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Encyclopedia > Rapping

Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, one of the elements of hip hop music and culture. Although the word rap has sometimes been claimed to be a backronym of the phrase "Rhythmic African Poetry", "Rhythm and Poetry", "Rhythmically Applied Poetry", "Rapping About Poetry," "Racing Always Pacing," or "Rhythmically Associated Poetry", use of the word to describe quick and meaningless speech or repartee long predates the musical form.[1] Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rapper sword is a kind of sword dance. ... For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film). ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... A backronym (or bacronym) is a phrase that is constructed after the fact from a previously existing abbreviation, the abbreviation being an initialism or an acronym. ...


Rapping, which is also known as Emceeing, Flowing, MCing, Rhyme spitting, Spitting, or Rhyming, can be delivered over a beat or without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies a grey area among speech, prose, poetry, and song. Rap is derived from the griots (folk poets) of West Africa, Caribbean-style toasting, and American blues and jazz roots. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is about the West African poets. ... Africa is a large and diverse continent, consisting of dozens of countries, hundreds of languages and thousands of races, tribes and ethnic groups. ... The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Rapping developed both inside and outside of hip hop since Jamaican expatriate Kool Herc first began doing his dancehall toasting in New York in the 1970s. In the 1980s, the success of groups like Run-DMC led to a huge wave of commercialized rap music. By the end of the 1990s, hip hop became widely accepted in mainstream music. Underground Hip-hop rapping from the 2000s has complex rhythms, cadences, an intricate poetic form, and inventive wordplay. Rap lyrics convey the street life from which hip hop originally emerged with references to popular culture and hip-hop slang. Although rap has become an international phenomenon, many types of rap deal with issues such as race, socioeconomic class, and gender. Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Run-DMC is a famous hip hop crew founded by Jason Mizell (Jam Master Jay) and includes Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels, all from Hollis, Queens. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Word play is a literary technique in which the nature of the words used themselves become part of the subject of the work. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of hip hop
See also: African American music, Music of the United States, History of poetry, Jamaican music, and Caribbean music

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... The history of poetry as an art form predates literacy. ... Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea, known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres, including reggae, dub, raggamuffin and ska. ... The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ...

Roots

See also: Roots of hip hop and Talking blues

Rapping hip hop music can be traced back in many ways to its African roots. Centuries before the United States existed, the griots of West Africa were rhythmically delivering stories over drums and sparse instrumentation. Because of the time that has passed since the griots of old, the connections between rap and the African griots are widely established, but not clear–cut. However, such connections have been acknowledged by rappers, modern day "griots", spoken-word artists, mainstream news sources, and academics.[2][3][4][5] The roots of hip hop can be found in 1970s block parties in New York City, specifically The Bronx[1]. Hip hop culture, including rapping, scratching, graffiti, and breakdancing. ... Talking blues is a sub genre of the blues music genre. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... This page is about the West African poets. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Spoken word is a form of literary art or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ...


Blues music, rooted in the work songs and spirituals of slavery and influenced greatly by West African musical traditions, was first played by blacks (and some whites) in the Mississippi Delta region of the United States around the time of the Emancipation Proclamation. Grammy-winning blues musician/historian Elijah Wald and others have argued that the blues were being rapped as early as the 1920s.[6][7] Wald went so far as to call hip hop "the living blues."[6] Blues is a vocal and instrumental musical form which evolved from African American spirituals, shouts, work songs and chants and has its earliest stylistic roots in West Africa. ... Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues. ... A work song is a typically acoustic rhythmic song sung by persons who are working in likely mundane conditions. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The shared flood plain of the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers The Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ...

The Memphis Jug Band, an early blues group, whose lyrical content and rhythmic singing predated rapping.
The Memphis Jug Band, an early blues group, whose lyrical content and rhythmic singing predated rapping.

Jazz, developed from the blues and other African-American musical traditions, originated around the beginning of the 20th century. According to John Sobol, the jazz musician and poet who wrote Digitopia Blues, rap "bears a striking resemblance to the evolution of jazz both stylistically and formally."[8] Image File history File links Memphis_jugband. ... This music article needs to be wikified. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


During the mid-20th century, the musical culture of the Caribbean was constantly influenced by the concurrent changes in American music. In the 1950s through the 1970s, the descendants of Caribbean slaves in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were mixing their traditional folk music styles of mento and Calypso music with the jazz, soul, rock and blues of America.. In Jamaica this influenced the creation of Reggae music (and later Dancehall), while in Trinidad, this influenced the creation of Soca. As early as 1969, Deejays were toasting (an African tradition of "rapped out" tales of heroism) over dubbed Jamaican beats. It was called rap, expanding the word's earlier meaning in the African-American community— "to discuss or debate informally."[9] The music of the United States includes a number of kinds of distinct folk and popular music, including some of the most widely-recognized styles in the world. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... Calypso might refer to one of several things: Calypso is the name of a sea nymph in Greek mythology; Calypso music is a style of Caribbean folk music; Calypso is the name of an album sung by Harry Belafonte; Calypso is the name of a moon of Saturn; 53 Kalypso... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... See: Soca River (pronounced Socha River), ( Slovenian original reka Soča). ... A Deejay (sometimes spelled DJ) is a reggae or dancehall musician who sings and toasts to an instrumental riddim (rhythm). ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... For other uses, see Dub. ...


1970s

The dubbed dancehall toasts of Jamaica, as well as the disco-rapping and jazz-based spoken word beat poetry of the United States set the template for the rapping in hip hop music. Gil Scott-Heron, a Jazz Poet and Bluesman who wrote and released such seminal songs as The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, H2OGate Blues Part 2: We Beg Your Pardon America and Johannesberg, has been cited as an influence on many rappers. One of the first rappers in hip hop was also hip hop's first DJKool Herc. Herc, a Jamaican immigrant, started delivering simple raps at his parties in the early 1970s. As Herc would explain in a 1989 interview, "[t]he whole chemistry came from Jamaica. I was listening to American music in Jamaica, and my favorite artist was James Brown. When I came over here I just had to put it in the American style."[10] Although rapping in hip hop began with the DJs, most rappers today don't DJ or produce on a regular basis; Coke La Rock is cited by Kool Herc as the first example of such a rapper.[11] By the end of the 1970s, hip hop had spread throughout New York, and was getting some radio play. Rappers were increasingly writing songs that fit pop music structures and featured continuous rhymes. Melle Mel (of The Furious Five) stands out as one of the earliest rap innovators. Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... This article is about the music genre. ... The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: This is... Photo of Gil Scott-Heron. ... Jazz poetry can be defined as poetry that demonstrates jazz-like rhythm or the feel of improvisation, from an article by Pittsburg State University faculty. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (disambiguation). ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... Coke la Rock is an American old school rapper who got his start as the MC for DJ Kool Herc, a Jamaican immigrant. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... Melle Mel (born Melvin Glover on May 15, 1962 in Bronx, New York ) is a hip-hop musician, one of the pioneers of old school hip hop as a lyricist & as lead rapper of Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. ... Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ...


1980s

See also: Old school hip hop and Golden age hip hop

From the 1970s to the early 1980s, Melle Mel set the way for future rappers through his sociopolitical content as well as his creative wordplay. Hip hop lyricism saw its biggest change with the popularity of Run-DMC's Raising Hell in the mid-1980s, known especially for the rap/rock collaboration with rock band Aerosmith in the song "Walk This Way". This album helped set the tone of toughness and lyrical prowess in hip hop; Run-DMC were almost yelling their aggressive lyrics. Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... Run-DMC is a famous hip hop crew founded by Jason Mizell (Jam Master Jay) and includes Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels, all from Hollis, Queens. ... Raising Hell is a 1986 (see 1986 in music) album by old school rappers Run-D.M.C.. Their breakthrough album, Raising Hell trumped standing perceptions of commercial viability for hip hop groups, achieving triple-platinum status and receiving critical attention from quarters that had previously ignored hip hop as... Rapcore is a musical genre that fuses the techniques of hip hop, gangsta rap, hard rock, heavy metal, alternative rock, hardcore punk and sometimes funk. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Walk This Way is a song by American hard rock group Aerosmith. ...


The 1980s saw a huge wave of commercialized rap music, that with it brought success and international popularity. Rap music transcended its original demographic and passed in to the suburbs. The first rap hit of the 80's was Blondie's Rapture, following on from Rappers Delight in 1979 from Sugarhill Gang. Rap music in this time kept its original fan base in the 'ghetto' while attracting interest from mainstream consumers. This decade also saw the emergence of what we now know as old school hip hop talented artists such as Run DMC, LL Cool J, Public Enemy and the first white rap band[citation needed] the Beastie Boys. This decade is also referred to as the Golden age hip hop by modern music historians. Rap in the early 1980s centered mostly around self promotion e.g. the amount of gold worn or one's prowess with females, however in 1987 Public Enemy introduced a more socio-political edge with their debut album Yo! Bum Rush the Show. Other artists such as The Jungle Brothers looked to Africa for inspiration. In 1987 the rap group N.W.A. released their first album entitled N.W.A. and the Posse, and included rap stars Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, Eazy E, and MC Ren. This release marked the first shift from the golden age to the ensuing ages of Gangsta rap and G-Funk. Rapture single cover Rapture is track number 8 from the 1980 album Autoamerican by Blondie. ... Rappers Delight is a 1979 (see 1979 in music) single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it is widely acknowledged as the first hip hop hit single. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group, known mostly for one hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Run-DMC is a hip hop crew founded by Jason Jam Master Jay Mizell that included Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels. ... LL Cool J (born James Todd Smith III on January 14, 1968 in New York, New York) is a American hip hop artist and actor. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... Yo! Bum Rush The Show is a 1987 album by Public Enemy. ... The Jungle Brothers are an American alternative hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of jazz and hip hop. ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... N.W.A and the Posse was a Macola Records constructed compilation that was marketed as the first album by the rap music group N.W.A. The group itself did not sanction the release. ... For the New York radio and television presenter, see Doctor Dre. ... OShea Jackson (born June 15, 1969), better known by his stage name, Ice Cube, is an American rapper, actor and film director. ... Eric Lynn Wright (September 7, 1963–March 26, 1995), better known by the stage name Eazy-E, was an American rapper, producer, and record executive from Compton. ... Lorenzo Jerald Patterson (born June 16, 1969 in Compton, California, USA) better known by his stage name MC Ren. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ...


1990s

See also: Golden age hip hop and Gangsta rap

Rap in the 1990s saw a substantial change in direction in the style of rapping. Where the 1980s were characterized by verses mostly constrained to straightforward structures and rhyme schemes, rappers in the 1990s explored deviations from those basic forms, freeing up the lyrical flow and switching up the patterns to create a much more fluid and complex style. The style on the East coast became more aggressive, a style pioneered by Ghostface Killah and Notorious B.I.G., while West coast hip-hop became more laid-back, and smooth, as made popular by Dr. Dre and 2Pac. The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... Dennis Coles (born May 9, 1970 in Staten Island, New York), better known by the stage name Ghostface Killah, is an American rapper. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game). ... For the New York radio and television presenter, see Doctor Dre. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential hip hop artists of all time. ...

Audio samples of the roots of rapping

In terms of subject matter, the 1990s saw a shift from personal promotion and glorification to narratives of street experience and darker social observation, although this shift was more pronounced on the East coast than it was on the West. Rappers like the Guru of Gang Starr and Raekwon the Chef of the Wu-Tang Clan wove a new hip-hop lexicon out of Five Percenter terminology and personal experience that continues to dominate the lyrics of many MCs to this day. Image File history File links DeepDowninMyHeart. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... DollarMamie. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links SmallTalkat125thandLennox. ... Gil Scott-Heron - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gang Starr is an influential hip hop group that consists of Guru and DJ Premier from Brooklyn, New York. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ...


The 1990s were marked by a tense rivalry between MCs of the East and West coast, including a feud between Sean "Puffy" Combs' Bad Boy Records in the East, including the Notorious B.I.G., and Dr. Dre and Suge Knight's Death Row Records (including 2pac and Snoop Dogg). Freestyling became a skill that demonstrates an MC's versatility and creativity, but also as a verbal "duel" or "spar". The mid 1990s were marked by the violent deaths of Tupac Shakur, Notorious B.I.G., Freaky Tah, and Big L (among others). By the end of the 1990s, hip-hop became widely accepted in mainstream music. Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Freestyle rap is, strictly speaking, rapping that is done in the moment at pure free flow, with no previously composed lyrics, and reflecting a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ...


2000s

Main article: New school hip hop

The genre of rap and hip-hop in its modern iteration is increasingly influenced by other musical forms. Notably, remixes of existing hits with current notable rappers has become an increasing trend. The influence of rap has increased internationally, with independent styles, such as Grime, Trip Hop, and Hyphy. Southern, Northern, and midwestern rap has also gained increasing popularity and penetrated the coastal markets on a large scale for the first time. Along with the increasing commercialisation of rap and hip-hop culture, this has led to many artists such as Nas to claim that "hip-hop is dead". New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... Grime(also known as hip house) is a sub-genre of urban music which first emerged in London in the early 2000s, primarily a development of UK garage, drum and bass, dancehall and hip hop. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Hyphy (pronounced HI-fee; IPA: ) is a style of music and dance primarily associated with the Bay Area hip hop culture. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ...


Writing

Audio samples of rapping
  • Planet Rock
    Hip hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa mixed electro with old school rapping and beats in what is sometimes called "electro hop." Bambaata, the DJ, is also the rapper in this song— after all, the first rapping in hip hop was done from behind the turntables.
    The Message
    Image:The Message.ogg
    Written and rapped in 1982 by Melle Mel of the Furious Five, this song, more than any other to date, established rap as a vehicle for sociopolitical commentary. Note, however, the simple cadence and flow that were characteristic of the old school era.
    chances Bleed
    Notorious B.I.G. tells vivid stories about his everyday life as a criminal in Brooklyn. Note the constant changing up of the lyrical flow and cadence characteristic of new school hip hop.
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Planet_Rock. ... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... Electro, short for electro funk (also known as robot hip hop and Electro hop) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records which were closer to disco). ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Melle Mel (born Melvin Glover on May 15, 1962 in Bronx, New York ) is a hip-hop musician, one of the pioneers of old school hip hop as a lyricist & as lead rapper of Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. ... Album cover of The Official Adventures of Grandmaster Flash DJ Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Image File history File links NiggasBleed. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ...

Rhyme styles

See also: Rhyme scheme

Aside from 'flow' (the voice and tone of a particular MC), and rhythmic delivery, the only other central element of rapping is rhyme. In classical poetry, rhymes that span many syllables are often considered whimsical, but in hip hop the ability to construct raps with large sets of rhyming syllables is valued. Rap can contain any and all forms of rhyme found in classical poetry such as consonance, assonance, half rhyme, or internal rhyme. Rappers are known for their style of rhyming. Juelz Santana often avoids full rhymes in favor of assonance, consonance, half rhymes, and internal rhymes. Eminem, on the other hand, often focuses on complex and lengthy multisyllabic rhyme schemes, while "flowas" like Rakim use metaphorical, emotional, rhyming, and story telling to communicate a message. A rhyme scheme is like the pattern of rhyming like lines in a poem or in like lyrics for music. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Consonance is the repition of consonant sounds, but not vowels as in assonance Examples: lady lounges lazily , dark deep dread crept in for consonance in music, see Consonance and dissonance Lakefield College School Key Literary Terms ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... Half rhyme, sometimes called slant, sprung, lose or near rhyme, and less commonly eye rhyme (a term covering a broader phenomenon), is consonance on the final consonants of the words involved. ... In poetry, internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme which occurs within a single line of verse. ... LaRon Louis James (born on February 18, 1983) is a rapper, small time actor and producer. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rakim (pronounced Rah-Kem) (full name Rakim Allah, born William Michael Griffin Jr. ...


Literary technique

Main article: Literary technique

Rappers use double entendres, alliteration, and all other forms of wordplay that are also found in classical poetry. Similes and metaphors are used extensively in rap lyrics; rappers such as Fabolous and Lloyd Banks have written entire songs wherein every line contains a simile or metaphor. A literary technique or literary device may be used in works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. ... A double entendre is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ... Alliteration is a literary device in which the same sound appears at the beginning of two or more consecutive words. ... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Common examples are Curley was flopping like a fish on a line(extract of Mice and Men) etc. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... John Jackson (born November 18, 1977),[1] better known by his stage name Fabolous, is an American rapper. ... Christopher Charles Lloyd (born April 30, 1982 in Baltimore, Maryland), better known as Lloyd Banks, is an American rapper and is a member of G-Unit. ...


Hip hop lyrics often make passing references to popular culture and other topics. An example is the song Wu-Tang Clan Ain't Nuthing Ta F' Wit by the Wu-Tang Clan, in which RZA rhymes, Wu-Tang Clan Aint Nuthing Ta F Wit is a song by influential hip-hop collective The Wu-Tang Clan. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... RZA (IPA pronunciation: ; born , July 5, 1969) is an American hip hop producer, rapper and actor. ...


"I be tossin', enforcin', my style is awesome
I'm causin more Family Feuds than Richard Dawson
And the survey said - you're dead
Fatal flying guillotine chops off your fuckin' head"
Richard Dawson (born November 20, 1932) is a British-born American actor, comedian, game show panelist and host. ...


Such allusions serve to illustrate or exaggerate a statement, or are simply used for humour. Some of these reference are overtly political, while others simply acknowledge, credit, or show dismay about aspects of the rapper's culture and life. Categories: | ...


Diction & Dialect

Many hip hop listeners believe that a rapper's lyrics are enhanced by a complex vocabulary. Kool Moe Dee claims that he appealed to older audiences by using a complex vocabulary in his raps.[12] Rap is famous, however, for having its own vocabulary— from international hip hop slang to local/regional slang. Some artists, like the Wu-Tang Clan, develop an entire lexicon among their clique. African American Vernacular English has always had a significant effect on hip hop slang, and vice-versa. Certain regions have introduced their unique regional slang to hip hop culture, such as the Bay Area (Mac Dre, E-40), Houston (Chamillionaire, Paul Wall), Atlanta (OutKast, Lil Jon, T.I.), and Kentucky (Nappy Roots). The Nation of Gods and Earths, a religious/spiritual group spun off from the Nation of Islam, has influenced mainstream hip hop slang with the introduction of phrases such as "word is bond" that have since lost much of their original spiritual meaning. Mohandas Dewese (born 8 August 1962), better known as Kool Moe Dee, was an American old-school rapper prominent in the late 1980s and early 90s. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Andre Hicks (July 5, 1970 – November 1, 2004), better known by his stage name, Mac Dre, was a San Francisco Bay Area-based gangsta rapper from Vallejo, California. ... For other uses, see E40. ... Houston redirects here. ... Hakeem Seriki (born November 28, 1979)better known by his stage name Chamillionaire (pronounced Ka-MIL-yin-air, IPA: , a portmanteau of chameleon and millionaire) is an American rapper (and often singer) and the CEO of Chamillitary Entertainment. ... Paul William Slayton (born Paul Gideon Manry on March 11, 1980) better known by his stage name Paul Wall, is a rapper, DJ, promoter and jeweller. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... OutKast is a Grammy award winning American hip hop duo based out of East Point, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia. ... Jonathan Smith (born January 27, 1971), better known by his stage name Lil Jon, is an American rapper, hype man, and producer. ... This article is about the musician. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Nappy Roots are an American hip hop sextet that originated in Kentucky in 1995, best known for their hit 2002 single Awnaw. Their music can be categorized as alternative Southern rap. ... The Five Percenter Universal Flag (Seven, Sun, Moon, and Star). ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring...

West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy
West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy

Preference toward one or the other has much to do with the individual; GZA, for example, prides himself on being very visual and metaphorical but also succinct, where underground rapper MF DOOM is known for heaping similes upon similes. In still another variation, 2Pac was known for saying exactly what he meant, literally and clearly. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 1429 KB) Snoop Dogg Source image url: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 1429 KB) Snoop Dogg Source image url: http://www. ... West Coast hip hop, also known as West Coast rap or California hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... GZA (IPA pronunciation: ), aka The Genius, (born Gary Grice August 22, 1966 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American hip hop artist. ... Daniel Dumile (IPA: duːməhːlayɪ) (born January 9, 1971) is an American hip hop artist who has taken on several stage names in his career - originally Zen Love X, most famously MF DOOM, and in side projects such as King Geedorah, Metal Fingers, Viktor Vaughn, and collaboration projects... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ...


Subject matter

See also: Concept rap

Hip hop music originated in New York City in the 1970s, and continues to focus largely on metropolitan centers in the East and West coasts of America. One element that has always existed in rapped rhymes, dating back to hip hop's inception, is "the struggle". This struggle was originally financial or personal in nature; getting a girlfriend, or paying the rent. With "The Message", a concept rap written by Melle Mel and performed by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, the idea of "the struggle" was put in another context: the shared hardships of the ghetto. A concept rap is a rapped verse which tells a story, as opposed to being used as a form of a battle rap. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ... West Coast hip hop, also known as West Coast rap or California hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... For Nas song, see The Message (Nas song). ... A concept rap is a rapped verse which tells a story, as opposed to being used as a form of a battle rap. ... Melle Mel (born Melvin Glover on May 15, 1962 in Bronx, New York ) is a hip-hop musician, one of the pioneers of old school hip hop as a lyricist & as lead rapper of Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ...


The roots of these sociopolitical raps are in the beat poetry of The Last Poets and Gil Scott Heron. "The Message" pioneered the inclusion of political content in hip hop rhymes, expanding beyond basic personal issues and party raps. In the golden age of hip hop, Public Enemy emerged, with a focus on political and social issues. Modern East Coast hip hop artists such as Mos Def, Talib Kweli, Jay-Z, Nas, and dead prez are known for their sociopolitical subject matter. Their West-coast counterparts include Emcee Lynx, The Coup, Paris, and Michael Franti. The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: This is... The Last Poets is a group of poets and musicians who arose from the late 1960s African American civil rights movements black nationalist thread. ... Gil Scott-Heron - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, began with Run-DMCs album Raising Hell in 1986 and ended with the popularity of Dr. Dres album The Chronic in late 1992. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Mos Def (born Dante Terrell Smith on December 11, 1973 in Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.), is an American rapper and actor. ... Talib Kweli (born Talib Kweli Greene in Brooklyn, New York City on October 3, 1975) is an American MC from Brooklyn, New York. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... Dead Prez is a critically acclaimed underground hip-hop duo of alternative rappers stic. ... West Coast hip hop, also known as West Coast rap or California hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the early 1980s. ... == Headline text ==. Emcee LynxAND JAYSHREE SARMA FROM NAIROBI KENYA A DANCER, RJ AND EMCEE FOR SEVERAL SHOWS, HER MOST MEMORABLE ANCHORING JOB WAS IN 2005 FOR uSTAD zAKIR HUSSEIN WORLD RENOWNED TABLA MAESTRO ,, A FORMER ANGELS DANCE MEMBER AND PRESENTER AT EAST FM He uses music to advocate for... The Coup is a hip-hop group based in Oakland, California. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Michael Franti (born April 21, 1966, in Oakland, California) is an American poet, musician, and composer of African, American Indian, Italian, and German descent. ...


Other rappers take a less critical approach to urbanity, sometimes even embracing such aspects as crime. Schoolly D was the first notable MC to rap about crime.[13] Several years later, he would go on to influence Ice T, who had more overtly "gangsta" lyrics. Gangsta rap, made popular largely because of N.W.A.. Early on KRS-One was accused of celebrating crime and a hedonistic lifestyle, but after the death of his DJ, Scott La Rock, KRS–ONE went on to speak out against violence in hip hop and has spent the majority of his career condemning violence and writing on issues of race and class. // Background Schoolly D is the moniker of Jesse B. Weaver, Jr. ... Tracy Marrow (born February 16, 1958), better known as Ice T or Ice-T, is an American rapper, singer and actor. ... For the Ice T album, see Gangsta Rap (album). ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ... Scott Sterling (March 2, 1962–August 27, 1987), better known by his stage name Scott La Rock, was the original DJ for the hip hop group Boogie Down Productions. ...


Various politicians, journalists, and religious leaders, have accused rappers of fostering a culture of violence and hedonism among hip hop listeners through their lyrics.[14][15][16] However, there are also rappers whose messages may not be in conflict with these views, for example Christian hip hop. Christian Hip Hop (originally Gospel Rap, also known as Holy Hip Hop or Christ hop) is a form of hip hop music which uses Christian themes to express the songwriters faith. ...


In contrast to the hedonistic approach of the gangsta rappers, some rappers have a spiritual or religious focus. Christian rap is currently the most commercially successful form of religious rap. Aside from Christianity, the Five Percent Nation, a gnostic religious/spiritual group, has been represented more than any religious group in popular hip hop. Hip-hop artists such as Rakim, the members of the Wu-Tang Clan, Brand Nubian, X Clan, Busta Rhymes, and Nas, have had success in spreading the theology of the Five Percenters. See the article on Hip hop and religion for a more in-depth discussion. Christian rap (originally gospel rap, but also known as holy hip hop, or Christian hip-hop) is a form of rap music that uses Christian-themed lyrics to express the songwriters faith. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Five Percenter Universal Flag (Seven, Sun, Moon, and Star). ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Rakim (pronounced Rah-Kem) (full name Rakim Allah, born William Michael Griffin Jr. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Brand Nubian is a hip hop group from New Rochelle, New York, consisting of three MCs; Grand Puba (born Maxwell Dixon, March 4, 1966), Sadat X (formerly Derek X, born Derek Murphy) and Lord Jamar (born Lorenzo Dechalus, on September 17, 1968), and two DJs, DJ Alamo and DJ Sincere. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Trevor Smith (born on May 20, 1972), better known as Busta Rhymes, is an American hip hop musician and actor. ... For other uses, see Nas (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


"Party rhymes", meant to pump up the crowd at a party, were nearly the exclusive focus of old school hip hop (with the exception of The Furious Five). Party raps remain a staple of hip hop music to this day. In addition to Party raps, rappers also tend to make references to love and sex. Love raps were first popularized by Spoonie Gee! of the Treacherous Three, and later, in the golden age of hip hop, Big Daddy Kane, Heavy D, and LL Cool J would continue this tradition. 2 Live Crew, a Miami bass group, were among the first hip hop act to be temporarily banned in the United States, for the overtly sexual and profane content of their raps. For other uses, see Party (disambiguation). ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Grandmaster Flash (born Joseph Saddler on January 1, 1958 in Barbados) is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Treacherous Three are old school rappers. ... Antonio Hardy (born September 10, 1968), better known by his stage name Big Daddy Kane, is a record producer/rapper from the Bed-Stuy section of Brooklyn, New York. ... Heavy D. & the Boyz was an American hip hop group led by 250-lb Heavy D., who is known for his wild boastings about his sexual prowess. ... LL Cool J (born James Todd Smith III on January 14, 1968 in New York, New York) is a American hip hop artist and actor. ... 2 Live Crew is a rap group. ... Miami bass (also known as booty music, a term that may also include other genres, such as dirty rap), is a type of hip hop music that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. ...


Performance

Flow

Rap delivery, or flow, is defined by prosody, cadence, and speed. Cadence deals with the dynamics and patterns of the rhythm. In addition to rubato (changes in tempo for the purpose of expression), cadence can also serve to reinforce song structure through ritardando (the gradual slowing down of tempo). Old school rappers generally maintained a simple cadence, without much deviation,[17] while golden age rappers such as Rakim experimented extensively with cadence.[12] Present day popular rappers like Method Man, Snoop Dogg, Busta Rhymes and André 3000 are considered to have a versatile cadence because of their ability to rap over disparate beats equally well. Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, began with the popularity of Run-DMCs album Raising Hell in 1986 and ended with the popularity of G-Funk around 1993. ... Rakim (pronounced Rah-Kem) (full name Rakim Allah, born William Michael Griffin Jr. ... This article is about Method Man. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Trevor Smith (born on May 20, 1972), better known as Busta Rhymes, is an American hip hop musician and actor. ... “Ice cold” redirects here. ...


A common way MCs judge how to flow in a verse is by writing a rhyme so that the most stressed words coincide with the beats percussion, in a way that makes the rhyming sound more musical (as opposed to spoken word) and that better combines the MC's voice with the musical backdrop. Rakim -- whom many credit with changing the way most rappers flow on a song -- experimented not only with following the percussion, but also with complementing the song's melody with his own voice, making his flow sound like that of an instrument (a saxophone in particular.[18] Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ...


The ability to rap quickly and clearly is sometimes regarded as an important sign of skill. In certain hip hop subgenres such as chopped and screwed, slow-paced rapping is often considered optimal. The current record for fastest rapper is held by MC Ricky Brown, who rapped 723 syllables in 51.27 seconds (14.1 syllables per second) on his track "No Clue" at B&G Studios on January 15, 2005.[19].MC Delicate(Kenya) is also one of the African Rappers cashing on this speed flow rap due to his ability to roll over several syllables in a couple of seconds. Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... Chopped and screwed (or screwed and chopped), slowed and throwed, Houston music, H-Town music, screw music, screw, and dragged and chopped all refer to a technique of remixing hip hop music. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


To successfully deliver a nicely flowing rap, a rapper must also develop vocal presence, enunciation, and breath control. Vocal presence is the distinctiveness of a rapper's voice on record. Enunciation is essential to a flowing rap; some rappers choose also to exaggerate it for comic and artistic effect. Breath control, taking in air without interrupting one's delivery, is an important skill for a rapper to master, and a must for any MC. An MC with poor breath control can't deliver difficult verses without making unintentional pauses. Enunciation is the act of speaking clearly and concisely. ... The term breath control may mean: Anapana, a Buddhist meditation technique for controlling breathing A vocal technique used in singing autoerotic asphyxiation, a technique of self-inducing sexual pleasure via breath control erotic asphyxiation, a BDSM sexual technique where one partner controls the breathing or airway of the other Category...


Raps are sometimes delivered with melody. West Coast rapper Egyptian Lover was the first notable MC to deliver "sing-raps."[13] Popular rappers such as 50 Cent and Ja Rule add a slight melody to their otherwise purely percussive raps whereas some rappers, such as Cee-Lo, are able to harmonize their raps with the beat. The Midwestern group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony was one of the first groups to achieve nation-wide recognition for using the fast-paced, melodic and harmonic raps that are also practiced by Do or Die, another Midwestern group. Another rapper to harmonize his rhymes is Nate Dogg, a rapper part of the group 213. Egyptian Lover (born Greg Broussard) is an American electro hop rapper, he was an important part of the known performers of the underground West Coast dance scene. ... 50 cents may refer to 50 subunits of currencies where the subunit is called a cent. ... Jeffrey Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule is an American rapper from Hollis, Queens, New York City, New York, United States. ... Cee-lo (also known as Dice, See-Low, Four-Five-Six, The Three Dice Game, Chinchirorin, and by several alternative spellings) is a gambling game played with three six-sided dice. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Bone Thugs-n-Harmony is an American hip hop group from Cleveland, Ohio, best known for their high pace rapping style and harmonizing vocals. ... Do or Die is a gangsta rap trio originally from Chicago, Illinois, USA. The group experienced mainstream success with the single Po Pimp, a collaboration with fellow Chicago rapper Twista, off the album Picture This. Group members are Belo Zero, N.A.R.D. and AK-47. ... Nathaniel Dawayne Hale (born August 19, 1969), commonly known by stage name Nate Dogg, is an American hip hop artist born in Long Beach, California. ...


Freestyle rapping

See also: Freestyle rap

There are two kinds of Freestyle rapping: one is scripted (recitation), but having no particular overriding subject matter, the second typically referred to as freestyling or spitting, is the improvisation of rapped lyrics. When freestyling, some rappers inadvertently reuse old lines, or even "cheat" by preparing segments or entire verses in advance. Therefore, freestyles with proven spontaneity are valued above generic, always usable lines.[20] Rappers will often reference places, objects in their immediate setting, or specific (usually demeaning) characteristics of opponents, to prove their authenticity and originality. Freestyle rap is an improvisational form of rapping, performed with few or no previously composed lyrics, which is said to reflect a direct mapping of the mental state and performing situation of the artist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Battle rapping

See also: Battle rap and Diss track

Battle rapping, which can be freestyled, is the competition between two or more rappers in front of an audience. The tradition of insulting one's friends or acquaintances in rhyme goes back to the dozens, and was portrayed famously by Muhammad Ali in his boxing matches. The winner of a battle is decided by the crowd and/or preselected judges. According to Kool Moe Dee, a successful battle rap focuses on an opponents weaknesses, rather than one's own strengths. Television shows such as BET's 106 and Park and MTV's DFX host weekly freestyle battles live on the air. Battle rapping gained widespread public recognition outside of the African-American community with rapper Eminem's movie, 8 Mile. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the hip-hop genre, a diss song is a song which has the main purpose of verbally assaulting and insulting a person or a group of people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Your father redirects here. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... Mohandas Dewese (born 8 August 1962), better known as Kool Moe Dee, was an American old-school rapper prominent in the late 1980s and early 90s. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Bet may refer to: Look up bet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 106 & Park (BETs Top 10 Live) is one of the longest running television shows on BET. The 90-minute segment features popular hip hop and R&B music videos. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... 8 Mile stars Eminem (Marshall Mathers) as the young white rapper Jimmy Smith Jr. ...


The strongest battle rappers will generally perform their rap fully freestyled. This is the most effective form in a battle as the rapper can comment on the other person, whether it be what they look like, or how they talk, or what they wear. It also allows the rapper to reverse a line used to 'diss' him/her if they are the second rapper to battle.


Social Impact

Race & Class

See also: Race in hip hop

By the United States 2000 Census, three-quarters of the United States' population is white, while one-eighth is black. However, almost all popular rappers in the United States are black.[21] Some believe this discrepancy is a good thing; popular rapper Kanye West has said: "I hate music where white people are trying to sound black. The white music I like is white".[22] Although hip hop is a primarily music oriented culture, the political significance of race sometimes comes into play, with accusations of cultural appropriation against non-black-- typically white and Asian-- performers, and charges of racism and self-stereotyping against black performers. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kɑnjɛj/) (born June 8, 1977) is an American record producer and rapper who rose to fame in the mid 2000s. ...


Wealth and class are significant issues in hip-hop, a culture which was developed mainly among the lower and lower-middle class blacks of inner-city New York. Any view of money that can be seen in real life can also be seen in the lyrics of rap-- just as there are rappers who often brag about their extravagant wealth, or more specifically, their "rags to riches" stories, there are political militants who decry materialism. Although most of hip hop's famous and influential rappers have come from inner-city ghettos[23] , hip-hop has always represented a variety of economic backgrounds. For example, Run-D.M.C., The Beastie Boys, Rakim, Black Sheep, and Kanye West[24] were middle-class when they began rapping. Run-DMC is a famous hip hop crew founded by Jason Mizell (Jam Master Jay) and includes Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels, all from Hollis, Queens. ... The Beastie Boys as depicted on the cover of their 1992 album Check Your Head. ... Rakim (pronounced Rah-Kem) (full name Rakim Allah, born William Michael Griffin Jr. ... Black Sheep is an alternative hip-hop duo from The Bronx, New York, consisting of Andres Dres Titus and William Mista Lawnge McLean. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kɑnjɛj/) (born June 8, 1977) is an American record producer and rapper who rose to fame in the mid 2000s. ...


Race issues often intersect with class issues. Vanilla Ice, a white pop rapper, went so far as to lie about his place of origin, claiming that he came from the inner-city of Miami, Florida, when he was actually from suburban Texas. According to Vanilla Ice, he was encouraged to lie by his record company, to increase their profits.[25] In juxtaposition to Vanilla Ice stand the Beastie Boys, a rap group composed of white Jewish teenagers. The Beastie Boys didn't lie about their middle-class and suburban upbringing, and managed to sell millions of records while maintaining the respect of the hip hop community.[26] Robert Matthew Van Winkle (born October 31, 1968), better known as Vanilla Ice, is a Grammy Award nominated, American Music Award winning American rapper and actor known mostly for the 1990 single Ice Ice Baby. ... Pop rap (sometimes referred to as hip pop) is the name given to a style of hip hop that has a strong pop music influences. ... Miami redirects here. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


House of Pain, an Irish-American crew with members from Los Angeles and New York, were downright assertive about their ethnicity, including footage of St. Patricks Day parades in the music video for their first hit single Jump Around and name-checking prominent Irish Americans in their lyrics. They also incorporated time signatures associated with traditional Irish Folk Music such as Jigs and Reels into their songs - a major deviation from mainstream hip hop where virtually every song is done in 4/4 time. Their first self-titled album went multi-platinum. The group split up after their third album and lead-rapper Everlast went on to pursue a solo career, releasing the multi-platinum Whitey Ford Sings the Blues in [[1998 and the platinum Eat at Whiteys in 2000. He is currently a member of La Coka Nostra, along with Danny Boy, another original House of Pain member as well as DJ Lethal. DJ Lethal also moved on from House of Pain to be the DJ for Limp Bizkit, a rap-rock group that has repeatedly gone multi-platinum. H.O.P. on the Best Of Album cover House of Pain was an Irish-styled American hip-hop group who released three albums in the early to mid 90s before lead rapper Everlast decided to pursue his solo career again. ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about the state. ... House of Pain was an Irish-American hip-hop group formed by Everlast in 1991 (see 1991 in music), comprised of himself, Danny Boy OConnor, and DJ Lethal. ... This article is about the folk dance jig, for other meanings, see Jig (disambiguation). ... A reel may also refer to a type of dance and its accompanying music. ... Everlast (born Erik Schrody, August 18, 1969 in Valley Stream, New York) is an Irish-American rapper and singer-songwriter, best known for his hit What Its Like, and for his genre-crossing mix of rap and acoustic-based rock music. ... Whitey Ford Sings the Blues (1998) was Everlasts second solo album. ... La Coka Nostra (or short LCN) is an American hip hop group, comprised mainly of all former members of House of Pain, one former member of Non Phixion, and various other MCs and producers. ... For the Scottish comedian, see Danny Bhoy. ... Leor Dimant (born December 18, 1972 in Riga, Latvia), better known as DJ Lethal, is a turntablist and producer. ... Limp Bizkit (alternately written as limpbizkit) is a nu metal and rapcore band from Jacksonville, Florida. ...


The most recent mainstream exception to the skin color trend in mainstream rappers is Eminem, who is of mainly English descent, who grew up in the primarily black city of Detroit.[27] In his song "White America", Eminem attributes his selling success to his being more easily digestible by a white audience, because he "looks like them." Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... A 19th century childrens book informs its readers that the Dutch are a very industrious race, and that Chinese children are very obedient to their parents. ...


Other prominent American rappers of primarily European decent include Sage Francis, Paul Wall (who is 1/4 Mexican), Emcee Lynx, Mike Shinoda (who is half Japanese), El-Producto, Aesop Rock, and many others. Race, class, and ethnicity remain prominent themes in hip hop music in general, regardless of race. Emcee Lynx in particular is notable for addressing these issues in his music and referencing his Scots Irish heritage in his music as a point of pride. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Paul Sage Francis (born November, 1976 in Miami, Florida) is a hip-hop artist based in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Paul William Slayton (born Paul Gideon Manry on March 11, 1980) better known by his stage name Paul Wall, is a rapper, DJ, promoter and jeweller. ... == Headline text ==. Emcee LynxAND JAYSHREE SARMA FROM NAIROBI KENYA A DANCER, RJ AND EMCEE FOR SEVERAL SHOWS, HER MOST MEMORABLE ANCHORING JOB WAS IN 2005 FOR uSTAD zAKIR HUSSEIN WORLD RENOWNED TABLA MAESTRO ,, A FORMER ANGELS DANCE MEMBER AND PRESENTER AT EAST FM He uses music to advocate for... Michael Kenji Shinoda (born February 11, 1977)[1][2] is an American musician, record producer, and artist from Agoura Hills, California. ... El-P aka El-Producto (born Jaime Meline on March 4, 1975) is an American hip hop artist and entrepreneur from Brooklyn, New York City. ... Aesop Rock (born Ian Matthias Bavitz on 1976-05-11) is an American hip hop artist. ... == Headline text ==. Emcee LynxAND JAYSHREE SARMA FROM NAIROBI KENYA A DANCER, RJ AND EMCEE FOR SEVERAL SHOWS, HER MOST MEMORABLE ANCHORING JOB WAS IN 2005 FOR uSTAD zAKIR HUSSEIN WORLD RENOWNED TABLA MAESTRO ,, A FORMER ANGELS DANCE MEMBER AND PRESENTER AT EAST FM He uses music to advocate for... Ulster-Scots are an Irish ethnic group descended from mainly Lowland Scots who settled in the Province of Ulster in Ireland, first beginning in large numbers during the 17th century. ...


Despite the fact that the majority of American rap artists in the mainstream are Black, some statistics indicate that most hip hop record purchasers are white, reflecting demographics and economics. According to musicologist Arthur Kempton, "Today 70 percent of hip-hop is bought by white kids".[28] Boots Riley has criticized these figures, pointing out that they only count sound-scan sales, which automatically excludes the mom-and-pop record stores located in majority Black and Latino neighborhoods that the major music chains tend to avoid, and thus dramatically under-represents the number of sales made in such communities. For album by Prince, see Musicology (album). ... Party Musics controversial album cover The Coup is the name of a hip-hop group. ...


According to political rapper Zion of Zion I, socially conscious hip hop has a mainly white audience: "...so many Black people don't want to hear it. They want that thug shit." In addition to Zion, several other underground rappers, such as Boots Riley of The Coup, report nearly all-white audiences.[29] Zion I is a hip hop duo that started in Oakland, California. ... The Coup is a hip-hop group based in Oakland, California. ...


Gender and sexuality

See also: List of female rappers

Almost all popular rappers identify themselves as heterosexual.[citation needed] Homophobia is both prevalent and blatant throughout hip hop culture;[citation needed] however, some heterosexual rappers like Kanye West[30] are continuing to fight against homophobia in hip hop. Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z These are the top 10 most successful female rap artist based on album and single sales. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kɑnjɛj/) (born June 8, 1977) is an American record producer and rapper who rose to fame in the mid 2000s. ...


Though the majority of rappers are male, there have been a number of female rap stars, including Lauryn Hill, MC Lyte, Lil' Kim, Missy Elliott, Queen Latifah, Da Brat, Eve, Foxy Brown, and Lisa Lopes from TLC. Lauryn Noel Hill (born May 25, 1975) is an American singer, rapper, musician, record producer and film actress. ... MC Lyte (born Lana Michele Moorer, 11 October 1970, Brooklyn, New York) is a female rap artist. ... Kimberly Denise Jones, better known by her stage name Lil Kim[1], is an American multi-platinum rapper. ... Melissa Arnette Elliott (born July 1, 1971 in Portsmouth, Virginia), better known as Missy Elliott, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, MC, and record producer. ... Also see the Arab singer Latifa Dana Elaine Owens (born March 18, 1970 in Newark, New Jersey) is a Grammy-winning American rapper/singer, model, and Academy Award-nominated actress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eve Jihan Jeffers (born November 10, 1978 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania better known as Eve or E-V-E, is an American rapper, singer, and actress. ... For the 1974 blaxploitation film, see Foxy Brown (film). ... Lisa Left Eye Lopes (birth name Lisa Nicole Lopes) (May 27, 1971 – April 25, 2002), was an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actress of Cape Verdean descent, and member of the popular R&B and hip hop group TLC. In addition to hit songs like Waterfalls with TLC, Lopes also did... TLC was an American music group, whose repertoire spans R&B, hip hop and pop. ...


Derivatives and influence

Throughout hip hop's history, new musical styles and genres have developed that contain rapping. Entire genres, such as rapcore (rock/metal/punk with rapped vocals) and hip house have resulted from the fusion of rap and other styles. All popular music genres with a focus on percussion have contained rapping at some point— be it disco (DJ Hollywood), jazz (Gangstarr), new wave (Blondie), funk (Fatback Band), contemporary R&B (Mary J. Blige), Reggaeton (Daddy Yankee), or even Japanese dance music, such as (Soul'd Out). UK garage music has begun to focus increasingly on rappers in a new subgenre called Grime, pioneered and popularized by the MC, Dizzee Rascal. Increased popularity with the music has shown more UK rappers going to America as well as to tour there, such as Sway DaSafo possibly signing with Akon's label Konvict. Hyphy is the latest of these spin-offs. The style originated in Oakland California and gained national attention in 2006 starting with E-40's album My Ghetto Report Card. It is typified by slowed-down atonal vocals with instrumentals that borrow heavily from the Rave scene and lyrics centered on illegal street racing and car culture. Another Oakland California group, Beltaine's Fire, has recently gained attention for their Celtic Fusion sound which blends hip hop beats with celtic melodies. Unlike the majority of hip hop artists, all their music is performed live without samples, synths, or drum machines, drawing comparisons to The Roots and Rage Against the Machine. Rapcore is a musical genre that fuses the techniques of hip hop, gangsta rap, hard rock, heavy metal, alternative rock, hardcore punk and sometimes funk. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Heavy metal music. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Hip house, also known as house rap, is a mixture of house music and hip-hop which arose during the 1980s in New York. ... This article is about the music genre. ... DJ Hollywood (born December 10, 1954) is an American old school hip hop DJ and rapper. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Gang Starr is an American hip hop duo, composed of Guru (hailing from Boston, Massachusetts) and DJ Premier (hailing from Texas). ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Blondie is the name of an American rock band that first gained fame in the late 1970s, and which has sold over 140 million records. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... The Fatback Band (later, Fatback) were a 1970s and 80s American funk band. ... Contemporary R&B is a music genre of American popular music, the current iteration of the genre that began in the 1940s as rhythm and blues music. ... Mary Jane Blige (born January 11, 1971) is an American R&B, soul, and hip hop soul singer, songwriter, occasional rapper, record producer, and actress who has sold over forty million records worldwide. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American (or Latino) youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... Raymond Ayala (born on December 12, 1977 in Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee is a successful Latin Grammy Award-winning Puerto Rican reggaeton recording artist. ... SOULd OUT is a Japanese hip-hop band that consists of three members: Diggy-MO (Main MC), Bro. ... UK garage (also known as UKG or just garage) refers to several different varieties of modern electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house in the UK in the mid 1990s. ... Grime(also known as hip house) is a sub-genre of urban music which first emerged in London in the early 2000s, primarily a development of UK garage, drum and bass, dancehall and hip hop. ... Dylan Mills, known professionally as Dizzee Rascal (born November 1, 1985 [1] in Bow, East London)[2], is a Mercury Prize-winning English MC/rapper and producer. ... Derek Andrew Safo is a British hip hop rapper born in 1982 in Hornsey, North London, of Ghanaian origins, who uses the stage names Sway DaSafo or simply Sway; he is also a full-time producer. ... Kishan Aliaune Damala Bouga Time Puru Nacka Badara Akon Thiam,[1][2] often going by the shorter Aliaune Thiam[3] (born October 14, 1981),[4] and better known by his stage name Akon, is an American R&B singer, rapper, songwriter, record producer, and record executive. ... Konvict can refer to the following: Konvicted, an album by Akon Konvict Muzik, Akons record label See also: Convict Category: ... Hyphy (pronounced HI-fee; IPA: ) is a style of music and dance primarily associated with the Bay Area hip hop culture. ... Oakland is the name of several places in the United States of America: Oakland, Alabama Oakland, California (The best-known city with this name) Oakland, Florida Oakland, Maine Oakland, Maryland Oakland, Michigan Oakland, Missouri Oakland, Nebraska Oakland, New Jersey Oakland, Oklahoma Oakland, Oregon Oakland, Pennsylvania Oakland, Rhode Island Oakland, Tennessee... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see E40. ... My Ghetto Report Card is an album by long-time Bay Area rapper E-40. ... For other uses, see Rave (disambiguation). ... Celtic Fusion is a broad umbrella term for modern music which incorporates traditional Celtic influences, or Celtic music which incorporates modern music. ... The Roots, also variously known as The Legendary Roots Crew, The Fifth Dynasty, The Square Roots and The Foundation, are an influential, Grammy-winning hip-hop band based out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, famed for a heavily jazzy sound and live instrumentation. ... Rage Against the Machine (also Rage and RATM) is an American rock band, noted for their blend of hip hop, heavy metal, punk and funk as well as their revolutionary politics and lyrics. ...


Bhangra, a widely popular style of music from Punjab (India) has been mixed numerous times with reggae and hip-hop music. The most popular song in this genre in the United States was "mundian to bach ke" or "Beware the boys" by panjabi mc and Jay-Z. Although mundian to bach ke was already a song inspired by knight rider,the mixing with Jay-Z popularized the genre further. Bhangra (Punjabi: , , ) is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Panjabi MC (real name Rajinder Singh Rai) is a British Indian musician. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... For the American media company, see Knight Ridder. ...


Regional variations

Belgium/Netherlands

Main article: Dutch hip hop

Nederhop is hiphop with Dutch language rap. The first successful Nederhop record was "Rap Around the Clock" (7", 1986) by Extince, which was followed by rap duo MC Miker G & DJ Sven with the 12" "Holiday Rap", a Benelux number one hit that was distributed in 34 countries. The rap group "Osdorp Posse" from Amsterdam stood in the late eighties at the base of Dutch rap. When Rapper Def P, the frontman of Osdorp Posse, began translating idiomatic English lyrics with "ghetto" themes literally into Dutch, the term Nederhop was coined. Dutch hip hop or Nederhop is hip hop music performed in the Netherlands. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Extince (a. ... MC Miker G & DJ Sven were a hip hop duo from the Netherlands. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... Cover of the debut album Osdorp Stijl Osdorp Posse was one of the first rap groups to produce rap music in the Dutch language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...


Famous Nederhop rappers & groups include Opgezwolle, Osdorp Posse, ABN, Appa, Fata Morgana, Raymzter, Extince, Postmen, Duvel, and Brainpower. // Opgezwolle Opgezwolle is a Dutch rap group that is composed out of MCs Sticks & Rico and DJ Delic. ... Postmen was and Postman is a Reggae/Hiphop band from Holland. ... Gertjan Brainpower Mulder Brainpower, in real life known as Gertjan Mulder, is a Dutch-language rapper, born in 1975. ...


France

Main article: French hip hop

Outside of the United States the largest hip hop scene is in France and artists such as MC Solar and Les Nubians have even crossed over into the American market. As with early American hip hop social and political issues figure strongly in much of French hip hop and the majority of performers come from the country's ethnic minorities, notably the Arab population. See the article on French hip hop for a more in depth discussion. Most French hip hop artists come from poor urban areas outside of Paris known as the banlieues (including Lunatic, Mafia K1 Fry, La Brigade, Secteur Ä), Lyon, Lille, Le Havre (La Boussole), Strasbourg, Toulouse (KDD) or Marseille (IAM, Fonky Family, Psy 4 De La Rime, 3ème Oeil, and others). ... MC Solaar is the stage name of francophone hip hop and rap artist Claude MBarali (born March 5, 1969 in Dakar, Senegal to parents from Chad). ... Les Nubians on the cover of their 2003 second album One Step Forward Les Nubians is the name of an Afropean R&B Grammy-nominated duo composed of sisters Hélène (born 1975) and Célia Faussart (born 1979) from Bordeaux, France. ... Most French hip hop artists come from poor urban areas outside of Paris known as the banlieues (including Lunatic, Mafia K1 Fry, La Brigade, Secteur Ä), Lyon, Lille, Le Havre (La Boussole), Strasbourg, Toulouse (KDD) or Marseille (IAM, Fonky Family, Psy 4 De La Rime, 3ème Oeil, and others). ...


Greece

Main article: Greek hip hop

Greek hip hop refers to hip hop music originating in Greece, either in Greek or English. The earliest Greek hip hop groups date back to 1987, though native language albums did not appear until the mid-1990s.Some of the most important early hip-hop groups in Greece were Imiskoumbria, Terror X Crew (members: Artemis, Efthimis, DJ ALX), FF.C (members: Ruthmodamastis, DJ Everlast, Skinothetis, plus many guests) and Active Member.This differentiation caused a lot of tension among the Greek hip-hop fans. Between 1995 and 2000, there was a lot of conflict, relatively speaking. Things escalated from there when the Battle rap era in Greece begun with the group ZN (Living Dead) that started dissing Active Member and other hip hop groups. ZN was composed of 5 members. They followed the Wu-Tang style and have been influenced from the Wu-Tang Clan. They first released an EP and then a group album, followed by releasing solo albums. Their one and only album (due to feuding) as a group was "O Protos Tomos" (The First Volume) in 1997.As American hip hop lyrics became more widely violent, so did international hip hop lyrics, and Greece was no exception. Rapping about guns, drugs, violence and sex became the norm. Hardcore Greek rap had swept the genre, and commercial hip hop followed suit. Commercial hip-hop in Greece has become hugely successful, with acts like Imiskoumbria, Terror X Crew and Goin' Through blazing the trails.Imiskoumbria and Terror X Crew both were the first to have their records going gold. Goin' Through became a massive success after their last album, La Sagrada Familia, was granted gold status as of 2006. Their follow-up, Vendetta, achieved gold sales within three months of its release. Goin' Through has also established Greece's big name hip-hop label, Family, where some other acts are signed. Some of the more noted acts of Family are Taraxias, Thirio, NEVMA, Ominus & DJ "S", TNS. It should be noted that the group Imiskoumbria, is widely credited as one of the Greek rap acts that made Greek hip hop a household thing. Before this, Greek hip hop was considered to be a fad or a novelty of sorts. Greek hip hop refers to hip hop music originating in Greece, either in Greek or English. ... Imiskoumbria is a Greek hip-hop group started in 1996. ... ALX (pronounced Alex, born in the year 1975 in Detroit, Michigan) is one of Greeces most influential producers. ... Active Member is a Greek hip-hop/low bap group, founded in 1992 by Michalis Mitakidis (a. ... Active Member is a Greek hip-hop/low bap group, founded in 1992 by Michalis Mitakidis (a. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Imiskoumbria is a Greek hip-hop group started in 1996. ... Imiskoumbria is a Greek hip-hop group started in 1996. ...


Portugal

Main article: Hip hop Tuga

Portuguese hip hop (Hip hop português) mostly known as Hip Hop Tuga is the Portuguese variety of hip hop music, although different because it is mixed with African music from Lusophone Africa and reggae. Popular Portuguese rappers include Clã da Matarroa, Valete, Da Weasel, Boss AC, Sam the Kid (rapper & producer), Dealema, Mind Da Gap, Bonus, Adamastor and DJ Bomberjack. Portuguese hip hop (Hip hop português) mostly known as Hip Hop Tuga is the Portuguese variety of hip hop music, although different because it is mixed with African music from Lusophone Africa and reggae. ... Portuguese hip hop (Hip hop português) mostly known as Hip Hop Tuga is the Portuguese variety of hip hop music, although different because it is mixed with African music from Lusophone Africa and reggae. ... Valete is a Portuguese language political hip hop artist named Keidje Lima that has enjoyed some critical success in his home country of Portugal. ... Da Weasel is a Portuguese hip-hop band from Almada. ... Boss AC is a Portuguese rapper originally from Cape Verde. ... Samuel Martins Torres Santiago Mira (born July 17, 1979), better known as Sam the Kid is the most known, successful and prominent Portuguese rapper and producer in Portugal. ... BONUS - It is an incentive for many workers to work extra hours and improve quality, in certain cases quantity, to ensure a maximised wage overall. ... Adamastor (in Greek imitative rival of Adam) was used by the Portuguese poet Luís de Camões in his epic poem Os Lusíadas, as a symbol of the forces of nature Portuguese navigators had to overcome during their discoveries. ...


UK

Main article: British hip hop

The UK scene has also gained international prominence, especially since the fact that the performers rap in English makes them more marketable to American audiences than their French counterparts. The UK sound incorporates extremely fast flows, strong electronica, and drum n bass influences. The Bristol Sound in particular was influential in the creation of Trip Hop, which combines slowed-down hip hop beats with sung vocals. UK artists are beginning to achieve crossover into the American market, notable MC Kano was featured on the Def Jam Icon Xbox 360 and Playstation 3 game, the only UK rapper featured there, with a wide selection of popular American rappers. Lady Sovereign has signed with the American Def Jam label. Popular UK rappers include Ty, Klashnekoff, Skinnyman, Blak Twang, Stig Of The Dump. JME and Skepta of Boy Better Know are grime MC's but have been called rappers many times and have worked with top American producer Just Blaze. Visit the page on UK Hip Hop for more. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Kano is the administrative center of the Kano State and the third largest city in Nigeria, in terms of geographical size, after Ibadan and Lagos. ... Def Jam: Icon is a fighting game, the third in Electronic Artss Def Jam-licensed hip hop video game series. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... Louise Amanda Harman (born December 19, 1985), known as Lady Sovereign, is an English MC[1][2]. // Lady Sovereign was raised in northwest Londons Chalkhill Estate, a public housing project where she says her upbringing could get dangerous or depressing[3]. She was influenced by her mothers Salt... Def Jam Recordings is an American based hip-hop record label that operates as a part of The Island Def Jam Music Group, which is owned by Universal Music Group. ... Beanie Baby with its ty tag Ty Inc. ... Darren Kandler, also known as Klashnekoff (pronounced K-Lash-Nek-Off), Ricochet Klashnekoff and K-Lash, is a British rapper from Hackney, London. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... jME (jMonkey Engine) is a Java based 3D gaming API. jME primary focus is high performance gaming using OpenGL as the rendering API and using a scene graph with bounding volumes to cull non-visible objects. ... Justin Smith (born in Paterson, New Jersey on January 14, 1978), better known as Just Blaze, is an American hip hop music producer. ... Alphanumeric List 1-9 1200 Techniques 2 Live Crew Fresh Kid Ice Luke Skyywalker Mr. ...


Sources

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ BBC NEWS: Africa. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  3. ^ About.com: Rap. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  4. ^ PBS lesson plan on the blues. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  5. ^ Yale University Teachers Association. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  6. ^ a b Hip Hop and Blues. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  7. ^ The Roots of Rap. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  8. ^ John Sobol's Digitopia
  9. ^ The earlier meaning being "a usage well established among African-Americans by the 1960s.", according to the The American Heritage Dictionary, 4th Edition.
  10. ^ Davey D's Hip-Hop Corner. Retrieved on December 20, 2005.
  11. ^ Davey D's Hip-Hop Corner - Interview with Kool DJ Herc. Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Kool Moe Dee; Chuck D. (November 2003). There's a God on the Mic, Ernie Paniccioli (Photographer), Thunder's Mouth Press, 224. ISBN 1-56025-533-1. 
  13. ^ a b Blow, Kurtis. Kurtis Blow Presents: The History of Rap, Vol. 1: The Genesis (liner notes). Kurtis Blow Presents: The History Of Rap, Vol. 1: The Genesis. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  14. ^ Kirby, Jill (2006-07-16). The hoodie needs a daddy, not a hug. The Times. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  15. ^ "Challenging Pepsi". Fox News (2002-08-28). Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  16. ^ Lynskey, Dorian (2006-07-21). 'We need heroes'. The Guardian. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  17. ^ allmusic. Retrieved on December 22, 2005.
  18. ^ Rakim Allah Interview - YoungAmerica, from Friday, July 07, 2006
  19. ^ Guinness World Records. Retrieved on December 17, 2005.
  20. ^ Freestyle: The Art of Rhyme (2000)
  21. ^ Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas (1999). "Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference". Enculturation 2 (2). Retrieved on 2006-06-12. 
  22. ^ Kanye West: 'White People Should Make White Music'. Soundbuzz/Yahoo! Music (27). Retrieved on May 12, 2006.
  23. ^ Hip-Hop as Culture - by Efrem Smith (2007)
  24. ^ Tyrangiel, Josh. Why You Can't Ignore Kanye. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 21, 2006.
  25. ^ Austen, Jake. Vanilla Ice: The Ice Is Right. Rocktober Roctober #24, 1999. Retrieved on May 21, 2006.
  26. ^ Beastie Boys: Biography - VH1.com
  27. ^ http://music.yahoo.com/ar-289114-bio--Eminem
  28. ^ Anderman, Joan. "HIP-HOP SETTING THE BEAT IN FIRST, BLACK ARTISTS HOLD BILLBOARD'S TOP 10", The Boston Globe, 2003-10-04. Retrieved on 2006-06-12. 
  29. ^ Kitwana, Bakari (June 24, 2005). The Cotton Club. The Village Voice. Retrieved on February 2, 2006.
  30. ^ Star says rap is 'too homophobic' - BBC News (2005)

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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mohandas Dewese (born 8 August 1962), better known as Kool Moe Dee, was an American old-school rapper prominent in the late 1980s and early 90s. ... Kurtis Blow (born Curtis Walker, 9 August 1959, Harlem, New York) is one of the first commercially successful rappers and the first to sign with a major label. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Further reading

  • Alan Light; et al. (October 1999). The Vibe History of Hip Hop. Three Rivers Press, 432. ISBN 0-609-80503-7. 
  • Jeff Chang; D.J. Kool Herc (December 2005). Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. Picador, 560. ISBN 0-312-42579-1. 
  • Sacha Jenkins; et al. (December 1999). Ego Trip's Book of Rap Lists. St. Martin's Griffin, 352. ISBN 0-312-24298-0. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rapping - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3822 words)
Rapping, the rhythmic delivery of rhymes, is one of the central elements of hip hop culture and music.
The first people to rap in the hip hop style were the DJs of the 1970s, such as Hollywood and Kool Herc, who rapped shout-outs to their friends as they DJ'd behind the turntables.
Rap is famous, however, for having its own vocabulary— from international hip hop slang to local/regional slang.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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