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Encyclopedia > Rat poison
A rat in urban environment
A rat in urban environment

Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. Image File history File links Rattus_rattus05. ... Image File history File links Rattus_rattus05. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


Single feed baits are chemicals sufficiently dangerous that the first dose is sufficient to kill.


Rats and certain other vermin are difficult to kill with poisons because their feeding habits reflect their place as scavengers. They will eat a small bit of something and wait, and if they don't get sick, they continue. An effective rat poison must be tasteless and odorless in lethal concentrations, and have a delayed effect.

Contents


Poisonous chemicals

Anticoagulants

Anticoagulants are defined as chronic (death occurs after 1 - 2 weeks post ingestion of the lethal dose, rarely sooner), single-dose (second generation) or multiple dose (first generation) cumulative rodenticides. Fatal internal bleeding is caused by lethal dose of anticoagulants such as brodifacoum, coumatetralyl or warfarin. These substances, in effective doses are antivitamins K, blocking the enzymes K1-2,3-epoxide-reductase (this enzyme is preferentially blocked by 4-hydroxycoumarin/4-hydroxythiacoumarin derivatives) and K1-quinone-reductase (this enzyme is preferentially blocked by indandione derivatives), depriving the organism of its source of active vitamin K1. This leads to disruption of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability of production of essential blood-clotting factors (mainly coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII (proconvertin), IX (Christmas factor) and X (Stuart factor)). In addition to this specific metabolic disruption, toxic doses of 4-hydroxycoumarin/4-hydroxythiacoumarin and indandione anticoagulants are causing damage to tiny blood vessels (capillaries), increasing their permeability, causing diffuse internal bleedings (haemorrhagias). These effects are gradual, they develop in course of days and are not accompagnied by any nociceptive perceptions, such as pain or agony. In final phase of the intoxication, the exhausted rodent collapses in hypovolemic cirulatory shock or severe anemia and dies calmly. Rodenticidal anticoagulants are either first generation agents (4-hydroxycoumarin type: warfarin, coumatetralyl; indandione type: pindone, diphacinone, chlorophacinone), generally requiring higher concentrations (usually between 0.005 and 0.1%), consecutive intake over days in order to accumulate the lethal dose, poor active or inactive after single feeding and less toxic than second generation agents, which are derivatives of 4-hydroxycoumarin (difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone and flocoumafen) or 4-hydroxy-1-benzothiin-2-one (4-hydroxy-1-thiacoumarin, sometimes incorrectlly reffered to as 4-hydroxy-1-thiocoumarin, for reason see heterocyclic compounds), namely difethialone. Second generation agents are far more toxic than first generation, they are generally applied in lower concentrations in baits (usually in order 0.001 - 0.005%), are lethal after single ingestion of bait and are effective also against strains of rodents that became resistant against first generation anticoagulants; thus, the second generation anticoagulants are sometimes reffered to as "superwarfarins". A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Brodifacoum is a highly lethal anticoagulant poison. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin®, Jantoven®, Marevan®, and Waran®) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor VII (old name proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3. ... Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissue perfusion is insufficient to meet the required supply of oxygen and nutrients. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Vitamin K1 has been suggested, and successfully used, as antidote for pets or humans accidentially or intentionaly (poison assaults on pets, suicidal attempts) exposed to anticoagulant poisons. In addition, since some of these poisons act by inhibiting liver functions and in progressed stage of poisoning, several blood-clotting factors as well as the whole volume of circulating blood lacks, a blood transfusion (optionally with the clotting factors present) can save a person who inadvertently takes them, an advantage over some older poisons. Vitamin K denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. ... Pets and humans often contribute toward the happiness of the other in a pet relationship. ... The liver is the largest internal organ of the human body. ...


Metal phosphides

Metal phosphides have been used as a means of killing rodents and are considered single-dose fast acting rodenticides (death occurs commonly within 1-3 days after single bait ingestion). A bait consisting of food and a phosphide (usually zinc phosphide) is left where the rodents can eat it. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. This method of vermin control has possible use in places where rodents are resistant to some of the anticoagulants, particulary for control of house and field mice; zinc phosphide baits are also cheaper than most second-generation anticoagulants, so that sometimes, in the case of large infestation by rodents, their population is initially reduced by copious amounts of zinc phosphide bait applied, and the rest of population that survived the initial fast-acting poison is than eradicated by prolonged feeding on anticoagulant bait. Inversely, the individual rodents, that survived anticoagulant bait poisoning (rest population) can be eradicated by pre-baiting them with nontoxic bait for a week or two (this is important to overcome bait shyness, and to get rodents used to feeding in specific areas by specific food, especially in eradicating rats) and subsequently applying poisoned bait of the same sort as used for pre-baiting until all consumption of the bait ceases (usually within 2-4 days). These methods of alterning rodenticides with different modes of action gives factual or almost 100% eradications of the rodent population in the area, if the acceptance/palatability of baits are good (i.e., rodents feed on it readily). Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ...


Zinc phosphide is typically added to rodent baits in amount of around 0.75-2%. The baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts (or, at least, does not repulse) rodents, but has repulsive effect on other animals; birds, notably wild turkeys, are not sensitive to the smell, feed on the bait, and become collateral damage. Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Wild Turkey (disambiguation). ...


The tablets or pellets (usually aluminium, calcium or magnesium phopsphide for fumigation/gassing) may also contain other chemicals which evolve ammonia which helps to reduce the potential for spontaneous ignition or explosion of the phosphine gas. Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ...


Phosphides do not accumulate in the tissues of poisoned animals, therefore the risk of secondary poisoning is low.


Before the advent of anticoagulants, phosphides were the favored kind of rat poison. During the World War II, they came in use in United States because of shortage of strychnine due to the japanese occupation of the territories, where strychnine-producing plants are grown (Strychnos nux-vomica, in south-east Asia). Phosphides are rather fast acting rat poisons, resulting in the rats dying usually in open areas instead of in the affected buildings. Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 1 mg/kg), colourless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. ...


Phosphides used as rodenticides are:

Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a compound of aluminium and phosphorus. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Calcium phosphide is a chemical that has uses in incendiary bombs. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is an inorganic chemical compound. ...

Hypercalcemia

Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is used as a rat poison, which is toxic to rodents for the same reason that it is beneficial to humans: it helps in calcium absorption in the body. In rodents it causes hypercalcemia, raising the calcium level sufficiently that blood vessels, kidneys, the stomach wall and lungs are mineralised (form crystals), leading to heart problems and bleeding and possibly kidney failure. It is considered to be single-dose, or cumulative (depending on concentration used; the common 0.075% bait concentration is lethal to most rodents after a single intake of larger portions of the bait), sub-chronic (death occuring usualy within days to one week after ingestion of the bait). In family pets, accidental ingestion is generally considered safe for cats but dangerous for dogs.[1] Specific antidote for calciferol intoxication is calcitonin, a hormone, that lowers the blood levels of calcium. The therapy with commercialy available calcitonin preparations is, however, expensive. Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Calcitonin is a a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ...


Other

Civilian Public Service worker distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport Mississippi, ca. 1945.
Civilian Public Service worker distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport Mississippi, ca. 1945.

Other chemical poisons include: Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and... Endemic typhus is caused by certain species of Rickettsia - namely , transmitted by fleas infesting rats, and less often , transmitted by fleas carried by cats or opossums. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Binomial name Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) The Brown Rat or Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the most well-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, and cement. ... Bromethalin is a restricted use rodenticide used in and around buildings and sewers, and inside transportation and cargo vehicles. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... Chloralose is an avicide, rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15°C, and bird repellent. ... Endrin Endrin is a cyclodiene insecticide used on cotton, maize, and rice. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... 1080 is the commonly used name for sodium fluoroacetate (also known as sodium monofluoroacetate), a potent metabolic poison used primarily to control mammallian pests. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 1 mg/kg), colourless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. ... Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS, DSTA, also called tetramine) is a toxic organic chemical. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 204. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Flash point −17. ...

Alternatives

Mechanical rat traps are one possible alternative to poisons; another alternative is to buy a cat, although cats capable of dealing with rats are relatively rare; in many cultures, hunting dogs have been used instead. Both of these methods have a disadvantage of being comparatively messy, a particular problem when the building with a rat problem is to be uninhabited for some months. Anticoagulants have the advantage that their first effect is dehydration from blood loss, causing the unfortunate rodent to leave the building in search of water. Another alternative is the use of biological, non-toxic, yet lethal baits, consisting of anhydrous powdered maize/corn cobs, containing high fractions (over 80 - 90%) of α-cellulose, which is incorporated into a solid, gastric-resistant matrix, that is dissolved in the gut. The α-cellulose anhydrous powder released in the gut of the rodent disrupts water and electrolyte balance and so kills the rodent. This material is commonly formulated with taste and flavour additives to increase its palatability, and is compressed into granulate of appropriate size (granules of bigger size for rats, smaller granules for mice). This material is completely non-toxic, leaves no harmful residues, is environmentaly friendly and accidental ingestion of it by pets or children is simply treated by giving laxatives, plenty of water and electrolytes. Dead rodents killed by this mean pose no risk of secondary poisoning. Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Innocent mice often meet their demise in such cruel death traps A rat trap is a contraption used to, as the name implies, trap rats, but not necessarily kill them. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal and a subspecies of the wild cat. ... The term Dogs, when used by itself can refer to: The plural of dog Dogs, a song by Pink Floyd This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... A laxative is a preparation used for the purpose of encouraging defecation, or the elimination of feces. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ...


Newer rodenticides have been developed to work with by reducing the sperm count in males to deprive them of the ability to procreate rather than to kill rodents outright. They are usually administered in the breeding seasons of most rodents.


See also

The domestic dogs health is possibly one of the best-studied areas in veterinary medicine, since the dog has had such a long and close relationship with humans. ...

References

  1. ^ RODENTICIDES, source: Journal of Vertrinary Medicine, archives, vol. 27, May, 1998. IPM Of Alaska, Solving Pest Problems Sensibly. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.

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