FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ratel 20
Ratel 20
Country Of Origin: South Africa
Designation: Infantry Fighting Vehicle
Configuration: 6 x 6
Manufacturer: Reumech Sandock
Length: 7,21m
Width: 2,7 m
Height: 2,395 m
Weight: 18,5 t
Ground Clearance: 350 mm
Trench: 1,15 m
Speed: 105 km/h (road)
30 km/h (off-road)
Range: 1000 km
Primary armament: 20 mm semi-automatic cannon
Secondary armament: 1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial), 7.62 mm MG (anti-aircraft), 1 x 7.62 mm MG (anti-aircraft), 2 x 2 smoke grenade dischargers
Power plant: D 3256 BTXF 6-cylinder in-line turbocharged diesel developing 282 hp at 2,200 rpm
Crew: 4 + 7

The Ratel is the basic Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) of the South African National Defence Force's mechanized infantry battalions, and is named after an African animal known in English as the Honey Badger, which has a reputation as a ferocious fighter. The 6x6 Ratel was indigenously developed and produced for the South African Army in order to circumvent the arms embargo of South Africa. Design work began in 1968, with prototypes completed in 1974. The basic Ratel-20 version entered operational service in 1977 Other variants, including the improved Mark II and Mark III versions of the basic Ratel, were phased in over the subsequent decade. Mark I verhicles were upgraded to Mark II and III standard during refits. The Ratel was the first wheeled IFV to enter military service, and is generally regarded as an influential design; a number of other countries have since produced vehicles similar to the Ratel, including the Belgium SIBMAS --which is all but a direct copy-- and a number of South American designs. The Ratel-20 is the primary squad IFV, with the Ratel-60, Ratel-90, and Ratel-ZT3 (the anti-tank guided missile version) used primarily in anti-armour, support, and recon elements within a battalion. The vehicle usually carries a crew of four or five men, with a seven-man infantry squad. The metre, or meter, is a measure of length, approximately equal to 3. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, during the making of the eponymous film. ... The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO code In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... Honey Badger (Ratel) Binomial name Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) The Ratel (Mellivora capensis), also known as the Honey Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... The South African Army is the army of South Africa, also known in Afrikaans as the Suid-Afrikaanse Leër. ... See also: 1967 in South Africa, other events of 1968, 1969 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... See also: 1973 in South Africa, other events of 1974, 1975 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... See also: 1976 in South Africa, other events of 1977, 1978 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) or weapon (ATGW) is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. ...

Contents


Vehicle Characteristics

The vehicle was designed with the South African environment and the combat exerience of the South African Defence Force (SADF) foremost in mind. For example, it has considerably more firepower than most comparable infantry fighting vehicles--ranging from machine guns up to 90-mm cannon-- but The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ...


Mobility

It is wheeled, with six run-flat tires for the long-distance speed, mobility, and ease of maintenance that tracked vehicles lack and unlike the United States Army's M2/M3 Bradley or Warsaw Pact's BMP designs, the Ratel does not need to be transported long distances on trains or trailer trucks; it can simply be driven to the destination. The Ratel's ground clearance and cross-country performance are very good--certainly adequate for the generally rolling and arid terrain it usually operates in-- and the vehicle has a ride which SADF crews often compared favourably to civilian cars. The chassis also served as the basis for the G6 self-propelled gun. SADF crews also frequently praised the visibility imparted by the vehicle's high profile; though it made the Ratel a bigger target, it enabled the crews to see the surrounding area more easily, a key factor when maneuvering in the bush, where grass could grow to three meters in height. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The M2 Bradley and M3 Bradley are American infantry fighting vehicles. ... General Characteristics (M2 Bradley) Length: 21 ft 2 in (6. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ... The G6 self propelled howitzer was developed around the ordnance of the G5 howitzer. ...


Landmine protection

The Ratel's design also gives far more consideration to protection against land mines than most armoured vehicles, reflecting SADF experience and priorities. Like the Casspir and Buffel vehicles, the bottom of the hull is angled and reinforced so as to deflect mine blasts out to the sides. The Ratel's wheels, if damaged, are also much easier to repair or replace than tracks. The vehicle also has multiple doors and hatches; the two main doors are located in the vehicle's sides, but a small rear door and roof hatches allow the crew to exit the vehicle from many directions at once, or to more easily dismount under cover during an ambush. Various anti-tank and anti-personnel land mines A land mine is a type of self-contained explosive device which is placed onto or into the ground, exploding when triggered by a vehicle or person. ... The Casspir, a combat proven landmine protected personnel carrier, has been in use in South Africa for over 20 years. ... The Buffel was the primary mine-protected APC of the South African Army during the Angolan conflict. ...


Armour

The Ratel is relatively lightly armoured, in order to preserve mobility, weapons space, and range. The vehicle is well-protected against bullets and artillery shell splinters, but is vulnerable to tank guns, automatic cannon such as the Warsaw Pact 23 mm AA guns guns (which were often used in a ground-fire role in Namibia and Angola) or guided missiles. The SADF's experience during the South African Border War in Namibia and Angola showed that Ratels were far more likely to be faced with small-arms fire and mines in small-unit actions or ambushes than to run into main battle tanks in pitched battles. More to the point, the Ratel is a personnel carrier and not a tank, and is by definition not intended to engage main battle tanks. American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, GDR, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now Namibia) and Angola between South Africa and its... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ...


Armament

The basic Ratel's (designated Ratel-20) primary armament consists of a 20 mm automatic cannon mounted in a powered turret at the front of the vehicle, supplemented by a coaxial 7.62 mm (0.30 inches) calibre machine gun and a 12.7×99 mm NATO (.50_BMG) calibre pintle-mounted machine gun mounted by the commander's roof hatch. The Ratel also has four rifle ports on each side of the vehicle, allowing the infantrymen to fire from within the vehicle. An additional pintle-mounted machine gun, accessed from a roof hatch, is located at the rear of the Ratel's upper deck and provides cover for the Ratel's rear quarter. The crew consists of commander, driver, gunner, and radio operator, as well as seven infantrymen. NATO 7. ... A . ...


The Ratel-60 and Ratel-90 variants are otherwise identical, save that the former mounts a 60 mm breech-loading mortar in turrets taken from the Eland 60 armoured cars, and the Ratel-90 mounts a 90 mm low-velocity gun and has a five-man crew, adding a loader for the turret gun. The 60 mm mortar is most effectively used in firing smoke shells, and is generally useless against armoured vehicles or dug-in troops. US soldier firing an M224 60-mm mortar. ... A light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive gives it exceptional mobility. ...


The Ratel-90 fire-support variant is an unusual vehicle in that it can carry an infantry squad while retaining a 90 mm turret gun, although a smaller quantatity of 90 mm ammunition can be carried. The Ratel-90 does not normally carry a full squad, but it at least such a squad has immediate artillery fire from the 90 mm gun. It is not a tank destroyer, but has occasionally been used as one albeit with some difficulty.


Anti-tank capabilities

The low-velocity 90 mm gun, a license-made copy of the 1950s-vintage French GIAT F1, is very accurate out to 2 km range. It is generally considered to be inadequate for facing modern MBTs on a toe-to-toe basis, but it is quite capable against personnel carriers or other lighter AFVs, unarmoured vehicles, exposed infantry, and buildings or entrenchments. Firing the 90 mm gun from a moving Ratel is difficult because the fire-control system is decidedly primitive; the turret and gun are manually traversed. The vehicle's transmission needs to be disengaged before firing to avoid the shock of recoil's wrecking the transmission. GIAT Industries (formerly known as Groupement des Industries de lArmée de Terre, Armys Industries Group) is a French government-owned weapon manufacturer. ...


On the rare occasions when SADF Ratels encountered enemy armour, such as the Soviet-made tanks encountered in Operation Protea (1981) and Operations Modular, Hooper, and Packer in 1988, they achieved successes with difficulty. The 61 Mechanised Infantry Battalion Group found that each enemy T-55 and T-62 required multiple shots from the 90 mm guns to disable it, and that the SADF vehicles had to attack in groups, fire from point-blank range, and hit the tanks in the engine vents, turret rim, or similar weak points in order to have an effect, the 90 mm shells being otherwise ineffective against the Soviet tanks' armour. For this reason, the SADF's Olifants (modified Centurion) tanks were considerably more effective against enemy armour than Ratels, Elands, or other vehicles. Operation Protea was a military operation by the South African Defence Force during the South African Border War. ... See also: 1980 in South Africa, other events of 1981, 1982 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... Operation Modular was a military operation by the South African Defence Force (SADF) during the South African Border War. ... Operation Hooper was a military operation by the South African Defence Force (SADF) during the South African Border War. ... Operation Packer was a military operation by the South African Defence Force (SADF) during the South African Border War. ... See also: 1987 in South Africa, other events of 1988, 1989 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... 61 Mechanised Infantry Battalion Group is a unit of the South African Infantry Corps; although it is classed as mechanized infantry, it is a mixed force of infantry, armour and artillery. ... The T-54 and T-55 main battle tanks were the Soviet Unions replacements for the World War II era T-34 tank. ... The T-62 Soviet main battle tank is a further development of the T-54/55 series. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Centurion was the primary British Main Battle Tank of the immediate post-war era, and considered by many to be one of the best British tank designs of all time. ... A light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive gives it exceptional mobility. ...


Anti-tank missile

The anti-tank guided missile variant, the Ratel ZT-3, is equipped with the indigenously-developed ZT-3 heavy anti-tank missile, known variously as the Makopa (Swift) and Ingwe (Leopard). The Ratel ZT3 is basically a Ratel-20 with a different turret, which is fitted with a three-round missile launcher. Other missiles are carried within the hull. This laser-guided ATGM is roughly comparable to the European HOT or American TOW missiles in performance; in fact, there have been allegations of it being based on a TOW prototype design which the Central Intelligence Agency provided to South Africa during the 1980s. It entered service in the late 1980s, in time for Operation Modular, and did yeoman service against enemy armour at Cuito_Cuanevale. The SADF was previously limited to the obsolete French-designed ENTAC wire-guided ATGM, which was usually transported in Land Rovers or other unarmoured vehicles. HOT Type anti-tank missile Nationality France/German Era Cold War, Modern Launch platform vehicle, helicopter Target History Builder Euromissile Date of design Production period 1978 (HOT 1) Service duration Operators see text Variants HOT 1, HOT 2, HOT 3 Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ... CIA redirects here. ... Entac missile at the US Redstone testing facility on 29 March 1961 Entac (ENgin Teleguided Anti-Char) or MGM-32A French MCLOS wire-guided Anti-tank_missile. ... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ...


Typical deployment

A typical SADF mechanized company consists of 16 Ratels, with three four-vehicle rifle platoons and a two-vehicle command section. A battalion's support company consists of; 3 Ratel 90s, 3 MILAN teams in APCs or Ratel-ZT3s, 6 Ratel 81 mm Mortar vehicles and 3 Ystervark self-propelled 20 mm AA vehicles. Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ...


Since SADF unit frequently operated in ad-hoc task forces during the South African Border War, however, units structures and equipment frequently varied widely. At the time of Operation Modular in 1988, for example, the 61 Mechanised Infantry Battalion Group's task force consisted of two infantry companies with Ratel 20s, an armoured car squadron with 14 Ratel 90s, a mortar platoon with 12 81 mm Ratels, an anti-tank company with a mix of ATGW and Ratel 90 vehicles as well as other attachments. Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, GDR, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now Namibia) and Angola between South Africa and its... 61 Mechanised Infantry Battalion Group is a unit of the South African Infantry Corps; although it is classed as mechanized infantry, it is a mixed force of infantry, armour and artillery. ...


Production History

The South African Army had been using the 6x6 British Alvis Saracen APC for several years before the acquisition of spare parts become problematic due to the arms embargo, the South Africans decided to manufacture a new vehicle to satisfy their needs. After building the Eland, a modified version of the 4x4 Panhard AML armoured car, Sandock then undertook to design a replacement for the Saracen. The prototype was completed in 1976, and the first units rolled out the following year. Since then, over a thousand Ratel vehicles were manufactured. The FV 603 Saracen was a six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier built by Alvis and used by the British army that became a recognisable vehicle as a result of its part in the policing of Northern Ireland. ... A light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive gives it exceptional mobility. ... United Nations Panhard AML. The Panhard AML( called the AML 245 by Panhard) 60/90 is a light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive which gives it exceptional mobility. ...


Variants

  • Ratel 20 - Original version, French designed turret (see side notes)
  • Ratel 60 - crew of 4 plus 7 infantry, turret is identical to that of the Eland 60 with a 60 mm breech-loading mortar
  • Ratel 81 - no turret, but an 81 mm mortar is installed in the crew compartment for use as a fire support platform
  • Ratel 90 - crew of 5 plus 7 infantry, turret is identical to that of the Eland 90. Primary role: fire support for the Mechanized Battalions.
  • Ratel Command - crew of 9 men, two-seater turret with a 12,7 mm machine gun
  • Ratel Maintenance - setup as a mobile workshop
  • Ratel ZT3 - new anti-tank turret, with a rack containing 3 anti-tank missiles ready for launch and additional missiles stored within the hull.
  • Ratel Logistic - 8x8 logistic vehicle. Only 2 were ever built and thus never went into production.

A light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive gives it exceptional mobility. ... A light armoured car with permanent 4x4 drive gives it exceptional mobility. ... A . ...

Operators

Combat History

  • Angola 1978
  • Western Sahara

See also

Modern Wheeled Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Personnel Carriers
4 x 4

BOV | BTR-40 | Bushmaster | Casspir | Mamba
RG-12 | RG-31 Nyala | RG-32 Scout | Saxon | VAB | VBL
6 x 6
AVGP | Boxer MRAV | BTR-152 | EE-11 Urutu | Fuchs | FV 603 Saracen
Ratel | Shoet | Sisu XA-180 | VAB
8 x 8
ASLAV | Boxer MRAV | BTR-60 | BTR-70 | BTR-80 | BTR-90 | BTR-94
LAV 25 | LAV III | Patria AMV | Piranha | Stryker
Terrex AV-81 | VBCI A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, during the making of the eponymous film. ... This is a List of armoured fighting vehicles worldwide. ... A list of the worlds artillery, by type. ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... The BTR-40 armored personnel carrier was developed in 1950 by a team headed by V. A. Dedkov and was produced from 1950 to 1958 at Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod. ... The Bushmaster Infantry Mobility Vehicle is an Australian designed and built wheeled armoured vehicle produced by Australian Defence Industries Limited (ADI). ... The Casspir, a combat proven landmine protected personnel carrier, has been in use in South Africa for over 20 years. ... The Mamba is an Armoured Personnel Carrier based on the Unimog that is ideally suited for regions with weak or no road infrastructure. ... The RG-12 is a multi-purpose armoured personnel carrier with anti-personnel mine, grenade, fire bomb and 5. ... The RG-31 Nyala is multi-purpose mine-protected vehicle based on the Mamba APC. The vehicle’s V-shaped monocoque welded steel hull and high suspension are designed to resist a blast equivalent to two TM-57 anti-tank mines detonating simultaneously. ... The RG-32 (Scout) family of mine-proof 4x4 light armoured vehicles is based on the RG-31, which is already deployed worldwide with peace-keeping, security and combat forces. ... General characteristics Length 5. ... Medical evacuation version detail of propeller for amphibious operation Milan anti-tank missile variant 25 mm Dragar turret variant The Véhicule de lAvant Blindé or VAB (Armoured Vanguard Vehicle in French) is an armoured personnel carrier manufactured by the Euro Mobilité Division of GIAT Industries of France. ... Panhard Véhicule Blindé Léger (Light armoured vehicle) is a wheeled 4x4 all-terrain vehicle offered in various configurations. ... AVGP means Armoured Vehicle General Purpose. ... The Boxer is a European Multirole Armored Vehicle (MRAV) designed to accomplish a number of operations through the use of installable mission modules. ... The BTR-152 was the first Soviet attempt at an armoured infantry vehicle. ... The EE-11 Urutu is a 6x6 Armoured Personnel Carrier developed in the seventies by ENGESA of Brazil. ... In British service TPz (Transportpanzer) Fuchs (fox) is an armoured personnel carrier developed by Daimler-Benz and built by Thyssen-Henschel (now Rheinmetall Landsysteme) in 1979. ... The FV 603 Saracen was a six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier built by Alvis and used by the British army that became a recognisable vehicle as a result of its part in the policing of Northern Ireland. ... Shoet in Yad la-Shiryon museum, Israel. ... The Sisu XA-180 is a six-wheeled fully amphibious armoured personnel carrier (APC) originally designed for Finnish Defence Forces. ... Medical evacuation version detail of propeller for amphibious operation Milan anti-tank missile variant 25 mm Dragar turret variant The Véhicule de lAvant Blindé or VAB (Armoured Vanguard Vehicle in French) is an armoured personnel carrier manufactured by the Euro Mobilité Division of GIAT Industries of France. ... The Australian Light Armoured Vehicle (ASLAV), is an Australian version of the Mowag Piranha. ... The Boxer is a European Multirole Armored Vehicle (MRAV) designed to accomplish a number of operations through the use of installable mission modules. ... The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers. ... The BTR-70 is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier originally developed during the late 1970s and fielded by the Warsaw Pact and allies beginning in the early 1980s. ... BTR-80 is a 8x8 wheeled Armoured personnel carrier designed in the Soviet Union. ... BTR-90 (GAZ-5923) is a 8x8 wheeled Armoured personnel carrier designed in Russia. ... The BTR-94 amphibious armoured personnel carrier is an Ukrainian modification of the Soviet eight-wheeled BTR-80. ... LAV-25, also known as Bison, is said to be an 8 wheeled vehicle that has been used to destroy non-biological land-mines while safely carring 6 people. ... The LAV III AV is the latest in General Motors Light armoured vehicle line. ... The Patria AMV 8x8 (Advanced Modular Vehicle) a. ... Piranha-derived LAV25 in USMC service Canadian Piranha-derived, six-wheeled Cougar AVGP, with Scorpion tank turret (76 mm gun) Prototype of a Mobile Gun System derivative of the Piranha, mounting a 105mm tank gun Piranha-derived Stryker, clad with a supplementary anti-HEAT shell slat armour Canadian Forces Piranha... The Stryker is a family of eight wheeled, all wheel drive, armored combat vehicles produced by General Dynamics Land Systems and is in current use by the US Army and the Mobile Gun System variant has been ordered by the Canadian Army to replace its fleet of Leopard I tanks. ... The Terrex AV-81 is an armoured fighting vehicle developed by Singapore Technologies. ... The Véhicule Blindé de Combat dInfanterie (VBCI, Armoured vehicle for infantry combat) is a French armoured fighting vehicle designed to replace the AMX-10P. They are planned to join active service in 2008, with 550 combat vehicles (VBCI/VCI) and 150 command vehicles (VBCI/VPC). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ratel 20 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1078 words)
In fact, the Ratel was the first wheeled IFV to enter military service, and is generally regarded as an influential design; a number of other countries have since produced vehicles similar to the Ratel, including the Belgian SIBMAS--which is all but a direct copy-- and a number of South American designs.
The Ratel's cross-country performance is very good--certainly adequate for the generally rolling and arid terrain it usually operates in-- and also served as the basis for the G-6 self-propelled gun.
The Ratel is relatively lightly armored, to preserve mobility, weapons space, and range; the vehicle is well-protected against bullets, artillery shell splinters, rocket-propelled grenades, and small-caliber cannon, such as the Warsaw Pact 23mm AA guns, which were frequently used in ground-fire roles in Angola and Namibia, but is vulnerable to heavier guns or guided missiles.
Ratel (728 words)
The Ratel is a range of 6x6 infantry combat vehicles which has been truly tested in battle and has shown itself to be a most cost-effective system in terms of both operational purpose and cost.
The Ratel 20 IFV is a wheeled, infantry fighting vehicle designed in the early 1970s to circumvent the arms embargo of South Africa.
The Ratel 90 is a wheeled fire support vehicle designed in the mid-1970s to circumvent the arms embargo of South Africa during apartheid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m