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Encyclopedia > Rashidun

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Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


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Schools of Law

HanafiShafi`iMalikiHanbali The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ...

Movements

DeobandiBarelwi
Salafism The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ... This article is on an Islamic movement. ...

Beliefs

TawhidNabi and Rusul
KutubMala'ikah
QiyamahQadr This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nabi can refer to the Arabic and Hebrew word for Prophet the Korean word for butterfly one of the Nabis, a group of artists in Paris in the 1890s the 2005 Typhoon Nabi North American Bus Industries, a major transit bus manufacturing company Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, a Biopharmaceutical company based in... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Qadr as an Islamic term is parallel to the western doctrines of Predestination. ...

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr • Umar ibn al-Khattab
UthmanAli ibn Abi Talib Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...

Texts

Qur'an
Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn Maja • Al-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami
The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون transliteration: al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Dynasty. It is a reference to the Sunni tradition, "Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood).[1] Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... Abu Daud or Abu Dawod, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ...


In trying to identify who these Caliphs are, jurists historically identified the first four Caliphs of Islam along with a number of others through Muslim history up to 1924.

Contents

History

The first four often quoted Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad are often quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun. Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The Rashidun were chosen either through councils or based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the rashidun were:

Hassan ibn Ali appointed as a ruler of Iraq in 661, is also regarded as a righteous ruler. In addition to this there are several views regarding additional rashidun. Umar bin Abdul Aziz (Umar ІІ), who was one of the Ummayyad caliphs, is sometimes regarded as one of the Rashidun and is quoted by Taftazani. In the Ibadhi tradition, only Abu Bakr and Umar are considered to be the Two Rightly Guided Caliphs. Suleiman the Magnificent and Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman period are regarded by some to be amongst the rightly guided Caliphs. Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Umar bin Abdul Aziz was one of the caliphs of Bani Omayya, ruling between 718 and 720. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani includes the Khulafah of the Bani Abbas (i.e., the Abbassids) in his enumeration. For other uses, see Ibn Hajar. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Abu Bakr

Main article: Abu Bakr

Soon after Muhammad's death a gathering of prominent Ansar and some of the Muhajirun, in Medina, acclaimed Abu Bakr as the successor to Muhammad or the Caliph. Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Ansar is A Islamic term that literally means helper and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arival to the city after the Migration to Medina // Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy — chief [1] Sad ibn Ubadah, the chief of the Khazraj[2] Hassan ibn Thabit... Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ...


Following his succession, various Arab tribes rebelled against Abu Bakr, refusing to swear allegiance to anyone other than Muhammad. Abu Bakr insisted that allegiance to Muhammad meant loyalty to the Muslim state, of which he was the new head. This was the start of the Ridda wars (Arabic for the Wars of Apostasy). Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... Arabic redirects here. ...


After restoring peace in Arabia, Abu Bakr directed his generals towards the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...


Some traditions about the origin of the Qur'an say that Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving it in written form, as he was the first to order the collection of the sacred revelations.


Abu Bakr died in 634 in Medina, naming Umar ibn al-Khattab as his successor shortly before his death. Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Umar ibn al-Khattab

Main article: Umar ibn al-Khattab

Umar was named as a successor by Abu Bakr. During Umar's reign Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, parts of Persia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armenia. For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Umar (in English usually called Omar) was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In 639, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the years of the Islamic era should be counted from the year of the Hijraand. Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ...


`Umar died in 644, after he was stabbed by Abu-Lu'lu'ah in the Masjid al Nabawi mosque in Medina. Abu-Luluah (Arabic: أبو لؤلؤة) was a Persian slave who assassinated the Muslim ruler, or caliph, Umar al-Khattab in 23 AH (644–645) CE. His original name was Pīrūz (Arabicized: Fīrūz, the victorious; other transliterations of his name include Feroz, Firouz, Abu-Loloa... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), Medina Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ...


Whilst on his deathbed, he was urged to select a successor, which he refused to do. He did however put a process in place for selection of a successor. This comprised the remaining members of the ten companions promised paradise (asahara mubashara) to elect from amongst themselves a Caliph within 3 days. The result of this process following his death was Uthman ibn Affan.


Uthman ibn Affan

Main article: Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman (in English often called Othman) reigned for twelve years, and during his rule, all of Iran, most of North Africa, the Caucasus and Cyprus were conquered and incorporated into the Islamic empire. His rule was characterized by increasingly centralized control of revenues from the provinces, aided by governors drawn largely from his kinsmen in the Umayyad clan. Uthman appointed many of his kinsmen as governors of the new domains. Some of his governors were accused of corruption and misrule. ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Qur'an as it exists today. During the end of his reign, Uthman ordered the compilation of the text. He sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, and destroyed alternative versions. Some Companions of the prophet, who resisted this imposition, were flogged. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Uthman's nepotism and corruption caused much discontent, and he was assassinated after a twenty day long siege headed by Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, son of the first caliph.[2] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Walid al-Tartushi (أبو بكر محمد بن الوليد الطرطوش) (born 451 AH, died 520 AH) Was born in Muslim Spain and travelled as far as Baghdad. ...


Ali ibn Abi Talib

Main article: Ali

After the death of Uthman, Medina was in political chaos for a number of days. Many of the companions approached Ali to take the role of Caliph, which he refused to do initially. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


After his appointment as caliph, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as Malik ibn Ashter . Ali then transferred his capital from Medina to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in what is now Iraq. The capital of the province of Syria, Damascus, was held by Mu'awiyah, the governor of Syria and a kinsman of Uthman, Ali's slain predecessor.[3] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


According to tradition, three Muslim zealots (purists later termed Kharijites) attempted to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful. However, only the assassination of Ali succeeded. He died on the 21st of Ramadan in the city of Kufa (Iraq) in 661 CE. Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ...


Military expansion

During the period of the rashidun, Islam became one of the most powerful states in the Middle East.

Expansion of Islam under Rashidun

Image File history File links Rashidmap. ... Image File history File links Rashidmap. ...

Social policies

During his regin, Abu Bakr established the Bayt al-Mal or the state treasury. Umar expanded the treasury and established government building to administer the state finances.[4]


Upon conquest, in almost all cases, the caliphs were burdened with the maintenance and construction of roads and bridges in return for the conquered nation's political loyalty.[5]


Civil activities

Civil welfare in Islam started in the form of the construction and purchase of wells. During the Caliphate, the Muslims reparied many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered.[6]


In addition to wells, the Muslims built many tanks and canals. Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks (such as a spring purchased by Talha), and the needy, most canals were open to general public use. Some canals were constructed between settlements, such as the Saad canal that provided water to Anbar, and the Abi Musa Canal to providing water to Basra.[7] For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Basra. ...


During a famine, Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered the construction of a canal in Egypt connecting the Nile with the sea. The purpose of the canal was to facilitate the transport of grain to Arabia through a sea-route, hitherto transported only by land. The canal was constructed within a year by Amr bin al Aas, and Abdus Salam Nadiv writes, Arabia was rid of famine for all the times to come."[8] For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


After four floods hit Mecca after Muhammad's death, Umar ordered the construction of two dams to protect the Kaaba. He also constructed a dam near Madina to protect its fountains from flooding.[9] The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ...


Settlements

The area of Basra was very sparsely populated when it was conquered by the Muslims. During the reign of Umar, the Muslim army found it a suitable place to construct a base. Later the area was settled and a mosque was erected. This article is about the city of Basra. ...


Upon the conquest of Madyan, it was settled by Muslims. However, soon the environment was considered harsh and Umar ordered the resettlement of the 40,000 settlers to Kufa. The new buildings were constructed from mud bricks, instead of reeds, a material that was popular in the region, but caught fire easily. Madyan is located in Swat, Sarhad, Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


During the conquest of Egypt the area of Fustat was used by the Muslim army as a base. Upon the conquest of Alexandria, the Muslims returned and settled in the same area. Initially the land was primarily used for pasture, but later buildings were constructed.[10] Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ...


Other already populated areas were greatly expanded. At Mosul, Harthama Arfaja, at the command of Umar, constructed a fort, few churches, a mosque and a locality for the Jewish population.[11] Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


Muslim views

The first four caliphs are particularly significant to modern intra-Islamic debates: for Sunni Muslims, they are models of righteous rule; for Shia Muslims, the first three of the four were usurpers.


Sunni perspectives

They are called so because they have been seen as model Muslim leaders by Sunni Muslims. This terminology came into a general use around the world, since Sunni Islam has been the dominant Islamic tradition, and for a long time it has been considered the most authoritative source of information about Islam in the Western world. A Muslim leader is a Muslim that leads. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


They were all close companions of Muhammad, and his relatives: the daughters of Abu Bakr and Umar were married to Muhammad, and three of Muhammad's daughters were married to Uthman and Ali. Likewise, their succession was not hereditary, something that would become the custom after them, beginning with the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate. Council decision or caliph's choice determines the successor originally. In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the...


Shi'a tradition

According to Shi'a Islam, the first caliph should have been Ali followed by the Shi'a Imams. Shi'a Muslims support this claim with the Hadith of the pond of Khumm. Another reason for this support for Ali as the first caliph is because he was the first cousin of Muhammad and was married to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Shi'as believe that the caliphate should have stayed in the family. Starting with Muhammad, to Ali, to the grandsons of Muhammad Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (Muhammad had no surviving sons of his own) and so on. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and the fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Timeline

Please note that the years of Caliphs succession do not fall exactly on newyears lines.


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.inter-islam.org/Actions/taraweeh.htm
  2. ^ Balyuzi, Hasan (1976). Muhammad and the Course of Islam. Oxford, UK: George Ronald, pp. 175-177. ISBN 0-85398-478-6. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 411
  5. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 408
  6. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 403-4
  7. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 405-6
  8. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 407-8
  9. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 408
  10. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 416-7
  11. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 418

Hasan M. Balyuzi (1908-1980) was a prominent Iranian Baháí. He was born in Iran, but he spent most of his life in Britain. ...

See also


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