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Encyclopedia > Rashi
A 16th-century depiction of Rashi
A 16th-century depiction of Rashi
Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs.

Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, (Hebrew: רבי שלמה יצחקי), better known by the acronym Rashi (Hebrew: ‏רש"י‎), (February 22, 1040July 13, 1105), was a rabbi from France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud, Torah and Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise yet lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentaries, which appear in many printed editions of the Talmud and Torah (notably the Chumash), are an indispensable companion to both casual and serious students of Judaism's primary texts. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jyotish (ज्योतिष) is the ancient Indian system of astrology and astronomy. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Born in Troyes, Rashi departed while in his teens to study at the Yeshivot of Mainz and Worms. He returned to Troyes and founded his own yeshiva in 1067. Scholars believe that Rashi's commentary on the Talmud grew out of the lectures he gave to his students in his yeshiva, and evolved with the questions and answers they raised. Rashi completed this commentary in the last years of his life. It was immediately accepted as authoritative by all Jewish communities, Ashkenazi and Sephardi alike. His commentary, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud (a total of 30 tractates), has been included in every version of the Talmud since its first printing in Italy in the fifteenth century. City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ... A yeshiva (Hebrew, pl. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ...


Rashi's surname as Yitzhaki, derives from his father's name, Yitzhak. The acronym is sometimes also fancifully expanded as Rabban Shel Israel (רבן של ישראל), Teacher of Israel [i.e. the Jewish People]), or as Rabbenu SheYichyeh" (רבינו שיחיה), our Rabbi, may he live.

Contents

Birth and early life

Rashi Synagogue, Worms
Rashi Synagogue, Worms

Rashi was the only child born to his parents, at Troyes, Champagne, northern France. On his father Yitzchak's side, he was a 33rd generation descendant of Rabbi Yochanan Hasandlar, who was a fourth generation of Rabban Gamaliel Hazaken (the Elder) who was reputedly descended from the royal house of King David. His mother's brother was Rabbi Simon the Elder, community leader of Mainz. Image File history File links V10p325001_Rashi_Synagogue. ... Image File history File links V10p325001_Rashi_Synagogue. ... City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... Tomb of Yochanan Hasandlar in Meron Rabbi Yochanan Hasandlar (200-300) (רבי יוחנן הסנדלר) was one of the main students of Rabbi Akiva and a contemporary of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai. ... Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...


Legends

Several legends surrounding Rashi's birth have passed into Jewish folklore. Two of the most famous stories concern his conception and birth: Jewish mythology is a body of stories that explains or symbolizes Jewish beliefs. ...


Rashi's parents were childless for many years. One day, his father, a poor vintner, found a valuable gem (some versions say a pearl). A bishop (or mighty lord) wished to acquire this jewel for decorating the church (or his vestments), however rather than have this jewel be used for such a purpose, Yitzchak threw it into the Seine. When he arrived home, a man was waiting for him. "You threw the gemstone into the water so it wouldn't be used for idolatry," the man told him. "Now your wife will have a son who will illuminate the world with his Torah." This harbinger was none other than the Prophet Elijah; the following year, Yitzchak and his wife were blessed with a son. The term vintner is applied to wine merchants as well as (erroneously) winemakers. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Another legend tells that Yitzchak decided to move temporarily to the city of Worms, Germany. He and his wife lived in the Jewish quarter and attended the small synagogue there, awaiting the birth of their child. One day, as Yitzchak's wife was walking down the narrow alley, two large carriages came charging through the alley. There was no room to escape; she turned to the wall and pressed herself against it. According to legend, the wall softened and accommodated her pregnant form. The carriages rushed by and she was unscathed. To this day, a crevice in the wall is still visible; the neighboring building houses what is called the "Rashi Synagogue", which was built in 1642. ["Rashi" by Maurice Lieber, pp. 38-39] Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ...


Studies

According to tradition, Rashi was first brought to learn Torah by his father on Shavuot day at the age of five. His father was his main Torah teacher until his death when Rashi was still a youth. At the age of 17 Rashi married, and in the manner of young Torah scholars of the time, soon after went to learn in the yeshiva of Rabbi Yaakov ben Yakar in Worms, returning to his wife at the end of each semester. When Rabbi Yaakov died in 1064, Rashi continued learning in Worms for another year in the yeshiva of his relative, Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi, who was also chief rabbi of Worms. Then he moved to Mainz, where he studied under another of his relatives, Rabbi Isaac ben Judah, the rabbinic head of Mainz and one of the leading sages of the Lorraine region straddling France and Germany. Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Yaakov ben Yakar (990 - 1064) was a German Talmudist. ... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...


Rashi's teachers were students of Rabbeinu Gershom and Rabbi Eliezer Hagadol, leading Talmudists of the previous generation. From his teachers, Rashi imbibed all the oral traditions pertaining to the Talmud as they had been passed down for centuries, as well as an understanding of the Talmud's unique logic and form of argument. Rashi's fellow yeshiva students contributed to the learning with their knowledge of international business, commodities production, farming, craftsmanship, sailing and soldiering. Rashi took concise, copious notes of everything he learned in yeshiva, incorporating much of this material in his later commentaries. Gershom ben Judah best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (in Hebrew: Our teacher Gershom) (c. ...


Return to Troyes

He returned to Troyes at the age of 25, after which time his mother died, and he was asked to join the Troyes beth din (rabbinical court). He also began answering halakhic questions. Upon the death of the head of the beth din, Rabbi Zerach ben Abraham, Rashi assumed the court's leadership and answered hundreds of halakhic queries. A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ...


About 1070, he founded a yeshiva which attracted many disciples. It is thought by some that Rashi earned his living as a vintner since Rashi shows an extensive knowledge of its utensils and process, but there is no evidence for this.[1] Although there are many legends about his travels, Rashi likely never went further than from the Seine to the Rhine; the utmost limit of his travels were the yeshivot of Lorraine. Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... This article is about the river in France. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


In 1096, the First Crusade swept through the Lorraine, murdering 12,000 Jews and uprooting whole communities. Among those murdered in Worms were the three sons of Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi, Rashi's teacher. Rashi wrote several Selichot (pentitential poems) mourning the slaughter and the destruction of the region's great yeshivot. Seven of Rashi's Selichot still exist, including "Adonai Elohei Hatzivadot", which is recited on the eve of Rosh Hashanah, and "Az Terem Nimtachu", which is recited on the Fast of Gedalia. Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Selichot (Heb. ... Look up Rosh Hashanah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ...


Rashi returned to help rebuild the destroyed Jewish Community of Worms following this crusade - the peasants crusade. He rededicated the synagogue which still stands to this day. He composed a "piyut" (liturgical poem) which asked God to curse those responsible for the destruction. This poem was - "titnam Lecherpa" "make them a mockery, a curse, a disgrace; heap upon them a furious wrath and hateful vengeance; cast fear and panic upon them, send angels of destruction against them. and cut them down to the last man."


Legend has it that when the peasant's crusade reached Hungary, they slaughtered 4,000 Hungarians, thereby enraging the Hungarian King Coloman. As the King was about to sweep over them, they built rafts made from the timbers of one of the towns they had plundered on the banks of the Danube river. As they floated across the Danube, their hastily built rafts broke apart and upwards of 10,000 erstwhile crusaders drowned in the Danube. Rashi's curse was fulfilled. Coloman (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 – February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ...


Descendants

Rashi had no sons, but his three daughters, Yocheved, Miriam and Rachel, all married Talmudic scholars. Yocheved married Meir ben Shmuel—their four sons were Shmuel (the Rashbam) (1085-1174), Yaakov (Rabbeinu Tam) (c. 1100- c. 1171), and Yitzchak (the Rivam)—who were known as the Baalei Tosafos—and the grammarian Shlomo, who died young. Yocheved's daughter, Chanah, was a teacher of laws and customs relevant to women. Rashi's daughter Miriam married Judah ben Nathan; their daughter, named Alvina, was a learned woman whose customs served as the basis for later halakhic decisions. Their son Yom Tov later moved to Paris and headed a yeshiva there. Rachel married (and divorced) Eliezer ben Shemiah. Rashbam רשבם is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שמואל בן מאיר (Rabbi Shmuel son of Meir) (c. ... Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם) (real name Rabbeinu Yaakov, or Jacob in English) was the son of Rabbeinu Meir and his wife Yochebed. ... The Rivam (c. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who collected commentaries on the Talmud, and appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. ...


Works

An early printing of the Talmud(Ta'anit 9b); Rashi's commentary is at the bottom of the right column, continuing for a few lines into the left column.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,648 × 1,280 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,648 × 1,280 pixels, file size: 1. ... Taanit is a fast in the Jewish religion. ...

Commentary on the Talmud

Rashi wrote the first comprehensive commentary on the Talmud. His commentary, drawing on his knowledge of the entire contents of the Talmud, attempts to provide a full explanation of the words and of the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. Unlike other commentators, Rashi does not paraphrase or exclude any part of the text, but elucidates phrase by phrase. Often he provides punctuation in the unpunctuated text, explaining, for example, "This is a question"; "He says this in surprise," "He repeats this in agreement," etc.


As in his commentary on the Tanakh, Rashi frequently illustrates the meaning of the text using analogies to the professions, crafts, and sports of his day. He also translates difficult Hebrew or Aramaic words into the spoken French language of his day, giving latter-day scholars a window into the vocabulary and pronunciation of Old French. Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


Rashi also exerted a decisive influence on establishing the correct text of the Talmud. Up to and including his age, texts of each Talmudic tractate were copied by hand and circulated in yeshivas. Errors often crept in: sometimes a copyist would switch words around, and other times incorporate a student's marginal notes into the main text. Rashi compared different manuscripts and readings in Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, Midrash, Targum, and the writings of the Geonim, and determined which readings should be preferred. However, in his humility, he deferred to scholars who disagreed with him. For example, in Chulin 4a, he comments about a phrase, "We do not read this. But as for those who do, this is the explanation…" The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning pride in Biblical Hebrew and genius in modern Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta/ Exilarch who wielded secular...


Rashi's commentary, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud (a total of 30 tractates), has been included in every version of the Talmud since its first printing in the fifteenth century. It is always situated towards the middle of the opened book display; i.e., on the side of the page closest to the binding.


Some of the other printed commentaries which are attributed to Rashi were composed by others, primarily his students. In some commentaries, the text indicates that Rashi died before completing the tractate, and that it was completed by a student. This is true of the tractate Makkot, the concluding portions of which were composed by his son-in-law, Rabbi Judah ben Nathan, and of the tractate Bava Batra, finished (in a more detailed style) by his grandson, the Rashbam. There is a legend that his commentary on Nedarim, which is clearly not his, was actually composed by his daughters. Bava Batra is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a persons responsibilities and rights as the owner of property. ...


Without Rashi's commentary, the Talmud would have remained a closed book. With it, any student who has been introduced to its study by a teacher can continue learning on his own, deciphering its language and meaning with the aid of Rashi.


Commentary on the Tanakh

A modern translation of Rashi's commentary on the Chumash, published by Artscroll
A modern translation of Rashi's commentary on the Chumash, published by Artscroll

Rashi's commentary on the Tanakh and especially the Chumash is the essential companion for any study at any level, beginning, intermediate and advanced. Drawing on the breadth of Midrashic, Talmudic and Aggadic literature (including literature that is no longer extant), as well as his knowledge of grammar, halakhah, and how things work, Rashi clarifies the "simple" meaning of the text so that a bright child of five could understand it.[2] At the same time, his commentary forms the foundation for some of the most profound legal analysis and mystical discourses that came after it. Scholars debate why Rashi chose a particular Midrash to illustrate a point, or why he used certain words and phrases and not others. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the five volume The Sapirstein Edition Rashi Artscroll Chumash. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the five volume The Sapirstein Edition Rashi Artscroll Chumash. ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ...


Legend also surrounds the writing of this commentary, which is seen by many to have been written with Ruach Hakodesh - Divine inspiration - to explain its mass appeal. Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai wrote in his Shem HaGedolim: "Apparently, Rashi wrote his commentary by using a secret [technique to gain Godly inspration], and therefore he fasted 613 times [before undertaking this project]". According to others, Rashi wrote three versions of his commentary—one long, one short, and one mid-length; the latter version is the one we have today. The Chida Rabbi Chaim Joseph David ben Isaac Zerachia Azulai (1724 – 21 March 1807), commonly known as the Chida (by the acronym of his name), was a rabbinical scholar and a noted bibliophile, who pioneered the history of Jewish religious writings. ...


Scholars believe that Rashi's commentary on the Torah grew out of the lectures he gave to his students in his yeshiva, and evolved with the questions and answers they raised on it. Rashi only completed this commentary in the last years of his life. It was immediately accepted as authoritative by all Jewish communities, Ashkenazi and Sephardi alike. Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ...


The first dated Hebrew printed book was Rashi's commentary on the Chumash, printed by Abraham ben Garton in Reggio di Calabria, Italy, 18 February 1475 (This version did not include the text of the Chumash itself). Categories: Italy-related stubs | Coastal cities | Towns in Calabria ...


Rashi wrote commentaries on all the books of Tanakh except Chronicles (I & II). Scholars believe that the commentary which appears under Rashi's name in those books was compiled by the students of Rabbi Saadiah of the Rhine, who incorporated material from Rashi's yeshiva. Rashi's students, Rabbi Shemaya and Rabbi Yosef, edited the final commentary on the Torah; some of their own notes and additions also made their way into the version we have today. The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...


Voluminous supercommentaries have been published on Rashi's work, including Gur Aryeh by Rabbi Judah Loew (the Maharal), Sefer ha-Mizrachi by Rabbi Elijah Mizrachi (the Re'em), and Yeri'ot Shlomo by Rabbi Solomon Luria (the Maharshal). Almost all rabbinic literature published since the Middle Ages discusses Rashi, either using his view as supporting evidence or debating against it. Judah Low ben Bezalel (1525 — 1609) was a Jewish scholar and rabbi, most of his life in Prague. ... Elijah Mizrachi (c. ... Rabbi Solomon Luria (1510-1574), was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Rashi's explanations of the Chumash were also cited extensively in Postillae Perpetuae by Nicholas de Lyra (1292-1340), a French Franciscan, earning that author the name Simius Solomonis ("the ape of Solomon (Shlomo)"). De Lyra's book was consulted in preparing the first English translation of the Bible (the King James version). A page of Genesis in Basel, 1498: the first printed biblical exegesis: space has been left for a hand-lettered red initial (a rubric) that was never added to this copy. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...


Today, tens of thousands of men, women and children study "Chumash with Rashi" as they review the Torah portion to be read in synagogue on the upcoming Shabbat. According to Halakha, a man may even study the Rashi on each Torah verse in fulfillment of the requirement to review the Parsha twice with Targum (which normally refers to Targum Onkelos). Since its publication, Rashi's commentary on the Torah is standard in almost all Chumashim produced within the Orthodox Jewish community. A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... In Jewish services, a Parsha or Parshah or Parashah, פרשה, meaning Portion in Hebrew, is the weekly Torah reading text selection. ... Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Jewish texts ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Responsa

About 300 of Rashi's responsa and halakhic decisions are extant. These responsa were copied and preserved by his students. Machzor Vitry contains Rashi's responsa on prayer; this work was edited by Rabbi Simchah of Vitry, whose son, Rabbi Shmuel, married Rashi's granddaughter Hannah(daughter of Yocheved). Siddur Rashi, compiled by an unknown student, also contains Rashi's responsa on prayer. Other compilations include Sefer Hapardes, edited by Rabbi Shemayah, Rashi's student, and Sefer Haoraah, prepared by Rabbi Nathan Hamachiri. Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry (d. ...


"Rashi script"

Main article: Rashi script
The complete Hebrew alphabet in Rashi script [right to left].

The semi-cursive typeface in which Rashi's commentaries are printed both in the Talmud and Tanakh is often referred to as "Rashi script." This does not mean that Rashi himself used such a script: the typface is based on a 15th century Sephardic semi-cursive hand. What would be called "Rashi script" was employed by early Hebrew typographers such as the Soncino family and Daniel Bomberg, a Christian printer in Venice, in their editions of commented texts (such as the Mikraot Gedolot and the Talmud, in which Rashi's commentaries prominently figure) to distinguish the rabbinic commentary from the text proper, for which a square typeface was used. Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 17, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Daniel Bomberg (d. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Mikraot Gedolot, often called the Rabbinic Bible in English, is an edition of Tanakh (in Hebrew) that generally includes four distinct elements: The biblical text according to the mesorah in its letters, vocalization, and cantillation marks. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


Death and legacy

Rashi died on the 29th of Tammuz 4865 (July 13, 1105) at the age of 65. He was buried in Troyes. The approximate location of the cemetery in which he was buried was recorded in Seder Hadoros, but over time the location of the cemetery was forgotten. A number of years ago, a Sorbonne professor discovered an ancient map depicting the site of the cemetery, which now lay under an open square in the city of Troyes. After this discovery, French Jews erected a large monument in the center of the square—a large, black and white globe featuring a prominent Hebrew letter, Shin(ש) (presumably for "Shlomo(שלמה)," Rashi's name). The granite base of the monument is engraved: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki — Commentator and Guide. Northwest Semitic Tammuz (Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz), Arabic تمّوز TammÅ«z; Akkadian Duʾzu, DÅ«zu; Sumerian Dumuzid (DUMU.ZID the true son) was the name of an Ancient Near Eastern deity. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ...


In the summer of 2005, Rabbi Yisroel Meir Gabbai, who renovates and repairs neglected gravesites of Jewish leaders around the world, erected an additional plaque at this site to alert visitors to the fact that the unmarked square was also a burial ground. The plaque reads, The place you are standing on is the cemetery of the town of Troyes. Many Rishonim are buried here, among them Rabbi Shlomo, known as Rashi the holy, may his merit protect us.[3] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rishonim (ראשונים Hebrew - sing. ...


Jewish historian Rabbi Berel Wein has estimated that 80% of today's Ashkenazi Jews descend from Rashi.[4] Berel Wein is an American-born Orthodox rabbi, scholar, lecturer, and writer. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


In 2006, the Jewish National and University Library at Hebrew University put on an exhibit commemorating the 900th anniversary of Rashi's death (2005), showcasing rare items from the library collection written by Rashi, as well as various works by others concerning Rashi. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jewish National and University Library is Israels national library, based in Jerusalems Hebrew University. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rashbam רשבם is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שמואל בן מאיר (Rabbi Shmuel son of Meir) (c. ... Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם) (real name Rabbeinu Yaakov, or Jacob in English) was the son of Rabbeinu Meir and his wife Yochebed. ...

References

  1. ^ {{cite journal |url=http://seforim.blogspot.com/2007/08/mayer-i-gruber-how-did-rashi-make.html |title=How Did Rashi Make a Living? |author=Mayer I. Gruber |the Seforim blog
  2. ^ Mordechai Menashe Laufer. רבן של ישראל (Hebrew).
  3. ^ Y. Friedman. "The Discovery of the Resting Places of Rashi and the Baalei Hatosfos", Dei'ah Vedibur, 2005-07-25. 
  4. ^ Rashi's yahrzeit.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Rashi

References Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Resources The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ...

  • Complete Tanach with Rashi
  • Daily Study - Chumash with Rashi
  • Lookup Verses, rashiyomi.com
  • Lookup Verses, tachash.org
  • rashiyomi.com

Dissertation 1999, PDF


 
 

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