in biblical scholarship, though he was described as personally complementary of Brown and his scholarship in public interviews, and is quoted as saying he "would be very happy if we had many exegetes like Father Brown".[11] Divino Afflante Spiritu was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Pius XII on September 30, 1943. ... Dei Verbum, the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council, indeed their very foundation in the view of one of the leading Council Fathers, Bishop Christopher Butler. ... Nihil obstat is an LOOK AT ME!!!! official approval by a delegated censor of the Roman Catholic Church to publish a work dealing with faith or morals. ... An Imprimatur is an official declaration from the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church that a literary or similar work is free from error in matters of Roman Catholic doctrine and morals, and hence acceptable reading for faithful Roman Catholics. ...


Some writers criticized him for what they saw as his unwillingness to acknowledge the radical implications of the critical methods he was using. Frank Kermode, a British literary critic, reviewing The Birth of the Messiah, accused Brown of being too eager to secure the imprimatur of the Catholic Church[12]; Geza Vermes has described Brown as "the primary example of the position of having your cake and eating it'."[13] John Frank Kermode (b. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ...


Brown himself described his position as 'centrist'.[14]


New Testament Christology

In a detailed 1965 article in the journal Theological Studies[15] examining whether Jesus was ever called "God" in the New Testament, Brown concluded that "Even the fourth Gospel never portrays Jesus as saying specifically that he is God" and "there is no reason to think that Jesus was called God in the earliest layers of New Testament tradition." He argued that, "Gradually, in the development of Christian thought God was understood to be a broader term. It was seen that God had revealed so much of Himself in Jesus that God had to be able to include both Father and Son."


Thirty years later, Brown revisited the issue in an introductory text for the general public, writing that in "three reasonably clear instances in the NT [Hebrews 1:8-9, John 1:1, 20:28] and in five instances that have probability, Jesus is called God", a usage Brown regarded as a natural development of early references to Jesus as "Lord".[16]


References

  1. ^ Traditional Catholic Scholars Long Opposed Fr. Brown's Theories.
  2. ^ a b The Wanderer: Traditional Catholic Scholars Long Opposed Fr. Brown's Theories, Catholic Culture, Henry V. King, 1998.
  3. ^ Francis J Moloney, 'The Legacy of Raymond E Brown and Beyond', in John R Donahue, ed, Life in Abundance: Studies of John's Gospel in Tribute to Raymond E. Brown, Liturgical Press, 2005, p19.
  4. ^ Pope Benedict XVI on Vatican II: Two Conflicting Forms of Interpretation by Pope Benedict XVI; The Church, in its official Catechism, advises the use of historical-critical methods as a required approach to interpreting sacred scripture: "In order to discover the sacred authors' intention, the reader must take into account the conditions of their time and culture, the literary genres in use at that time, and the modes of feeling, speaking and narrating then current. For the fact is that truth is differently presented and expressed in the various types of historical writing, in prophetical and poetical texts, and in other forms of literary expression." — Catechism of the Catholic Church, Paragraph 110.
  5. ^ Traditional Catholic Scholars Long Opposed Fr. Brown's Theories.
  6. ^ Divino Afflante Spiritu 3.
  7. ^ Dei Verbum, 11.
  8. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19).
  9. ^ Dei Verbum, III, 12.
  10. ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
  11. ^ Francis J Moloney, 'The Legacy of Raymond E Brown and Beyond', in John R Donahue, ed, Life in Abundance: Studies of John's Gospel in Tribute to Raymond E. Brown, Liturgical Press, 2005, p251, footnote quoting Origins, 17/35, (February 11, 1988), p.595: 'Ratzinger's lecture offered criticisms of some excesses in biblical scholarship, but he was personally complementary of Brown and his scholarship in public interviews.'
  12. ^ Frank Kermode, New York Review of Books, 29 June 1978, p39-42.
  13. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p21
  14. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition, page 637.
  15. ^ "Does the New Testament call Jesus God?" in Theological Studies, 26, (1965) p. 545-73
  16. ^ An Introduction to New Testament Christology, p. 189

The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Dei Verbum, the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council, indeed their very foundation in the view of one of the leading Council Fathers, Bishop Christopher Butler. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ...

Works

His total of 25 books on biblical subjects include:

  • The Sensus Plenior of Sacred Scripture, Baltimore: St. Mary's University, 1955: His dissertation in Partial fulfillment of his Doctor of Sacred Theology
  • Birth of the Messiah 1998, with a reappraisal of the infancy gospels
  • Death of the Messiah
  • New Jerome Biblical Commentary, (editor), 1990
  • Mary and the New Testament
  • Peter in the New Testament
  • The Community of the Beloved Disciple, New York: Paulist Press, 1979
  • "The Gospel According to John", in Anchor Bible, 1966 and 1970
  • The Critical Meaning of the Bible, New York: Paulist Press, 1981
  • Responses to 101 Questions on the Bible, New York: Paulist Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8091-4251-1
  • An Introduction to the New Testament, 1996

Several surviving infancy gospels give an idea of the miracle literature that was created in the early Christian church to satisfy the hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of their Savior. ...

External links

  • Biblical Theology Bulletin obituary notice
  • Cardinal Ratzinger / Benedict XVI On the Question of the Foundations and Approaches of Exegesis Today
  • Henry V. King, Traditional Catholic Scholars Long Opposed Fr Brown's Theories (1998).
  • George A. Kelly, A Wayward Turn in Biblical Theory (1999)

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m