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Encyclopedia > Rasputin
Grigori Rasputin
Grigori Rasputin

Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: Григо́рий Ефи́мович Распу́тин) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 186929 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the later days of Russia's Romanov dynasty. Rasputin played an important role in the lives of the Tsar Nicholas II, his wife the Tsarina Alexandra, and their only son the Tsarevich Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia coming from Queen Victoria. Download high resolution version (419x642, 59 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Grigori Rasputin ... Download high resolution version (419x642, 59 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Grigori Rasputin ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Flammarion Woodcut can be taken to illustrate the Gnostics mystical search for spiritual worlds by circumventing the constraints of materialism. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (Russian: (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... A Tsarina, also spelled czarina, is an English arrangement of Russian and Bulgarian word цари́ца (tsaritsa or czaritsa), which was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ... Princess Alix of Hesse, as Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (1872-1918) Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice, 6 June 1872 - 17 July 1918), was the consort of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Tsarevich Alexei (1904-1918) Tsesarevich (Tsarevich) Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (In Russian Царевич Алексей Николаевич) (August 12, 1904 - July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was a Tsarevich of Russia and was the youngest child of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Alexandra of Hesse. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty. ...


Rasputin has often been called the Mad Monk or Icha, although the origins of the second name are not known. He was never a monk and made no secret of being married. Some considered him to be a "strannik" (religious pilgrim) or even a starets (ста́рец) ("elder", a title usually reserved for monk-confessors) and believed him to be a psychic and faith healer. He can be considered one of the more controversial characters in 20th century history, although Rasputin is viewed by most historians today as a scapegoat. He played a small but spectacular role in the downfall of the Romanov dynasty. A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... For albums named Pilgrim, see Pilgrim (album). ... St Sergii Radonezhsky was one of the most famous of startsy. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


For a great while, Rasputin's birth date remained questionable. "It is still not known with any certainty when Rasputin was born, and all the books which deal with him and his career give differing dates; not even his biographers — and there have been many — have been able to agree. The closest one can come with certainty is sometime between the years 1863 and 1873." (Heinz Liepman, Rasputin and the Fall of Imperial Russia, 21). It was not until recently that new documents surfaced revealing Rasputin's birthdate as January 10, 1869 O.S. (Edvard Radzinsky, The Rasputin File, 25).

Contents


Early life

Grigori Efimovich Rasputin was possibly born a peasant in a small Siberian village along the Tura River called Pokrovskoye. This village was located in the Tobolsk guberniya (now in Tyumen Oblast, Russia). When he was around the age of eighteen, he spent three months in the Verkhoturye Monastery. There, he joined the Khlysty, a renegade sect of Russian Orthodox creed. Shortly after leaving the Monastery, he visited a holy man named Makariy, whose hut was nearby. Makariy had an enormous influence on Rasputin, who would model himself after the older man. Rasputin married Praskovia Fyodorovna in 1889 and had three children with her (and another child with someone else). In 1901, he left his home in Pokrovskoye as a strannik, or pilgrim. During the time of his journeying, he traveled to Greece and Jerusalem. In 1903, Rasputin arrived in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), where he declared himself a starets, or holy man, with healing and prophetical powers. Image File history File links Cap128. ... Image File history File links Cap128. ... Tura (Тура́), river in Russia, left tributary of Tobol. ... View of Tobolsk in the 1910s. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Tyumen Oblast Coat of Arms Tyumen Oblast flag Tyumen Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in Urals Federal District. ... Khlysts or Khlysty (Хлысты in Russian), a distorted name, which comes from the word хлыст (khlyst), meaning a whip; the original name was a made-up word Христы (Khristy), or Christians), an underground sect in the late 17th, 18th, 19th and early 20th century that split off from the Russian... For albums named Pilgrim, see Pilgrim (album). ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα; Latin Aelia Capitolina) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ...


Healer to the Tsarevich

There are many theories as to Rasputin's early life, but the most widely accepted by historians is that of George Still, a British historian.


Rasputin was wandering as a pilgrim in Siberia when he heard reports of Tsarevich Alexei's haemophilia in 1904. The disease had been inherited from his great-grandmother (Queen Victoria). When the young Tsarevich got a bruise after he fell off of a horse, he suffered from internal bleeding for days while vacationing with his family. The Tsarina, looking everywhere for help, asked her best friend Anna Vyrubova to secure the help of the charismatic peasant healer in 1905. He was said to possess the ability to heal through prayer, and he was indeed able to give the boy some relief. Skeptics have claimed that he did so by hypnosis, though during a particularly grave crisis, Rasputin, from his home in Siberia, was believed to have eased the suffering of the tsarevich (in Saint Petersburg) through prayer. His practical advice, such as "Don't let the doctors bother him too much, let him rest," may also have been of great assistance in allowing Alexei and his worried mother to relax, so that the child's own natural healing process might take place. Others believe he used leeches to stop the boy's bleeding for the moment; however, this is unlikely to have been successful, as leech saliva contains hirudin and other natural anticoagulants. Every time the boy had an injury causing internal or external bleeding, the Tsarina contacted Rasputin, the Tsarevich subsequently got better, and this made it seem as if Rasputin was effectively healing him. Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the eminent Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June, 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January, 1877, until her death in 1901. ... Anna Alexandrovna Vyrubova, neé Taneyeva (Russian: Анна Александровна Вырубова, Танеева) (16 July 1884 — 20 July 1964, Helsinki), was a lady-in-waiting, best friend and confidante to Tsaritsa Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Magdalene in prayer. ... Hypnotic Seance, by Richard Bergh Hypnosis is understood to be a psychological condition in which an individual may be induced to show apparent differences in behavior and thinking. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This page is about the blood sucking animal leech. ... Hirudin is a naturally ocurring peptide in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) that has a blood anticoagulant property. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ...


It has also been proposed [1] that the medical treatment which was halted due to Rasputin's intervention included aspirin, then a newly-available (1899) "wonder drug" for treatment of pain. Since, as was only discovered in 1971, aspirin is an anticoagulant, this would have increased the blood flow which was causing Alexei's joint swelling and pain. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ... The panacea (pan-ah-SEE-ah), one of the goals sought by the alchemists, was a remedy that would cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ...


The Tsar referred to Rasputin as "our friend" and a "holy man", perhaps a sign of the trust the family put in him. Rasputin had considerable personal and political influence on Alexandra, especially after Alexei encountered a bee attack in the summer of 1905. Rasputin allegedly ran to the boy's help and yelled at the bees, "ужальте его и вы умрётe!" ("Sting him and you will die!"). The bees left, probably because their hive was no longer being threatened, but the story became a legend illustrating Rasputin's powers. His position within the church further enabled him to influence young Alexei; it was verified that before the pair were introduced, the Tsarina lamented her son "made Jesus sad" with his blasphemous ways. However, upon meeting Rasputin, she proclaimed exultantly that Alexei had "learned the error of his ways". Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees (Apoidea superfamily) are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Tsar and Tsarina considered him to be a man of God and a religious prophet, and Alexandra believed God spoke to her through Rasputin. This relationship can also be viewed in the context of the very strong, traditional, age-old bond between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian leadership. Another important factor was probably the Tsarina's German-Protestant origin: she was highly fascinated by her new Orthodox religion — which puts a great deal of faith in the healing power of prayer — but seems to have lacked some discernment regarding its practices. Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Discernment is a term used in the Catholic Church, and other Christian traditions to describe the process of ascertaining Gods will for ones life. ...


Controversy

Rasputin in the meantime became a controversial figure, leading a scandalous personal life with his mostly female followers from Saint Petersburg high society. Furthermore, he was frequently seen picking up prostitutes, and drinking himself into a stupor, not arriving home until early in the morning. He was unsavory, ill-mannered, bathed infrequently, and often exhibited outrageous behavior in public. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...


While fascinated by him, the Saint Petersburg elite did not widely accept Rasputin. He did not fit with the royal family.


Rasputin and the Russian Orthodox Church had a very tense relationship. The Holy Synod frequently attacked Rasputin, and because of this, a lot of fakelore about his life was deliberately spread by the competing religion. Much anecdotal evidence about Rasputin's life should be treated skeptically. However, because Rasputin was a court official, he and his apartment were under 24-hour surveillance; accordingly, there exists some credible evidence about his lifestyle in the form of the famous "staircase notes", reports from police spies which were not only given to the Tsar, but published in the newspapers. In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ... Fakelore is inauthentic, manufactured folklore which is created in the hope that it will be accepted as genuine and/or legitimate. ...


According to Rasputin's daughter, Maria, Rasputin did "look into" the Khlysty sect, and rejected it. While the Western world is particularly interested in the sexual practices of this sect (supposedly tied to a belief that one can only obtain a connection to God through sinning), Rasputin was particularly appalled by the belief that grace is found through self-flagellation. Khlysts or Khlysty (Хлысты in Russian), a distorted name, which comes from the word хлыст (khlyst), meaning a whip; the original name was a made-up word Христы (Khristy), or Christians), an underground sect in the late 17th, 18th, 19th and early 20th century that split off from the Russian... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...


Like most Orthodox Christians, Rasputin was brought up with the belief that the body is a sacred gift from God. Attaining divine grace through sin seems to have been one of the central secret doctrines that Rasputin preached to (and practised with) his inner circle of society ladies. The idea that one can attain grace through correction of sin is not unique. It is also understood that sin is an inescapable part of the human condition, and the responsibility of a believer is to be keenly aware of his sins and be willing to confess them, thereby attaining humility. SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ...

A 1916 cartoon suggesting Rasputin's influence over the Tsar and Tsarina
A 1916 cartoon suggesting Rasputin's influence over the Tsar and Tsarina

During World War I he became a focus of accusations of unpatriotic influence at court; the unpopular Tsarina was of German descent, and her "friend" Rasputin was accused of being a spy in German employ. A 1916 cartoon of Rasputin This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A 1916 cartoon of Rasputin This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Secret Agent is a 1936 British film directed by Alfred Hitchcock based on a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. ...


When Rasputin expressed an interest in going to the front to bless the troops early in the war, the Commander-in Chief, Grand Duke Nicholas, promised to hang him if he showed up. Rasputin then claimed that he had a revelation that the Russian armies would not be successful until the Tsar personally took command. With this, the ill-prepared Nicholas proceded to take personal command of the Russian army, with dire consequences for himself and for Russia. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main...


While Tsar Nicholas II was away at the front, Rasputin's influence over Tsarina Alexandra increased immensely. He soon became her confidant and personal advisor. He also convinced her to fill some government offices with his own handpicked candidates. To further advance his power, Rasputin slept with upper-class women in exchange for granting political favors. Because of World War I, and to a lesser extent because of Rasputin, Russia’s economy was declining at a rapid rate. Many placed the blame with Alexandra, and with Rasputin, because of his influence over her. An example:


"Vladimir Purishkevich was an outspoken member of the Duma. On November 19, 1916, Purishkevich made a rousing speech in the Duma, in which he stated, 'The tsar’s ministers who have been turned into marionettes, marionettes whose threads have been taken firmly in hand by Rasputin and the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna — the evil genius of Russia and the tsarina… who has remained a German on the Russian throne and alien to the country and its people.' Felix Yusupov attended the speech and afterwards contacted Purishkevich, who quickly agreed to participate in the murder of Rasputin." [citation needed] Vladimir Purishkevich Vladimir Mitrofanovich Purishkevich (Russian: ) (August 12, 1870, Kishinev –February, 1920, Novorossiysk, Russia), was a Russian politician before the Bolshevik revolution. ... A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rasputin’s influence over the royal family was used against him and the Romanovs by politicians and journalists who wanted to weaken the integrity of the dynasty, make the Tsar give up his absolute political power, and separate the Russian Orthodox Church from the state. Rasputin unintentionally contributed to the propaganda by having public disputes with clergy members, bragging over his ability to influence both the Tsar and Tsarina, and by his dissolute lifestyle. Nobles in influential positions around the Tsar as well as some parties of the Duma, the Russian parliament, clamoured for his removal from the court. Perhaps inadvertently, Rasputin added to diminishing respect for the Tsar by his subjects. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ...


Assassination beliefs

The legends recounting the death of Rasputin are perhaps even more bizarre than his strange life.


According to Greg King's 1996 book The Man Who Killed Rasputin, a previous attempt on Rasputin's life had been made and failed. Rasputin was visiting his wife and children in his hometown, Pokrovskoye, along the Tura River, in Siberia. On June 29, 1914, he had either just received a telegram, or was just exiting church, when he was attacked by Khionia Guseva. A former prostitute, she had become a disciple of the monk Iliodor — once a friend of Rasputin's, who had become disgusted with his behavior and his disrespectful talk about the Royal Family. Iliodor appealed to women who had been harmed by Rasputin and formed a survivors' support group, with the intention of discrediting or killing him. Guseva thrust a knife into Rasputin's abdomen. His entrails hung out of what seemed like a mortal wound. After the attack, Guseva supposedly screamed, "I have killed the antichrist!" After intensive surgery Rasputin recovered. It was said about his survival: "the soul of this cursed muzhik was sewn on his body." His daughter Maria points out in her memoirs that he was never the same after that; he seemed to tire more easily, and frequently took opium for pain. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Tura (Тура́), river in Russia, left tributary of Tobol. ... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Khioniya Kozmishna Guseva (her first name has alternatively been spelt as Khionia or Jina or Chionya and her surname has been alternatively spelt as Gusyeva) was a former prostitute and a disciple of the monk Iliodor during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ...


The murder of Rasputin has become legend, some of it invented by the very men who killed him, so that it becomes difficult to discern exactly what happened. However, it is generally agreed that on December 16, 1916, having decided that Rasputin's influence over the Tsarina made him too dangerous to the Empire, a group of nobles led by Prince Felix Yusupov, and the Grand Duke, Dimitri Pavlovich (one of the few Romanov family members to escape the annihilation of the family) apparently lured Rasputin to the Yusupovs' Moika Palace, where they served him cakes and red wine laced with a large amount of cyanide. According to the legend, Rasputin was not affected, although there was enough poison to kill ten men. Maria Rasputin's account says that if her father ate poison, it was not in the cakes or wine, because after the attack by Guseva, he had hyperacidity, and avoided anything with sugar. She expressed doubt that he was poisoned at all. December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group -C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ...


Determined to finish the job, Yusupov worried that Rasputin would live until morning, so that the conspirators wouldn't have time to conceal his body. He ran upstairs to consult with the others, then came back down and shot Rasputin through the back with a revolver. Rasputin fell. A half an hour or so later when Yusupov returned to check the body (or as some versions go, Yusupov came back for his jacket), Rasputin sprang to his feet and began to throttle Yusupov, who fled in horror and told the other conspirators.


Heavily drugged by this time, Rasputin attempted his escape. He bolted outside and ran across the courtyard toward the gate, threatening that he would tell everything to the Tsarina. Another conspirator shot three bullets that missed, then two more which hit Rasputin. The conspirators then clubbed him unconscious and attempted to throw him into the Neva River. The water was frozen over, and they had to cut a hole in the ice and stuff the body through it. They were finally satisfied that the "Enemy of the State" was dead. Apparently a police officer heard the noise, but when told what was happening, he only said "it's about time" and left.


Three days later the body of Rasputin — poisoned, shot three times, and badly beaten — was recovered from the river and autopsied. The cause of death was drowning. His arms were apparently found in an upright position, as if he had tried to claw his way out from under the ice.


Subsequently, the Empress Alexandra buried Rasputin's body in the grounds of Tsarskoe Selo. After the February Revolution, Rasputin's body was uncovered by a group of workers from Petrograd and carried into a nearby wood and burned. Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (1872-1918) Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Victoria Alix Helene Luise Beatrice Prinzessin von Hessen und bei Rhein) or Saint Alexandra, 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, under the title Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Russian: Императрица Александра Фёдоровна), was Empress consort of Russia. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... See Revolutions of 1848 in France for the February 1848 French revolution. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of...


Recent evidence

The details of the assassination given by Felix Yusupov have never stood up to close examination. There were many versions of his account: the statement he gave to the Petrograd police on December 16, 1916; the account he gave whilst in exile in the Crimea in 1917; his 1927 book; and the accounts given under oath to libel juries in 1934 and 1965. No two accounts were entirely identical. Until recently, however, no other credible, evidence-based theories have been available. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ...


According to the unpublished 1916 autopsy report by Professor Kossorotov, and subsequent reviews by Dr Vladimir Zharov in 1993 and Professor Derrick Pounder in 2004-2005, no active poison was found in Rasputin's stomach. It could not have been said with certainty that he drowned, as the water found on his lungs is a common non-specific autopsy finding. All three sources agree that Rasputin had been systematically beaten and attacked with a bladed weapon, but most important, there were discrepancies regarding the number and calibre of handguns used. An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of a persons death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


This discovery may have significantly changed the whole premise and account of Rasputin's death. British intelligence reports between London and Petrograd in 1916 indicate that the British were extremely concerned about Rasputin's replacement of pro-British ministers in the Russian government, but more important, his apparent insistence on withdrawing Russian troops from the First World War. This withdrawal would have allowed the Germans to move their Eastern Front troops to the Western Front, massively outnumbering the Allies and spelling almost certain victory. Whether this was actually Rasputin's intention or whether he was simply concerned about the huge number of casualties (as the Tsarina's letters indicated) is in dispute, but it is clear that the British viewed him as a real danger. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


According to Professor Pounder, of the three shots fired into Rasputin's body, the third (which entered his forehead) was instantly fatal. This third shot also provides some intriguing evidence. In Pounder's view, concurred in by the firearms department of the Imperial War Museum in London, the third shot was fired by a gun different from those responsible for the other two wounds. The "size and prominence of the abraded margin" suggested a large lead non-jacketed bullet. At that time, the majority of weapons used hard metal jacketed bullets, with Britain virtually alone in using lead unjacketed bullets for their officers' Webley revolvers. Pounder came to the conclusion that the bullet which caused the fatal shot was a Webley .455 inch unjacketed round, and was the best fit with the available forensic evidence. Imperial War Museum, Lambeth, London The original location of the Imperial War Museum was the Crystal Palace, located at the top of Sydenham Hill. ... Webley is the name of a famous handgun manufacturer from Birmingham in the United Kingdom History In the 19th Century Birmingham was the centre of British firearm manufacture. ...


Witnesses to the murder stated that the only man present with a Webley revolver was Lieutenant Oswald Rayner, a British officer who was attached to the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) station in Petrograd. This account was further backed up during an audience between the British Ambassador, Sir George Buchanan, and Tsar Nicholas, when Nicholas stated that he suspected a young Englishman who had been an old school friend of Yusupov. Indeed, Rayner had known Yusupov at Oxford University. Another SIS officer in Petrograd at the time, Captain Stephen Alley, had actually been born in the Yusupov Palace in 1876, and both families had strong ties. The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service or simply Six, is the United Kingdoms external security agency. ... Sir George Buchanan was born in Copenhagen in 1854. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Confirmation that Rayner, along with another officer, Captain John Scale, met with Yusupov in the weeks leading up to the assassination can be found in the diary of their chauffeur, William Compton, who recorded all the visits. The last entry was the night before the murder. According to Compton, "it is a little known fact that Rasputin was shot not by a Russian but by an Englishman". He indicated that the culprit was a lawyer from the same part of the country as Compton himself. Rayner was indeed born some ten miles from Compton's hometown, and throughout his life described himself as a "barrister-at-law", despite never practising that profession. A chauffeur is someone who drives an automobile as a job, most often meaning a luxury sedan such as a limousine or a stretch limo, although technically anybody who drives can be called a chauffeur; the word is simply French for professional driver. In some countries, particularly developing nations where... A barrister (advocate in Scotland and the Channel Islands, barrister-at-law in England, Wales, Ireland, and elsewhere) is a lawyer found in most Common law jurisdictions who principally, but not exclusively, represents litigants as their advocate before the courts of that jurisdiction. ...


Evidence that the assassination attempt had not gone quite to plan is hinted at in a letter that Alley wrote to Scale eight days after the murder, saying "Although matters here have not proceeded entirely to plan, our objective has clearly been achieved... a few awkward questions have already been asked about wider involvement. Rayner is attending to loose ends and will no doubt brief you".


Upon his return to England, Oswald Rayner not only confided to his cousin, Rose Jones, that he had been present at Rasputin's murder, but also showed family members a bullet which he claimed he had acquired at the murder scene.


None of this is conclusive evidence of what happened that night of 16 December - 17 December, but it provides a more logical evidence-based account of what occurred. Rayner burnt all his papers before he died in 1961, and his only son also died four years later. December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


"The spirit of Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin"

After his death, his secretary Simonovich realized that Rasputin had moved a lot of money into his daughter Maria's account, and generally set all his affairs in order.


Weeks before he was assassinated in December 1916, according to his secretary Simonovich, Rasputin wrote the following:


"I write and leave behind me this letter at St. Petersburg. I feel that I shall leave life before January 1. I wish to make known to the Russian people, to Papa, to the Russian Mother and to the Children, to the land of Russia, what they must understand. If I am killed by common assassins, and especially by my brothers the Russian peasants, you, Tsar of Russia, will have nothing to fear for your children, they will reign for hundreds of years in Russia. But if I am murdered by boyars, nobles, and if they shed my blood, their hands will remain soiled with my blood, for twenty-five years they will not wash their hands from my blood. They will leave Russia. Brothers will kill brothers, and they will kill each other and hate each other, and for twenty-five years there will be no nobles in the country. Tsar of the land of Russia, if you hear the sound of the bell which will tell you that Grigori has been killed, you must know this: if it was your relations who have wrought my death, then no one in the family, that is to say, none of your children or relations, will remain alive for more than two years. They will be killed by the Russian people. I go, and I feel in me the divine command to tell the Russian Tsar how he must live if I have disappeared. You must reflect and act prudently. Think of your safety and tell your relations that I have paid for them with my blood. I shall be killed. I am no longer among the living. Pray, pray, be strong, think of your blessed family. -Grigori"


Why he wrote this prophetic letter, if it was not made up by Simonovich, is a mystery. Some speculate that Rasputin had a spiritual vision foreshadowing such an event; he did not say so, however. Others believe that Rasputin knew that he was widely reviled by many of the Russian people at the time he wrote the letter and that some wanted him dead (although many of his fellow peasants seem to have supported his success with the royal court). After the great speech which inspired Yusupov to make his move, rumors were flying about the Duma that something was going to happen to Rasputin soon, and he may simply have gotten wind of the rumors without knowing who the conspirators were.


Reputation

Rasputin
Rasputin

The contemporary press, as well as sensationalist articles and books published in the 1920s and 1930s (one of them even by Yusupov), turned the charismatic peasant into something of a twentieth century folk belief. To Westerners, Rasputin became the embodiment of purported Russian backwardness, superstition, irrationality and licentiousness, and an object of sensational interest; to the Russian Communists, he represented all that was evil in the old regime and had been overcome in the revolution. Yet to some Russians, he remained a symbol of the voice of the peasantry, and some (Russians) to this day reject the beliefs, honoring the man. However, the Moscow Patriarchate has condemned the fledgling movement seeking canonization of Rasputin. In reference to Rasputin's promiscuity, Moscow's Patriarch Alexei II said in a statement in 2003: "This is madness! What believer would want to stay in a Church that equally venerates murderers and martyrs, lechers and saints?". Image File history File links Summary Grigori Rasputin the Mad Monk, from http://www. ... Image File history File links Summary Grigori Rasputin the Mad Monk, from http://www. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... communist party article. ...


Since the fall of Communism in Russia in the 1990s, some Russian nationalists appeared to have tried to whitewash Rasputin's reputation, and use the powerful twentieth century archetype he has become for their own end. New evidence that has surfaced since the end of the Soviet Union, however, at first appeared to refute their claims of his saintliness. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


This documentation is primarily in the form of notes written by individuals paid to keep surveillance on Rasputin's apartment, and to record his comings and goings as well as make note of visitors. This was no secret at the time, and Rasputin occasionally expressed his annoyance. It has been remarked in books written as early as 1919 that those notes are, at best, highly questionable, intending to "prove" the allegations of those who paid to have such "proof" documented. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Name meaning

The name Rasputin in Russian does not mean "licentious," as is often claimed. There is, however, a very similar Russian adjective rasputny (распу́тный) which does mean "licentious" and the corresponding noun rasputnik. There is no definite explanation of the origin of this not uncommon surname which does not have a "disgraceful" meaning, as the contemporary Russian writer Valentin Rasputin would be quick to explain. There are at least two options for the root of the word. One of them is "put' ," which means "way," "road." Close nouns are rasputye, a place where the roads diverge or converge and rasputitsa (распу́тица, "muddy road season"). In occult traditions, a crossroad is a place of magical portent for good as well as evil; various folk beliefs state that one might meet the devil there, but also Saint Peter. Some historians argue that the name Rasputin may be a place name, since it roughly signifies "a place where two rivers meet", which describes the area from which the Rasputin family originates. Another possibility is "put', " which gives rise to the verb "putat' ": "entangle" or "mix up," with "rasputat' " being its antonym: "detangle," "untie," "clean up a misunderstanding," etc. Valentin Grigoriyevich Rasputin (Russian: Валентин Григорьевич Распутин) (born March 15, 1937) is a Russian writer. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... The rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица) is the twice annual flooding of Belarus, western Russia and the Ukraine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity, who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ... Saint Peter, also known as Peter, Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha—original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14)—was one of the twelve original disciples or apostles of Jesus. ... Antonyms, from the Greek anti (against) and onoma (name) are word pairs that are opposite in meaning, such as hot and cold, fat and thin, and up and down. ...


However the most well founded explanation is a standard Russian surname derivation from the old Slavic name "Rasputa" ("Rasputko") (recorded as early as in sixteenth century) with the meaning "ill-behaved child," the one whose ways are against traditions or the will of parents.


It is said that Rasputin tried to have his name changed to the inconspicuous "Novykh" after his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land ("Novykh" - from the Russian Новый, "New" connotes to "Novice"), but that is a subject of dispute.


Physical oddities

A St. Petersburg museum has on display a 30cm penis which they claim to have belonged to Rasputin.[2] While it has not been proven that the penis is authentic, legend spoke of Rasputin's physical oddity prior to the artifact having surfaced in the 1990's. The current owners claim that the item changed hands more than once before it was put on public display. Critics deny that the object is a penis, let alone that it belonged to Rasputin.


The penis story may be an urban legend started by Rasputin's daughter Maria. She had experienced Rasputin only as a kind and loving father to her and her sister, and thus vehemently denied the most defaming stories told of him and wrote a biography depicting his good aspects. Among other things, she claimed that the murder of Rasputin was not politically motivated but had to do with Rasputin's rejection of Felix Yusupov's advances (Yusupov's homosexuality was common knowledge among Russian nobility). She claimed that Yusupov raped Rasputin before killing him and subsequently amputated his penis. The reported behavior of Yusupov as seen by his fellow conspirators that night would seem to contradict this report. Urban legends are a kind of folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them (see rumor). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ...


See also

Since his death, there have been a variety of books, cartoons, films, songs, and even musicals about Grigori Rasputin. ...

References

  1. ^ Diarmuid Jeffreys (2004). Aspirin. The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  2. ^ Russian Museum to Exhibit Rasputin’s Penis - mosnews.com

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Rasputin (536 words)
Rasputin first met Russian emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra in the autumn of 1905, when Russia was in the midst of an uprising against the monarchy (see Russian Revolution of 1905).
Rasputin seemed to embody the simple peasant faith in the monarchy that Nicholas saw as the chief support for his dynasty and the main justification of his role as autocrat and protector of his people.
Rasputin’s influence grew significantly during 1915 and 1916, with Nicholas II away at the front during World War I and the Empress Alexandra playing a more active role in government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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