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Encyclopedia > Rastafari movement

The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. He is also seen as part of the Holy Trinity as the messiah promised in the Bible to return. The name Rastafari comes from Ras (literally "Head," an Ethiopian title equivalent to Duke), and Tafari Makonnen, the pre-coronation name of Haile Selassie I Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nobility title. ...


The movement emerged in Jamaica among working-class and peasant black people in the early 1930s,[3][4] arising from an interpretation of Biblical prophecy partly based on Selassie's status as the only African monarch of a fully independent state, with the titles King of Kings and Conquering Lion of Judah (Revelation 5:5). Other characteristics of Rastafari include the spiritual use of cannabis,[3][5] and various Afrocentric social and political aspirations,[3][6] such as the teachings of Jamaican publicist, organiser, and black separatist Marcus Garvey (also often regarded as a prophet), whose political and cultural vision helped inspire a new world view. The Lion of Judah has its origins in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) where the Israelite tribe of Judah had the lion as its symbol. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks a separate homeland for black people, particularly African-Americans. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It is a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ...


The Rastafari movement has spread throughout much of the world, largely through interest generated by reggae music—most notably, that of Jamaican singer/songwriter Bob Marley. By 2000, there were more than one million Rastafari faithful worldwide. About five to ten percent of Jamaicans identify themselves as Rastafari. Many Rastafarians follow an ital diet which essentially means living by the dietary Laws of Leviticus and Deuteronomy in the Old Testament. Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... I-tal or ital means Vital. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...


Leonard Howell, who has been described as the "first Rasta," formed a commune which grew as large as 5,000 people at a place called Pinnacle, at St. Catherine in Jamaica. Leonard P. Howell (1898 - ?) is the founder of the Rastafarian religious movement. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ...

Contents

Doctrines

Rastafari developed among an oppressed people who felt society had nothing to offer them except more suffering.[3][7] Rastas may regard themselves as conforming to certain visions of how Africans should live,[3][8] reclaiming what they see as a culture stolen from them when their ancestors were brought on slave ships to Jamaica, the movement's birthplace. The messages expounded by the Rastafari promote love and respect for all living things and emphasize the paramount importance of human dignity and self-respect. Above all else, they speak of freedom from spiritual, psychological, as well as physical slavery and oppression. In their attempts to heal the wounds inflicted upon the African peoples by the imperialist nations of the world, Rastafari continually extol the virtue and superiority of African cultures and civilization past and present. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ...


The doctrines of Rastafari depart radically from the norms of the conventional modern western mind,[3][9] a trait of the movement deliberately encouraged by Rastas themselves. Unlike many religious groups that stress compliance with and recognition of the "powers-that-be," Rastafari instead stresses loyalty to their vision of "Zion," and rejection of modern society (called Babylon), which they see as thoroughly corrupt.[3][10] "Babylon" in this case is considered to be rebelling against "Earth's Rightful Ruler" (JAH) ever since the days of king Nimrod. Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... In the Bible and in legend, Nimrod (Standard Hebrew נִמְרוֹד Nimrod, Tiberian Hebrew נִמְרֹד Nimrōḏ), son of Cush, grandson of Ham, great-grandson of Noah, was a Mesopotamian monarch and a mighty hunter before Yahweh. He is mentioned in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10), in the First Book of Chronicles, and...


This "way of life" is not merely to be assented to intellectually, or "belief" as the term is often used; it is used for the finding and knowledge of one's true identity. To follow and worship JAH Rastafari is to find, spread, and "trod" the unique path to which each individual Rasta was rightfully born. The movement is difficult to categorize, because Rastafari is not a centralized organization.[3][11] Individual Rastafari work out their religion for themselves, resulting in a wide variety of doctrines nevertheless also covered under the general umbrella of Rastafari.

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Afrocentrism

Socially, Rastafari has been viewed as a response to racist negation of black people as it was experienced, both in the world as a whole (where Selassie was the only black monarch recognised in international circles), and in Jamaica — where in the 1930s, black people were at the bottom of the social order, while white people, their religion and system of government, were at the top. Marcus Garvey's encouragement of black people to take pride in themselves and their African heritage inspired the Rastas to embrace all things African. They teach that they were brainwashed while in captivity to negate all things black and African. They turned the white image of them—as primitive and straight out of the jungle—into a defiant embrace of the African culture they see as having been stolen from them when they were taken from Africa on the slave ships. Africa is associated with Zion. Africa/Zion is the starting place of all human ancestry as well as the original state of mind that can be reached through meditation and the ganja herb. Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Living close to and as a part of nature is seen as African. This African approach to "naturality" is seen in the dreadlocks, ganja, ital food, and in all aspects of Rasta life. They disdain the modern approach (or, as they see it, non-approach) to life for being unnatural and excessively objective and rejecting subjectivity. Rastas say that scientists try to discover how the world is by looking from the outside in, whereas the Rasta approach is to see life from the inside, looking out. The individual is given tremendous importance in Rastafari and every Rasta has to figure out the truth for himself. Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... I-tal or ital means Vital. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Another important Afrocentric identification is with the colours red, gold, and green, of the Ethiopian flag as well as, with the addition of black, the colours of "Pan-African Unity" for Marcus Garvey. They are a symbol of the Rastafari movement and of the loyalty Rastas feel toward Haile Selassie, Ethiopia, and Africa rather than for any other modern state where they happen to live. These colours are frequently seen on clothing and other decorations. Red stands for the blood of martyrs, green stands for the vegetation of Africa, while gold stands for the wealth and prosperity Africa has to offer, or the sun which gives everything life. Flag ratio: 1:2 The Flag of Ethiopia was adopted on February 6, 1996. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Some Rastafari learn Amharic, which some consider to be the original language, because this is the language of Haile Selassie I and in order to further their identity as Ethiopian. There are reggae songs written in Amharic. Most Rastas speak either a form of English or a form of their native languages that embrace non-standard dialects and has been consciously modified to accord with and display an individual Rasta's world view (e.g. "I-an-I" rather than "we"). Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Haile Selassie and the Bible

Main article: Haile Selassie

One belief that unites many Rastafari is that Ras[12] Tafari Makonnen, who was crowned Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia on November 2, 1930, is the living God incarnate, called Jah, who is the black Messiah who will lead the world's peoples of African origin into a promised land of full emancipation and divine justice[13][14] (although some mansions do not take this literally). This is partly because of his titles King of Kings, Elect of God and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah. These titles are a close match for those of the Messiah mentioned in Revelation 5:5 (which verse reads "Lord of Lords" rather than "Elect of God".) However, according to Ethiopian tradition, these Imperial titles were accorded to all Solomonic emperors beginning in 980 BC—well before Revelation was written in the first century AD. Haile Selassie was, according to some traditions, the 225th in an unbroken line of Ethiopian monarchs descended from the Biblical King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Psalm 87:4-6 is also interpreted as predicting the coronation of Haile Selassie I. Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Haile Selassie Emperor Haile Selassie I (Power of Trinity) (born Lij Tafari Makonnen, July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975), styled His Imperial Majesty (or HIM), was the Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is the religious symbol for God incarnate among the Rastafari movement. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... Negro is a term referring to people of Black African ancestry. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Haile Selassie I Mansions of Rastafari are branches of the Rastafari movement. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament). ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

Modern book cover of Kebra Nagast: The Glory of the Kings
Modern book cover of Kebra Nagast: The Glory of the Kings

In the 10th century BC, The Solomonic Dynasty of Ethiopia was founded by Menelik I, the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who had visited Solomon in Israel. 1 Kings 10:13 claims "And King Solomon gave unto the Queen of Sheba all her desire, whatsoever she asked, beside that which Solomon gave her of his royal bounty. So she turned and went to her own country, she and her servants." On the basis of the Ethiopian national epic, the Kebra Negast, Rastas interpret this verse as meaning she conceived his child, and from this, conclude that African people are among the true children of Israel, or Jews. Beta Israel black Jews have lived in Ethiopia for centuries, disconnected from the rest of Judaism; their existence gave some credence and impetus to early Rastafari, validating their belief that Ethiopia was Zion. Image File history File linksMetadata Kebra_Nagast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kebra_Nagast. ... Modern book cover of Kebra Nagast: The Glory of the Kings The Kebra Nagast (var. ... Menelik I, first Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. ... This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament). ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Kebra Negast (The Glory of Kings) is an illustrated book on the history of the Ethopian orthodox religion. ... The Beta Israel (Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል BÄ“ta Isrāēl, modern BÄ“te Isrāēl; ‎), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians — a term that is considered pejorative) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ...


Some Rastafari choose to classify their movement as Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, Protestant Christianity, or Judaism. Of those, the ties to the Ethiopian Church are the most widespread, although this is controversial to many Ethiopian clergy. Rastafari believe that standard translations of the Bible incorporate changes created by the white power structure. Some also revere the Kebra Negast, but many of these Rastas would classify themselves as Ethiopian Orthodox in religion and Rastafari in ideology. Some Rastafari pay little attention to the Kebra Negast, and most consider it as having nowhere near the sanctity of the Bible. Ethiopian Church in jerusalem The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic:Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kebra Negast (The Glory of Kings) is an illustrated book on the history of the Ethopian orthodox religion. ...


For Rastafari, Selassie I remains their god and their king.[15][16] They see Selassie as being worthy of worship, and as having stood with great dignity in front of the world's press and in front of representatives of many of the world's powerful nations, especially during his appeal to the League of Nations in 1936, when he was still the only independent black monarch in Africa.[17] From the beginning the Rastas decided that their personal loyalty lay with Africa's only black monarch, Selassie, and that they themselves were in effect as free citizens of Ethiopia, loyal to its Emperor and devoted to its flag.


Most Rastafari believe that Selassie is in some way a reincarnation of Jesus and that the Rastafari are the true Israelites. At the heart of Rastafari is the belief in being one's own 'kingman' or prince (hence they call themselves Rastafari). As Ras Midas sang "When I saw my Daddy with the pick axe and my Mommy with the broom, then I know Rastaman is in exile" (Ras Midas, Rastaman in Exile, 1980). Rastas say they have been conditioned into slavery, but convert this into a belief in their own divine potential, believing that as Selassie I dwells within them, they also are worthy kings and princes. This article is about the theological concept. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ras Midas is a Jamaican reggae artist and member of the Rastafari movement most famous for his album Rastaman in Exile (1980). ...


Rastas call Selassie Jah, or Jah Rastafari, and believe there is great power in all these names. They call themselves Rastafari (pronounced /ˌrɑːstəˈfɑraɪ/) to express the personal relationship each Rasta has with Selassie I. Rastas like to use the ordinal with the name Haile Selassie I, with the dynastic Roman numeral one signifying "the First" deliberately pronounced as the letter I - again as a means of expressing a personal relationship with God. They also call Selassie H.I.M. (pronounced him), for His Imperial Majesty. In set theory, ordinal, ordinal number, and transfinite ordinal number refer to a type of number introduced by Georg Cantor in 1897, to accommodate infinite sequences and to classify sets with certain kinds of order structures on them. ...


Of great importance is that Rastafari[3] do not accept that God could die and thus believe that Selassie's 1975 supposed death was a hoax, and that he will return to liberate his followers. A few Rastas today consider this a partial fulfillment of prophecy found in the apocalyptic 2 Esdras 7:28. Rastafari is a strongly syncretic Abrahamic religion that draws extensively from the Bible. Adherents look particularly to the New Testament Book of Revelation, as this (5:5) is where they find the prophecies about the divinity of Haile Selassie. Rastas believe that they, and the rest of the black race, are descendants of the ancient twelve tribes of Israel, cast into captivity outside Africa as a result of the slave trade. In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Some believe that only half of the Bible has been written, and that the other half, stolen from them along with their culture, is written in a man's heart. This concept also embraced the idea that even the illiterate can be Rastas by reading God's Word in their hearts. Rastas also see the lost half of the Bible, and the whole of their lost culture to be found in the Ark of the Covenant, a repository of African wisdom. Children reading. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels. ...


Rastafari are criticised, particularly by Christian groups, for taking Biblical quotes out of context, for picking and choosing what they want from the Bible, and for bringing elements into Rastafari that do not appear in the Bible. They are also criticised for using an English language translation (particularly the King James Version) of the Bible, as many have no interest in Hebrew or Greek scholarship. However, a great interest in the Amharic Orthodox version, authorized by Haile Selassie I in the 1950s, has arisen among Rastas. Selassie himself wrote in the preface to this version that "unless [one] accepts with clear conscience the Bible and its great Message, he cannot hope for salvation," thus confirming and coinciding with what the Rastafari themselves had been preaching since the beginning of the movement (Words of Ras Tafari). For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ...


Repatriation and Race

The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy

The Rastas say that Haile Selassie will call the Day of Judgment, when the righteous shall return home to Mount Zion, identified with Africa, to live forever in peace, love, and harmony. In the meantime the Rastas call to be repatriated to Africa. Repatriation, the desire to return to Africa after 400 years of slavery, is central to Rastafari doctrine. The first Rastas, living on a Caribbean island, dreamed of the possibilities of Africa. The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy Author: Rev. ... The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy Author: Rev. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ...


Many early Rastas for a time believed in black supremacy. Widespread advocacy of this doctrine was shortlived, however; at least partly because of Selassie's explicit condemnation of racism in a speech before the United Nations. Most Rastas now espouse a belief that racial animosities must be set aside, with world peace and harmony being common themes. One of the three major modern sects, the Twelve Tribes of Israel, has specifically condemned all types of racism, and declared that the teachings of the Bible are the route to spiritual liberation for people of any racial or ethnic background. Black Supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that black people are superior to other races and is sometimes manifested in bigotry towards persons not of African ancestry, particularly white and Jewish people. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... UN redirects here. ...


Some early elements of Rastafari were closely related to indigenous religions of the Caribbean and Africa, and to the Maroons, though the more syncretic elements were largely purged by the Nyahbinghi warriors - dreadlocked Rastas who opposed some leaders who sought to add them to the Rastafari doctrines. This article needs cleanup. ... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period...


People of all races are to be found within the movement. Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation...


Church and The Holy Trinity

Haile Selassie I

Some Rastas believe that their own body is the true church or temple of God, and so see no need to make temples or churches out of physical buildings. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ...


Rasta doctrine concerning the Holy Trinity relates to the name Haile Selassie meaning Power of the Trinity in Ge'ez. Rastas believe that Haile Selassie is both God the Father and God the Son of the Holy Trinity, while it is themselves, and potentially all human beings, who embody the Holy Spirit. Some see Melchizedek in addition to Jesus as having been former incarnations of Haile Selassie. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Physical Immortality

Many Rastas are physical immortalists who believe the chosen few will continue to live forever in their current bodies. This idea of everliving (rather than everlasting) life is very strong and important. The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ...


A good expression of this doctrine is in Lincoln Thompson's song Thanksgiving. After asking "What's destroying life?" he says, "Tell I if you know." Paraphrasing the Bible, he continues, "There are too many dead bodies lying around me...in a true reality, down in the grave there is no life. In silence there you'll be, with no-one to hear nor see, and no matter what you saw, when you are dead you cannot praise Jah." Another may be seen in the lyrics to the Third World anthem, "96 Degrees in the Shade": Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, musician and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a member of the Rastafari movement. ... Third World is a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1973. ...

As sure as the Sun shine
Way up in the sky,
Today I stand here a victim -
The truth is I'll never die...

Perhaps the most well known example of this is Bob Marley's refusal to write a will despite suffering from the final stages of an advanced metastasized cancer (and the resulting controversy surrounding the distribution of his estate after his death) on the grounds that writing a will would mean he was giving in to death and forgoing his chance at everliving life. This article is about the reggae musician. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ...


Diet

Main article: Ital

Many Rastas eat limited types of meat in accordance with the dietary Laws of the Old Testament; they do not eat shellfish or pork. Others abstain from all meat and flesh whatsoever, asserting that to touch meat is to touch death [with the exception of fish which can be eaten], and is therefore a violation of the Nazirite oath. However, the prohibition against meat only applies to those who are currently fulfilling a Nazirite vow, for the duration of the vow. Many Rastafari maintain a vegan or vegetarian diet all of the time. I-tal or ital means Vital. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


Usage of alcohol is also generally deemed unhealthy to the Rastafarian way of life, partly because it is seen as a tool of Babylon to confuse people, and partly because placing something that is pickled and fermented within oneself is felt to be much like turning the body (the Temple) into a "cemetery". This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In consequence, a rich 'alternative' cuisine has developed in association with Rastafari tenets, eschewing most synthetic additives, and preferring more natural vegetables and fruits such as coconut and mango. This cuisine can be found throughout the Caribbean and in some restaurants throughout the western world.


Some of the Houses (or "Mansions" as they have come to be known) of the Rastafari culture, such as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, of which Bob Marley was a part, do not specify diet beyond that which to quote Christ "Is not what goes into a man's mouth that defile him, but what come out of it". Wine is seen as a "mocker" and strong drink is "raging", however simple consumption of beer or the very common "Roots Wine" are not systematically a part of Rastafarian culture this way or that. Separating from Jamaican culture, different interpretations on the role of food and drink within what some might call a religion remains up for debate.


Politics

Rastafari culture does not encourage mainstream political involvement. In fact, in the early stages of the movement most Rastas did not vote, out of principle. Ras Sam Brown formed the Suffering People's Party for the elections of 1962. Although he received fewer than 100 votes, simply standing for election was a powerful act. Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Ras Sam Brown was born on 16th December 1925 and died in August 1998 while attending an international trade fair in Barbados. ...


In the election campaign of 1972, People's National Party leader, Michael Manley used a prop, a walking stick given to him by Haile Selassie, which was called the "Rod of Correction", in a direct appeal to Rastafarian values. Michael Norman Manley (December 10, 1924 – March 6, 1997) was the fifth Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972 – 1980, 1989 – 1992). ...


In the famous free One Love Peace Concert on April 22, 1978, Peter Tosh lambasted the audience, including attending dignitaries, with political demands that included decriminalising cannabis. He did this while smoking a spliff, a criminal act in Jamaica. However 5 months after this bold move Tosh was badly beaten by the Jamaican authorities. At this same concert, Bob Marley led both then-Prime Minister Michael Manley, and opposition leader Edward Seaga onto the stage; and a famous picture was taken with all three of them holding their hands together above their heads in a symbolic gesture of peace during what had been a very violent election campaign. The One Love Peace Concert was a large concert held on April 22, 1978 at Heroes Park Circle in Kingston, Jamaica. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... The Right Honourable Edward Philip George Seaga (born May 28, 1930) was Prime Minister of Jamaica for the Jamaica Labour Party from 1980 to 1989, and served as leader of the opposition 1989 to January 2005. ...


Rastafari Nándor Tánczos is a prominent Ex-Green Party MP in New Zealand. Nándor Steven Tánczos (born 1966), a member of the New Zealand Parliament since 1999, represents the Green Party as a list MP. He briefly lost his seat in the 2005 General Election, but ranked next on the party list and agreed to rejoin Parliament following the sudden death... A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of Green politics. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Today, Rastafari has to some extent become a socially accepted group in mainstream society,[citation needed] and in the United Kingdom some of them work with the police in trying to keep peace on the streets.[citation needed]


Language

Main article: Rastafarian Vocabulary

Rastas believe that their original African languages were stolen from them when they were taken into captivity as part of the slave trade, and that English is an imposed colonial language. Their remedy for this situation has been the creation of a modified vocabulary and dialect, reflecting their desire to take forward language and to confront the society they call Babylon. Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Rastas have also changed some common words to reflect their beliefs. Some examples are:

  • "I-tal" is derived from the word vital and is used to describe the diet of the movement which is taken mainly from Hebrew dietary laws.
  • "Overstanding" replaces "understanding" to denote an enlightenment which places one in a better position.
  • "Irie" (pronounced eye-ree) is a term used to denote acceptance, positive feelings, or to describe something that is good.
  • "Livication" is substituted for the word "dedication" because Rastas associate ded-ication with death.
  • "Downpression" is used in place of "oppression," the logic being that the pressure is being applied from a position of power to put down the victim.
  • "Zion" is used to describe the Paradise of Jah or Ethiopia.
  • One of the most distinctive modifications in "Iyaric" is the substitution of the pronoun "I-and-I" for other pronouns, usually the first person. "I", as used in the examples above, refers to Jah; therefore, "I-and-I" in the first person includes the presence of the divine within the individual. As "I-and-I" can also refer to "us," "them," or even "you," it is used as a practical linguistic rejection of the separation of the individual from the larger Rastafari community, and Jah himself.

I-tal or ital means Vital. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

"-isms"

Rastafari say that they reject "-isms". They see a wide range of "isms and schisms" in modern society and want no part in them, for example communism and capitalism. They especially reject the word Rastafarianism, because they see themselves as having transcended "isms and schisms". This has created some conflict between Rastas and some members of the academic community studying the Rastafari phenomenon, who insist on calling this religious belief Rastafarianism, in spite of the disapproval this generates within the Rastafari movement. Nevertheless, the practice continues among some scholars, likely because it fits their academic standards of use. However, the study of Rasta using its own terms has occurred and may be gaining acceptance. Most Rastas think that academic analysis is unnecessary.


Ceremonies

There are two types of Rasta religious ceremonies. A reasoning is a simple event where the Rastas gather; smoke ganja; and discuss ethical, social and religious issues. The person honoured by being allowed to light the herb says a short prayer beforehand, and it is passed in a clockwise fashion except in time of war it is passed counterclockwise. A binghi or grounation is a holy day; the name binghi is derived from Nyabinghi, believed to be an ancient, and now extinct, order of militant blacks in eastern Africa that vowed to end oppression. Binghis are marked by much dancing, singing, feasting and the smoking of ganja, and can last for several days. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Nyabinghi is a legendary Amazon queen, who was said to have possesed a Ugandan woman named Muhumusa in the 19th century. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Some important dates when grounations may take place are:

is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Grounation Day (April 21) is an important Rastafari holy day, and second after Coronation Day (November 2). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...

Symbols

Dreadlocks

A man with thick dreadlocks.
A man with thick dreadlocks.
See also: Dreadlocks

The wearing of dreadlocks is very closely associated with the movement, though not universal among, or exclusive to, its adherents. Rastas believe dreadlocks to be supported by Leviticus 21:5 ("They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in the flesh.") and the Nazirite vow in Numbers 6:5 ("All the days of the vow of his separation there shall no razor come upon his head: until the days be fulfilled, in the which he separateth himself unto the LORD, he shall be holy, and shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow.") Part of the reason the hairstyle was adopted was to contrast the hair of black men to the straighter hair of whites. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...


It is believed that the first Rasta dreadlocks were copied from Kenya in the 1940s, when photos of the independence struggle of the feared maumau insurgents, who grew their "dreaded locks" while hiding in the mountains, were published in a major media publication that reached Jamaica. However, there are ascetic groups within a variety of world faiths that have at times worn their hair in this fashion. In addition to the Nazirites of Judaism and the Sadhus of Hinduism, it is worn among some sects of Sufi Islam, notably the Baye Fall sect of Mourides,[18] and by some Ethiopian Orthodox monks in Christianity[19], among others. Some of the very earliest Christians may also have worn this hairstyle; particularly noteworthy are descriptions of James the Just, "brother of Jesus" and first Bishop of Jerusalem, whom Hegesippus (according to Eusebius and Jerome) described as a Nazarite who never once cut his hair. The length of a Rasta's dreads is a measure of wisdom, maturity, and knowledge in that it can indicate not only the Rasta's age, but also his/her time as a Rasta. Combatants Mau Mau British Empire Commanders * Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi * General China (Waruhiu Itote) * Stanley Mathenge * Evelyn Baring(Governor) * General Sir George Erskine Strength Unknown 10,000 regular troops (Africans and Europeans) 21,000 police, 25,000 home guard[1] Casualties 10,527 killed in action;[2] 2,633 captured... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mouridia. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Hegesippus (ca 110 A.D. - ca 180), was a Christian chronicler of the early Christian church and writer countering heresies. ...


Also, according to the Bible, Samson was a Nazarite who had "seven locks". Rastas argue that these "seven locks" could only have been dreadlocks[20], as it is unlikely to refer to seven strands of hair. Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ...


Dreadlocks have also come to symbolize the Lion of Judah (its mane) and rebellion against Babylon. In the United States, several public schools and workplaces have lost lawsuits as the result of banning dreadlocks. Safeway is an early example, and the victory of eight children in a suit against their Lafayette, Louisiana school was a landmark decision in favor of Rastafari rights. The Lion of Judah has its origins in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) where the Israelite tribe of Judah had the lion as its symbol. ... {{This article is about the US-based corporation|Safeway}} Safeway Inc. ... : Hub City : The Heart of Cajun Country United States Louisiana Lafayette 47. ...


Rastafari associate dreadlocks with a spiritual journey that one takes in the process of locking their hair (growing dreadlocks). It is taught that patience is the key to growing dreadlocks, a journey of the mind, soul and spirituality. Its spiritual pattern is aligned with the Rastafari movement. The way to form natural dreadlocks is to allow hair to grow in its natural pattern, without cutting, combing or brushing, but simply to wash it with pure water.


For the Rastas the razor, the scissors and the comb are the three Babylonian or Roman inventions[21]. So close is the association between dreadlocks and Rastafari, that the two are sometimes used synonymously. In reggae music, a follower of Rastafari may be referred to simply as a dreadlocks or Natty (natural) Dread, whilst those non-believers who cut their hair are referred to as baldheads. Collection of Modern Safety Razors - Gillette Fusion Power, Gillette M3Power, Mach3 Turbo Champion, Schick Quattro Chrome, Schick Quattro Power, Gillette Mach3, Gillette Sensor, Schick Xtreme3, Schick Xtreme SubZero, and Schick Xtreme3 Disposables A razor is an edge tool primarily used in shaving. ... For other uses, see Scissors (disambiguation). ... A comb A comb for people with hair loss. ...


As important and connected with the movement as the wearing of dreadlocks is, though, it is not deemed necessary for, or equivalent to, true faith. Popular slogans, often incorporated within Reggae lyrics, include: "Not every dread is a Rasta and not every Rasta is a dread..."; "It's not the dread upon your head, but the love inna your heart, that mek ya Rastaman" (Sugar Minott); and as Morgan Heritage sings: "You don't haffi dread to be Rasta...," and "Children of Selassie I, don't lose your faith; whether you do or don't have your locks 'pon your head..." Morgan Heritage is a reggae band formed by five children of famed reggae-artist Denroy Morgan. ...


Many non-Rastafari of black African descent have also adopted dreads as an expression of pride in their ethnic identity, or simply as a hairstyle, and take a less purist approach to developing and grooming them, adding various substances such as beeswax in an attempt to assist the locking process. The wearing of dreads also has spread among people of other ethnicities, including those whose hair is not naturally suited to the style, and who sometimes go to great lengths to form them. Dreads worn for stylish reasons are sometimes referred to as "bathroom locks," to distinguish them from the kind that are purely natural. Rasta purists also sometimes refer to such dreadlocked individuals as "wolves," as in "a wolf in sheep's clothing," especially when they are seen as trouble-makers who might potentially discredit or infiltrate Rastafari[22].


Ganja

See also: Cannabis (drug)

For Rastas, smoking cannabis, usually known as ganja or herb, is a spiritual act, often accompanied by Bible study; they consider it a sacrament that cleans the body and mind, heals the soul, exalts the consciousness, facilitates peacefulness, brings pleasure, and brings them closer to Jah. The burning of the herb is often said to be essential "for it will sting in the hearts of those that promote and perform evil and wrongs." By the 8th century, cannabis had been introduced by Arab traders to Central and Southern Africa, where it is known as dagga[23], and many Rastas say it is a part of their African culture that they are reclaiming[24]. It is sometimes also referred to as "the healing of the nation", a phraseology adapted from Revelation 22:2[25]. While there is a clear belief in the beneficial qualities of cannabis, it is not compulsory to use it, and there are Rastas who do not. Download high resolution version (1816x2177, 1087 KB)Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing. ... Download high resolution version (1816x2177, 1087 KB)Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


According to many Rastas, the illegality of cannabis in many nations is evidence that persecution of Rastafari is a reality. They are not surprised that it is illegal, seeing it as a powerful substance that opens people's minds to the truth — something the Babylon system, they reason, clearly does not want[26]. They contrast their herb to liquor, which they feel makes people stupid, and is not a part of African culture. World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost...


They believe that the smoking of cannabis enjoys Biblical sanction and is an aid to meditation and religious observance.
Among Biblical verses Rastas believe justify the use of cannabis:

  • Genesis 1:11 "And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so."
  • Genesis 3:18 "... thou shalt eat the herb of the field."
  • Proverbs 15:17 "Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith."[1]
  • Psalms 104:14 "He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man."

According to Rastafarian and other scholars, the etymology of the word "cannabis" and similar terms in all the languages of the Near East may be traced to the Hebrew qaneh bosm קנה-בשם that is one of the herbs God commands Moses to include in his preparation of sacred anointing perfume in Exodus 30:23; the Hebrew term also appears in Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:19; and Song of Songs 4:14. Deuterocanonical and canonical references to the patriarchs Adam, Noah, Abraham and Moses "burning incense before the Lord" are also applied, and many Rastas today refer to cannabis by the term ishence — a slightly changed form of the English word "incense". It is also said that cannabis was the first plant to grow on King Solomon's grave. For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chrism. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...


The migration of many thousands of Hindus from India to the Caribbean in the 20th century may have brought this culture to Jamaica. Many academics point to Indo-Caribbean origins for the ganja sacrament resulting from the importation of Indian migrant workers in a post-abolition Jamaican landscape. “Large scale use of ganja in Jamaica…dated from the importation of indentured Indians…”(Campbell 110). Dreadlocked mystics, often ascetic, known as the Sadhus, have smoked cannabis in India for centuries[27]. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ...


In 1998, then-Attorney General of the United States Janet Reno, though not a judge, opined that Rastafari do not have the religious right to smoke ganja in violation of the United States' drug laws. The position is the same in the United Kingdom, where, in the Court of Appeal case of R. v. Taylor [2002] 1 Cr. App. R. 37, it was held that the UK's prohibition on cannabis use did not contravene the right to freedom of religion conferred under the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Janet Reno (born July 21, 1938) was the first and to date only female Attorney General of the United States (1993–2001). ... For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ...

See also: Spiritual use of cannabis

Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ...

Colours

The colours of Rasta are the colours of the Ethiopian flag - red, gold and green[28]. A fourth colour, black for the skin of Africa's people, is sometimes added. Each colour has its own meaning, and they are very significant for many Rastafari. The black is for the skin of the people. The red is for the blood of all living things in the world. The gold is for the sun and Jah's light that shine on people. The green is for the earth that people walk on, to which Rastas feel a special connection. These colours represent the Rastafari way of life. They were often proudly displayed by Bob Marley, one of the most prominent exponents of the Rastafari movement.


History of the Rastafari movement

Ethiopian world view

Before Garvey there were two major events that led to Rastafari: The history of resistance and the forming of an afrocentric, Ethiopian worldview. In Jamaica they carried a tradition of, what musician Bob Marley referred to as, ’resisting against the system.’”


Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
Main article: Marcus Garvey

Rastas see Marcus Garvey as a prophet, with his philosophy fundamentally shaping the movement, and with many of the early Rastas having started out as Garveyites. He is often seen as a second John the Baptist. One of the most famous prophecies attributed to him involving the coronation of Haile Selassie I was the 1927 pronouncement "Look to Africa, for there a king shall be crowned," though an associate of Garvey's, James Morris Webb, had made very similar public statements as early as 1921.[29][30] Marcus Garvey promoted Black Nationalism, black separatism, and Pan-Africanism: the belief that all black people of the world should join in brotherhood and work to decolonise the continent of Africa — then still controlled by the white colonialist powers. He promoted his cause of black pride throughout the twenties and thirties, and was particularly successful and influential among lower-class blacks in Jamaica and in rural communities. Although his ideas have been hugely influential in the development of Rastafari culture, Garvey never identified himself with the movement, and even wrote an article critical of Haile Selassie for leaving Ethiopia at the time of the Fascist occupation.[31] In addition, his Universal Negro Improvement Association disagreed with Leonard Howell over Howell's teaching that Haile Selassie was the Messiah.[32] Rastafari nonetheless may be seen as an extension of Garveyism. In early Rasta folklore, it is the Black Star Liner (actually a shipping company bought by Garvey to encourage repatriation to Liberia) that takes them home to Africa. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (566x850, 94 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marcus Garvey ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (566x850, 94 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marcus Garvey ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks a separate homeland for black people, particularly African-Americans. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Leonard P. Howell (1898 - ?) is the founder of the Rastafarian religious movement. ...


Early written foundations

Although not strictly speaking a 'Rastafarian' document, The Holy Piby written by Robert Athlyi Rogers from Anguilla in the 1920s, is acclaimed by many Rastafarians as a formative and primary source. Robert Athlyi Rogers founded an Afrocentric religion known as "Athlicanism" in the US and West Indies in the 1920s. Rogers' religious movement, the Afro-Athlican Constructive Church, saw Ethiopians (in the Biblical sense of all Black Africans) as the chosen people of God, and proclaimed Marcus Garvey, the prominent Black Nationalist, an apostle. The church preached self-reliance and self-determination for Africans. —Bkell 09:34, 15 January 2006 (UTC) This book is considered to have deeply influenced the Rastafari movement, who see Haile Selassie as God, and Marcus Garvey as his prophet. ...


The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, written during the 1920s by a preacher called Fitz Balintine Pettersburg, is a surrealistic stream-of-consciousness polemic against the white colonial power structure that is also considered formative, a palimpsest of Afrocentric thought, brimming with rage and energy. The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, written during the 1920s by a proto-Rastafarian preacher, Fitz Balintine Pettersburg, is of historical and religious significance to Rastafarians. ...


The first document to appear that can be labelled as truly Rastafari was Leonard P. Howell's The Promise Key, written using the pen name G.G. [for Gangun-Guru] Maragh, in the early 1930s. In it, he claims to have witnessed the Coronation of the Emperor and Empress on 2 November, 1930 in Addis Ababa, and proclaims the doctrine that H.I.M. Ras Tafari is the true Head of Creation and that the King of England is an imposter. It was for writing this tract that Howell was jailed on charges of sedition. However, it seems that several other street preachers in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean had all independently come to this same conclusion, at roughly the same time (1930); therefore Howell cannot be credited with being the sole founder of the movement. The Promise Key is a proto-Rastafari movement tract by Leonard P. Howell, a Jamaican preacher. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


Early years

Cover of Time Magazine, 3 November, 1935
Selassie I in the 1930s
Selassie I in the 1930s

Emperor Haile Selassie I, whom some of the Rastafarians call Jah, was crowned "King of Kings, Elect of God, and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah" in Addis Ababa on November 2, 1930. The event created great publicity throughout the world, including in Jamaica, and particularly through two consecutive Time magazine articles about the coronation (he was later named Time's Person of the Year for 1935, the first Black person to appear on the cover), as well as two consecutive National Geographic issues around the same time. Haile Selassie almost immediately gained a following as both God and King amongst poor Jamaicans, who came to be known as Rastafarians, and who looked to their Bibles, and saw what they believed to be the fulfilling of many prophecies from the book of Revelation. As Ethiopia was the only African country to be free from colonialism, and Haile Selassie was the only black leader accepted among the kings and queens of Europe, the early Rastas viewed him with great reverence. Image File history File links 1101301103_400. ... Image File history File links 1101301103_400. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 728 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 728 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


In 1934 Leonard Howell was the first Rasta to be persecuted, being charged with sedition for refusing loyalty to the King of England George V. The British government would not tolerate Jamaicans loyal to Haile Selassie in what was then regarded as their colony. Howell was among the most prominent of the early leaders of Rastafari. He was imprisoned for two years, and then founded the Pinnacle commune. Leonard P. Howell (1898 - ?) is the founder of the Rastafarian religious movement. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... pinnacle Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk, Ostend, Belgium A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather, pinna) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. ...


In 1954, the Pinnacle commune was destroyed by Jamaican authorities. By the 1950s, Rastafari's message of racial pride and unity had unnerved the ruling class of Jamaica, and confrontations between the poor black Rastas and middle-class police were common. Many Rastas were beaten, and some killed. Others were humiliated by having their sacred dreadlocks cut off.


On October 4, 1963, Haile Selassie addressed the United Nations with his famous peace speech, that Bob Marley later used as the basis for the lyrics to his song War. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ...


Visit of Selassie I to Jamaica

Haile Selassie I had already met with several Rasta elders in Addis Ababa in 1961, giving them gold medals, and had allowed West Indians of African descent to settle on his personal land in Shashamane in the 1950s. The first actual Rastafarian settler, Papa Noel Dyer, arrived in September 1965, having hitch-hiked all the way from England. For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Shashamane (or Shashemene) is a town in the Ethiopian province of Shoa, about 150 miles from the capital of Addis Ababa. ...


Haile Selassie visited Jamaica on April 21, 1966. Somewhere between one and two hundred thousand Rastafari from all over Jamaica descended on Kingston airport having heard that the man whom they considered to be God was coming to visit them. They waited at the airport smoking a great amount of cannabis and playing drums. When Haile Selassie arrived at the airport he delayed disembarking from the aeroplane for an hour until Mortimer Planno, a well-known Rasta, personally welcomed him. From then on, the visit was a success. Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife, converted to the Rastafari faith after seeing Haile Selassie; she has stated that she saw stigmata appear on his person, and was instantly convinced of his divinity. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Manley International Airport (IATA: KIN, ICAO: MKJP) is an airport in Kingston, Jamaica. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Mortimo Kumi Planno, (September 6, 1929, Cuba – March 6, 2006, Kingston, Jamaica) was a renowned drummer and Rastafari elder and considered one of the ideological founders of this back-to-Africa movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see stigma and stigmata (disambiguation). ...


The great significance of this event in the development of the Rastafari movement should not be underestimated. Having been outcasts in society, they gained a temporary respectability for the first time. By making Rasta more acceptable, it opened the way for the commercialisation of reggae, leading in turn to the further global spread of Rastafari. Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ...


Because of Haile Selassie's visit, April 21 is celebrated as Grounation Day. It was during this visit that Selassie I famously told the Rastafari community leaders that they should not emigrate to Ethiopia until they had first liberated the people of Jamaica. This dictum came to be known as "liberation before repatriation." is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grounation Day (April 21) is an important Rastafari holy day, and second after Coronation Day (November 2). ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...


Walter Rodney

In 1968, Walter Rodney, a Guyanese national, author, and professor at the University of the West Indies, published a pamphlet titled The Groundings with My Brothers which among other matters, including a summary of African history, discussed his experiences with the Rastafarians. It became a benchmark in the Caribbean Black Power movement. Combined with Rastafarian teachings, both philosophies spread rapidly to various Caribbean nations, including Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, and Grenada. Walter Rodney (March 23, 1942 - June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


Music

Music of Jamaica

Kumina - Niyabinghi - Mento - Ska - Rocksteady - Reggae - Sound systems - Lovers rock - Dub - Dancehall - Dub poetry - Toasting - Raggamuffin - Roots reggae Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... Niyabinghi chanting typically includes recitation of the Psalms, but may also include variations of well-known Christian hymns and adopted by Rastafarians. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ...

Anglophone Caribbean music
Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Bahamas - Barbados - Bermuda - Caymans - Grenada - Jamaica - Montserrat - St. Kitts and Nevis - St. Vincent and the Grenadines - Trinidad and Tobago - Turks and Caicos - Virgin Islands
Sound samples
Other Caribbean music
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Hawaii - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - St. Lucia - United States - United Kingdom

Music has long played an integral role in Rastafari, and the connection between the movement and various kinds of music has become well known, due to the international fame of reggae musicians like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. Bad Brains, a legendary hardcore punk band, are all Rastafarian. The Cayman Islands are a Caribbean island chain, currently a territory of the United Kingdom. ... Grenada is a small Caribbean island nation that has produced several major musicians, including David Emmanuel, one of the best-selling reggae performers ever, and Mighty Sparrow, a legendary calypsonian. ... Timeline and Samples Pop genres Calypso - Chutney - Dancehall - Dub - Junkanoo - Ragga - Rapso - Reggae - Ripsaw - Rocksteady - Scratch - Ska - Soca - Spouge - Steelpan Other islands Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - Saint Lucia The Turks and Caicos Islands are an overseas dependency of the... 1966 in music Download sample of Alton Ellis rocksteady track Girl Youve Got a Date. Download sample of Cincinatti Kid by Prince Buster, a legendary ska artist. ... Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ...


Niyabinghi chants are played at worship ceremonies called grounations, that include drumming, chanting and dancing, along with prayer and ritual smoking of cannabis. The name Nyabinghi comes from an East African movement from the 1850s to the 1950s that was led by people who militarily opposed European imperialism. This form of nyabinghi was centered around Muhumusa, a healing woman from Uganda who organized resistance against German colonialists. The British in Africa later led efforts against Nyabinghi, classifying it as witchcraft through the Witchcraft Ordinance of 1912. In Jamaica, the concepts of Nyabinghi were appropriated for similar anti-colonial efforts, and it is often danced to invoke the power of Jah against an oppressor. Niyabinghi chanting typically includes recitation of the Psalms, but may also include variations of well-known Christian hymns and adopted by Rastafarians. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Cannabis smoking is the process of inhaling the smoke created by burning cannabis, mostly either the flowering buds of, or hashish, a preparation of, the cannabis plant. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Muhumusa, (?-1945) was a feared leader of the east African Nyabingi cult which was influential in Rwanda and Uganda from 1850 to 1950. ... Witch redirects here. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ...


The drum is a symbol of the Africanness of Rastafari, and some mansions assert that Jah's spirit of divine energy is present in the drum. African music survived slavery because many slaveowners encouraged it as a method of keeping morale high. Afro-Caribbean music arose with the influx of influences from the native peoples of Jamaica, as well as the European slaveowners. Slave redirects here. ...


Another style of Rastafarian music is called burru drumming, first played in the Parish of Clarendon, Jamaica, and then in West Kingston. Burru was later introduced to the burgeoning Rasta community in Kingston by a Jamaican musician named Count Ossie. He mentored many influential Jamaican ska, rock steady, and reggae musicians. Through his tutelage, they began combining New Orleans R&B, folk mento, jonkanoo, kumina, and revival zion into a unique sound. The burru style, which centers on three drums - the bass, the alto fundeh, and the repeater - would later be copied by hip hop DJs.[33] Clarendon is said to be the third largest parish in Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Count Ossie, born Oswald Williams, (1926, St. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Jonkanoo (also spelled Jonkonnu or John Canoe) is a masquerade festival/parade from Jamaica, believed to be of West African origin. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ...


Maroons, or communities of escaped slaves, kept purer African musical traditions alive in the interior of Jamaica, and were also contributing founders of Rastafari. This article needs cleanup. ...


Reggae

Main article: Reggae

Reggae was born amidst poor blacks in Trenchtown, the main ghetto of Kingston, Jamaica, who listened to radio stations from the United States. Jamaican musicians, many of them Rastas, soon blended traditional Jamaican folk music and drumming with American R&B, and jazz into ska, that later developed into reggae under the influence of soul. Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Trenchtown is a neighbourhood located in Kingston, the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... This article is about the genre. ...


It was not until the late 1970s that Jamaican Radio had an original Reggae radio show called Dread at the Controls on JBC (Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation). The Dread at the Controls Reggae radio format was created and pioneered by Michael Campbell aka Mikey Dread It was broadcast from midnight until 4.30am. The show became a platform and outlet through which the Reggae artist and musician’s music could reach the public, as radio at that time was primarily devoted to foreign music. Mikey Dread, 2006 Mikey Dread Michael Campbell (born 1954 in Port Antonio, Jamaica), better known as Mikey Dread, is a Jamaican singer, producer, and broadcaster. ...


Reggae began to enter international consciousness in the early 1970s, and Rastafari mushroomed in popularity internationally, largely due to the fame of Bob Marley, who actively and devoutly preached Rastafari, incorporating nyabinghi and Rastafarian chanting into his music, lyrics and album covers. Songs like "Rastaman Chant" led to the movement and reggae music being seen as closely intertwined in the consciousness of audiences across the world (especially among oppressed and poor groups of African Americans and Native Americans, First Nations Canadians, Australian Aborigines and New Zealand Māori, and throughout most of Africa). Other famous reggae musicians with strong Rastafarian elements in their music include Peter Tosh, Freddie McGregor, Toots and The Maytals, Burning Spear, Black Uhuru, Ras Michael, Prince Lincoln Thompson, Bunny Wailer, Prince Far I, Israel Vibration, The Congos, Mikey Dread and literally hundreds more. This article is about the reggae musician. ... Nyabinghi is a legendary Amazon queen, who was said to have possesed a Ugandan woman named Muhumusa in the 19th century. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Singer, musician and producer Freddie McGregor was born on 27 June 1956 in Clarendon, Jamaica. ... Frederick Toots Hibbert and the Maytals are considered legends of reggae and ska music. ... Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ... Ras Michael is a famous reggae player. ... Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, musician and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a member of the Rastafari movement. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Prince Far I Prince Far I (1945–1983) was a reggae producer and singer and a Rastafarian who was born in Spanish Town, Jamaica. ... Israel Vibration is a reggae band, featuring a vocal harmony trio. ... Heart of the Congos The Congos were the reggae duo Ashanti Roy Johnson tenor, and Cedric Myton falsetto, both born in 1947. ... Mikey Dread, 2006 Mikey Dread Michael Campbell (born 1954 in Port Antonio, Jamaica), better known as Mikey Dread, is a Jamaican singer, producer, and broadcaster. ...


Reggae music expressing Rasta doctrine

The first reggae single that sang about Rastafari and reached Number 1 in the Jamaican charts was Bongo Man by Little Roy in 1969.[34] Early Rasta reggae musicians (besides Marley) whose music expresses Rastafari doctrine well are Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer (in Blackheart Man), Prince Far I, Linval Thompson, Ijahman Levi (especially the first 4 albums), Misty-in-Roots (Live), The Congos (Heart of the Congos), The Rastafarians, The Abyssinians, Culture, Big Youth, and Ras Michael And The Sons Of Negus. The Jamaican jazz percussionist Count Ossie, who had played on a number of ska and reggae recordings, recorded albums with themes relating to Rasta history, doctrine, and culture. Little Roy is a Jamaican reggae artist, born cerca 1953. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Prince Far I Prince Far I (1945–1983) was a reggae producer and singer and a Rastafarian who was born in Spanish Town, Jamaica. ... Linval Thompson is a reggae and dub artist and producer. ... Ijahman Levis first album, Haile I Hymn, was released on Island Records in 1978. ... Misty-in-Roots began life as a Southall based British roots reggae band in the late nineteen seventies. ... Heart of the Congos The Congos were the reggae duo Ashanti Roy Johnson tenor, and Cedric Myton falsetto, both born in 1947. ... The Rastafarians is a California-based reggae group founded by Jamaican natives Michael Ashley aka Haile Maskel (bass and lead vocals) and Patrick Houchen aka Shaka Man (drums and lead vocals), and Californian Herb Daly (guitar) in Santa Cruz, California in 1980. ... Culture is a Jamaican roots rock reggae group founded in 1976. ... Big Youth (Manley Augustus Buchanan) is a Jamaican DJ in the toasting tradition, mostly known for his albums during the 1970s. ... Ras Michael is a famous reggae player. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... Count Ossie, born Oswald Williams, (1926, St. ...


Rastafari doctrine as developed in the '80s was further expressed musically by a number of other prominent artists, such as Burning Spear, Steel Pulse, Third World, The Gladiators, Black Uhuru, Aswad, and Israel Vibration. Rastafari ideas have spread beyond the Jamaican community to other countries including Russia, where artists such as Jah Division write songs about Jah. Afro-American hardcore punk band Bad Brains are notable followers of the Rastafari movement and have written songs ("I Against I", etc.) that promote the doctrine. Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ... Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The Gladiators may refer to: The Gladiators (novel), a 1939 novel by Arthur Koestler The Gladiators (film), a 1969 film by Peter Watkins The Gladiators (band), a Jamaican reggae band The UK television series Gladiators See also: Gladiator (disambiguation) Category: ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ... Formed by immigrants from the Caribbean in West London in 1975, British reggae group Aswad (Black in arabic) are intriguing in that they have performed (according to critics) better music as they added more soul and R&B influences to it. ... Israel Vibration is a reggae band, featuring a vocal harmony trio. ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ...


In the 21st century, Rastafari sentiments are spread through roots reggae and dancehall, subgroups of reggae music, with many of their most important proponents promoting the Rastafari religion, such as Capleton, Sizzla, Anthony B, Barrington Levy, Turbulence, Jah Mason, Pressure, Midnite, Natural Black, Daweh Congo, Luciano, Cocoa Tea, or Richie Spice. Several of these acts have gained mainstream success and frequently appear on the popular music charts. Most recently artists such as Damian Marley (son of Bob Marley) have blended hip-hop with reggae to re-energize classic Rastafari issues such as social injustice, revolution and the honour and responsibility of parenthood using contemporary musical style. Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... | Died = | Origin = [imortal[Image:Flag of Jamaica. ... // Sizzla Kalonji is the stage name of Miguel Orlando Collins (born 17 April 1976), a reggae musician. ... Anthony B is the stage name of Keith Blair (born March 31, 1976), a Jamaican musician. ... Barrington Levy (born 30 April 1964, in Clarendon, Jamaica) is a reggae and dancehall recording artist. ... Midnite is a landmark modern roots reggae band that hails from St. ... Natural Black is a reggae singer/DJ from Guyana, birthname Mortimer Softley. ... Luciano (born Jepther McClymont on October 20, 1964 in Jamaica) is a Jamaican Roots Reggae artist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Damian Marley (born July 21, 1978 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a three time Grammy-winning reggae artist and is the youngest son of reggae legend Bob Marley. ...


Berlin-based dub techno label "Basic Channel" has subsidiary labels called "Rhythm & Sound" and "Burial Mix" whose lyrics strongly focus on many aspects of Rastafari culture and ideology, including the acceptance of Haile Selassie I. Notable tracks include "Jah Rule", "Mash Down Babylon", "We Be Troddin'", and "See Mi Yah". Basic Channel is a minimal techno duo of Moritz Von Oswald and Mark Ernestus that originated in Berlin, Germany in 1993. ...


Jamaican reggae artist Jah Cure also praises Jah and the Rastafari movement in many of his songs, as do two Sinead O'Connor rastafari/reggae CDs - "Throw Down Your Arms" and "Theology". Jah Cure Jah Cure (real name Siccature Alcock) is a Jamaican reggae musician. ... Sinéad OConnor (born December 8, 1966) is an Irish pop singer and songwriter. ...


There are several Jamaican films that are paramount to the history of Rastafari, such as Rockers, The Harder They Come, Land of Look Behind and Countryman. Rockers is a 1978 Jamaican film. ... The Harder They Come is a 1972 Jamaican crime film directed by Perry Henzell. ...


Rastafari today

Rastafarian, Jamaica
Rastafarian, Jamaica

By claiming Haile Selassie I as the returned messiah, Rastafari may be seen as a new religious movement that has arisen from Judaism and Christianity. Rastafari is not a highly organized religion; it is a movement and an ideology. Many Rastas say that it is not a "religion" at all, but a "Way of Life". Most Rastas do not claim any sect or denomination, and thus encourage one another to find faith and inspiration within themselves, although some do identify strongly with one of the "mansions of Rastafari" — the three most prominent of these being the Nyahbinghi, the Bobo Ashanti and the Twelve Tribes of Israel. In 1996, the International Rastafari Development Society was given consultative status by the United Nations.[35] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 683 pixels, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 683 pixels, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Haile Selassie I Mansions of Rastafari are branches of the Rastafari movement. ... Consultative Status is a phrase whose use can be traced to the founding of the United Nations and is used within the UN community to refer to Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic & Social Council. ... UN redirects here. ...


By the end of the twentieth century, women played a greater role in the expression of the Rastafari movement. In the early years, and in a few of the stricter "mansions" (denominations), menstruating women were subordinated and excluded from religious and social ceremonies. To a large degree, women feel more freedom to express themselves now; thus they contribute greatly to the movement. Rastas oppose birth control, abortion and homosexuality on Biblical grounds.[citation needed]


Today, Rastas are not just Black African, but also include other diverse ethnic groups including Native American, White, Māori, Indonesian, Thai, etc. Additionally, in the 1990s, the word Rastaman became part of the vocabulary of the Post-Soviet states. After the fall of the USSR, a youth subculture of cannabis users formed, primarily in Russia and Ukraine, many of whom began to call themselves Rastamany ("растаманы", in plural).[36] They adopted a number of symbols of Rastafari culture, including Reggae music (especially honouring Bob Marley), the green-gold-red colours, and sometimes dreadlocks[37], but not Afrocentrism (most are ethnically Slavic). Many of them protest against what they call "Babylon". A Russian Reggae scene has developed that is only partially similar to common reggae. Rastamany have their own folklore, publish literature and records, as well as create websites and form online communities. Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... A Youth subculture is youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors and interests. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ...


St Agnes Place contained a Rastafari place of worship in London until it was evicted in 2006.[38] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


A small but devoted Rasta community developed in Japan in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Rasta shops selling natural foods, Reggae recordings, and other Rasta-related items sprang up in Tokyo, Osaka, and other cities. For several years, "Japan Splashes" or open-air Reggae concerts were held in various locations throughout Japan. For a review by two sociologists of how the Japanese Rasta movement can be explained in the context of modern Japanese society, see Dean W. Collinwood and Osamu Kusatsu, "Japanese Rastafarians: Non-Conformity in Modern Japan," The Study of International Relations, No. 26, Tokyo: Tsuda College, March 2000 (research conducted in 1986 and 1987).


See also

This article is about the reggae musician. ... Haile Selassie I Mansions of Rastafari are branches of the Rastafari movement. ... Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Awake Zion is Monica Haims 2005 documentary that draws a connection between Jews and Rastafarians. ... Many religions, including Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, and especially Jainism, teach that ideally life should always be valued and not willfully destroyed for unnecessary human gratification. ...

References

  1. ^ "Dread Jesus": A New View of the Rastafari Movement
  2. ^ the Rasta name for God incarnate, from a shortened form of Jehovah found in Psalms 68:4 in the King James Version of the Bible
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  4. ^ Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader (anthology of scholarly papers) p. 37.
  5. ^ The Ganja Complex: Rastafari and Marijuana by Ansley Hamid (2002)
  6. ^ Chanting Down Babylon, p. 37
  7. ^ Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers by Ennis Barrington Edmonds, p. 3.
  8. ^ Edmonds, p. 57.
  9. ^ Counter-Hegemony and Foreign Policy: the Dialectics of Marginalized and Global Forces in Jamaica by Randolph B. Persaud, p. 110.
  10. ^ Edmonds, p. 54; Chanting Down Babylon p. 342-343.
  11. ^ Edmonds, p. 121.
  12. ^ Amharic title of nobility corresponding to Prince or Duke; also having the meaning "Head".
  13. ^ Dread, The Rastafari of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  14. ^ Nation Dance: Religion, Identity, and Cultural Difference in the Caribbean by Patrick Taylor, p. 72.
  15. ^ Dread, The Rastafari of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  16. ^ The Rastafarians by Leonard E. Barrett, p. 252.
  17. ^ Dread, The Rastafari of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  18. ^ Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal, p. 167 by Leonardo Alfonso Villalón 1995
  19. ^ Neil J. Savinsky in Chanting Down Babylon p. 133, 143 fn.#37; citing David Buxton, The Abyssinians, p. 78.
  20. ^ The Kebra Negest: The Lost Bible of Rastafarian Wisdom and Faith, p. 49
  21. ^ cf. Chanting Down Babylon p. 32; The Kebra Nagast: The Lost Bible of Rastafarian Wisdom and Faith by Gerlad Hausman p. 48; Rastafarianismby Gerhardus Cornelis Oosthuizen p. 16; An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices p. 155.
  22. ^ Chanting Down Babylon, p. 2
  23. ^ Hamid, The Ganja Complex: Rastafari and Marijuana, introduction, p. xxxii.
  24. ^ Chanting Down Babylon, p. 130 ff.
  25. ^ Rastafari and Other African-Caribbean Worldviews by Barry Chevannes, p. 35, 85; Edmonds, p. 52
  26. ^ Edmonds, p. 61
  27. ^ Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God: Retracing the Ramayana Through India, Jonah Blank, p. 89.
  28. ^ BBC - Religion & Ethics - Rastafari at a glance
  29. ^ http://rastaites.com/repatriationnews/09repatriation.htm
  30. ^ IRIE Barbados Groundation Report
  31. ^ http://www.jamaicans.com/culture/rasta/keyfigures.htm
  32. ^ http://www.jamaicans.com/culture/rasta/keyfigures.htm
  33. ^ Jeff Chang Can't Stop, Won't Stop. 2005: St. Martin's Press. Pages 24-25.
  34. ^ Mark Lamaar, Radio 2
  35. ^ E/1996/102 Report of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations
  36. ^ Russian Reggae Rasta Roots — a 1997 report on Russian Rasta by Shohdy Naguib
  37. ^ The eXile Field Guide to Moscow: Russian Rasta — a satiric account about Russian Rastaman by The eXile
  38. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Anger amid Rastafarian temple raid
  • Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  • Experience, by Lincoln Thompson
  • Soul Rebels: The Rastafari, by William F Lewis
  • Rastafari: A Way of Life, by Tracy Nicholas ISBN 0-948-39016-6
  • Book of Memory: A Rastafari Testimony, composed by Prince Elijah Williams and edited by Michael Kuelker ISBN 0-9746021-0-8

This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... This article is about reading of the name of God in Hebrew scripture. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The eXile, founded in 1997, is a Moscow-based English-language biweekly free newspaper, aimed at the citys expatriate community, which combines outrageous, sometimes satirical, content with investigative reporting. ... For other uses, see Joseph Owens. ... Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, musician and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a member of the Rastafari movement. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rastafari Movement (847 words)
The Rastafaris draws their beliefs from the bible which they believe to have been incorrectly translated from the Aramaic and, for that reason, to contain some mistakes.
The family structure is a patriarchal one and therefore woman is subordinated to man, though she might, often, be the earner of the house.
In 1954 this community was dismembered by the police, which, in fact contributed to the dissemination of rastafari ideas.
Rastafarianism (598 words)
Rastafari is a movement of Black people who know Africa as the birthplace of Mankind and the throne of Emperor Haile Selassie I -- a 20th Century Manifestation of God who has lighted our pathway towards righteousness, and is therefore worthy of reverence.
The Rastafari movement grew out of the darkest depression that the descendants of African slaves in Jamaica have ever lived in -- the stink and crumbling shacks of zinc and cardboard that the tattered remnants of humanity built on the rotting garbage of the dreadful Dungle on Kingston's waterfront.
The movement spread quickly in the Caribbean and was hugely attractive to the local fl youths, many of whom saw it as an extension of their adolescent rebellion from school and parental authority.
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