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Encyclopedia > Raspberry
Cultivated raspberries
Cultivated raspberries

The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. The name originally refers in particular to the European species Rubus idaeus, and is still used for that species as its standard English name in its native area.[1] Other species, mostly closely related in the same subgenus Idaeobatus, also called raspberries subsequently include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 457 KB) Raspberries File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 457 KB) Raspberries File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For the sound made by humans to simulate flatulence (blowing a raspberry) see the USA term, Bronx cheer Species Rubus idaeus raspberry (red) - watercolor 1892 The Raspberry or Red Raspberry, (Rubus idaeus) is a plant that produces a tart, sweet, red composite fruit (not a true berry) in late summer... Species See text. ...

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[2] Rubus strigosus systematics Many taxonomists believe that Michx. ... Binomial name L. The Arctic raspberry, Rubus arcticus, is a species of slow-growing bramble belonging to the rose family. ... Binomial name Rubus occidentalis L. Rubus occidentalis is a species of Rubus native to eastern North America. ... Binomial name Rubus odoratus L. The Flowering raspberry or Purple-flowering raspberry (Rubus odoratus) grows to be 6–8 feet tall. ... Binomial name Rubus phoenicolasius The wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), a type of raspberry, grows wild in the eastern part of the United States. ... Binomial name Rubus leucodermis Dougl. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... // This article is about a biological term. ...

Contents

Cultivation

Raspberry in flower in a garden
Raspberry in flower in a garden

Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market, and for commercial processing into jam and similar products. Traditionally raspberries were a mid summer crop, but with new technology, cultivars and transportation, they can now be obtained all year-round. Raspberries need a lot of sun and ample amounts of water in order to develop to their fullest. As a cultivated plant in moist temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless cut back. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ...


Two types are commercially available, the wild-type summer bearing, that produces an abundance of fruit on second-year canes within a relatively short period in midsummer, and double- or "ever"-bearing plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes in the autumn, as well as the summer crop on second-year canes. Raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by temperature hardiness, or ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone. ...


Raspberries are normally planted in the winter as dormant canes. These should be planted 1 m apart in fertile, well drained soil.


The flowers can be a major nectar source for honeybees. The nectar source in a given area depends on the type of vegetation present and the length of their bloom period. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people...


Raspberries are very vigorous and can be invasive. They propagate using basal shoots (also known as suckers); extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked. A sucker emerging from the base of a young tree This stump is almost entirely obscured by suckers. ...


The fruit is harvested when it has turned a deep red and comes off the core easily when touched. This is when the fruits are most ripe and sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into raspberry jam or frozen.


The leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal and medicinal teas. They have an astringent flavour, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be effective in regulating menses. Herbal tea An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion not made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ...


Cultivars

Numerous cultivars have been selected. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking. Raspberries have also been crossed with other species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, such as boysenberry and loganberry. Cultivars with yellow fruit are sometimes termed "gold raspberry". This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... A boysenberry is a cross between a blackberry, red raspberry and loganberry. ... Binomial name Rubus loganobaccus L.H. Bailey The loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus) is a hybrid produced from crossing a blackberry and a raspberry. ...


Selected important cultivars

Reference:[2]

Red, early summer fruiting        
  • 'Boyne'
  • 'Bulgarsi Rubin'
  • 'Glen Clova'
  • 'Glen Moy'
  • 'Killarney'
  • 'Malling Exploit'
  • 'Titan'
Red, mid summer
  • 'Cuthbert'
  • 'Lloyd George'
  • 'Mecker'
  • 'Newburgh'
  • 'Skeena'
  • 'Willamette'
Red, late summer
  • 'Dorman Red'
  • 'Glen Prosen'
  • 'Leo'
  • 'Schonemann'
Red, autumn
  • 'Augusta'
  • 'Autumn Bliss'
  • 'Heritage'
  • 'Summit'
  • 'Zeva Herbsternte'
Purple to black
  • 'Black Hawk'
  • 'Bristol'
  • 'Cumberland'
  • 'Glencoe'
  • 'Jewel'
  • 'Munger'
  • 'Ohio Everbearer'
  • 'Scepter'
Gold
  • 'Amber'
  • 'Fallgold'
  • 'Golden Nest'
  • 'Golden Queen'
  • 'Honey Queen'
  • 'Yellow Antwerp'

Nutrients and Potential Health Benefits

Raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidants, chemicals linked to promoting endothelial and cardiovascular health. Xylitol, a sugar alcohol alternative sweetener, can be extracted from raspberries. Raspberries are considered a high-fibre food at over 8 grams dietary fibre per cup. They are an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, a good source of vitamin K and magnesium and contain some calcium and iron. Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... Sweeteners that are neither artificial nor sugar based are called alternative sweeteners. ...


The aggregate fruit structure contributes to its nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fibre, placing it among plants with the highest fibre contents known, up to 20% fibre per total weight. Raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C, with 30 mg per serving of 1 cup (about 50% daily value), manganese (about 60% daily value) and dietary fibre (30% daily value). Contents of vitamin A, B vitamins 1-3, iron, calcium and potassium are considerable in raspberries.[3] Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ...


Raspberries rank near the top of all fruits for antioxidant strength, particularly due to their dense contents of ellagic acid (from ellagotannins), quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid. All these are polyphenolic antioxidants with promising health benefits under current research.[4] Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Chemical structure of gallic acid Gallic acid is an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. ... Anthocyanin is a pigment that reflects the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. ... Chemical structure of cyanidin Cyanidin, or flavan-3-ol, is a natural organic compound which is classified as a flavonoid and an anthocyanin. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ...


Due to their rich contents of antioxidant vitamins A and C and the phenolics mentioned above, raspberries have an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of about 4900 per 100 grams, including them among the top-ranked ORAC fruits. Cranberries and wild blueberries have around 9000 ORAC units and apples average 2800.[5] Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities of different foods. ... Species Vaccinium erythrocarpum Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium microcarpum Vaccinium oxycoccus Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apple (disambiguation). ...


The following anti-disease properties have been isolated in experimental models. Although there are no clinical studies to date proving these effects in humans, preliminary medical research shows likely benefit of regularly consuming raspberries against:[6][7][8]

A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ...

Diseases and pests

Wasps can be a nuisance on raspberries
Wasps can be a nuisance on raspberries

Raspberries are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths). See list of Lepidoptera which feed on Rubus. Image File history File links Raspberries_Yellowjacket. ... Image File history File links Raspberries_Yellowjacket. ... Suborder Apocrita See text for explanation. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Rubus species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Monophagous species which feed exclusively on Rubus Peach Blossom (Thyatira batis) Polyphagous species which feed on Rubus among other plants Angle Shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Buff Arches (Habrosyne pyritoides) Buff...


References

  1. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Rubus idaeus
  2. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ [4][5]
  7. ^ [6]
  8. ^ [7]

See also

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Raspberry
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Raspberry - New World Encyclopedia (1601 words)
Raspberry or red raspberry is the common term for the plant Rubus idaeus in the rose family (Rosaceae).
The flower and fruit of the raspberry, which are important for the raspberry's individual purpose of reproduction, also provide larger values for the ecosystem and for human beings.
Ecologically, the raspberry flower is a nectar source for honeybees, and the fruit is consumed by numerous animals.
BBC - h2g2 - The Raspberry (1199 words)
Raspberry bushes, referred to as 'canes', generally grow in forest clearings or fields and if left unchecked can potentially take over the entire planet, much like the red weed in HG Wells' War of the Worlds, but perhaps that is a slight exaggeration.
Another variety, the fl raspberry (or flcap) - not to be confused with the flberry - is a North American native, while there is a third variety of the fruit: the golden raspberry.
Raspberry leaf tea is not only said to relieve stomach cramps and the symptoms of morning sickness, but can also aid the healing of mouth ulcers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Glenn Farmer
23rd May 2010
LIve in Austin, Texas. What soil type is required to raise Raspberries?
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

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