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Encyclopedia > Rapid prototyping
A rapid prototyping machine using Selective laser sintering. Photo by Renato M.E. Sabbatini

Rapid prototyping is the automatic construction of physical objects using solid freeform fabrication. The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts. Today, they are used for a much wider range of applications and are even used to manufacture production quality parts in relatively small numbers. Some sculptors use the technology to produce complex shapes for fine arts exhibitions. Image File history File links 3dprinter. ... Image File history File links 3dprinter. ... Selective Laser Sintering (SLS®, a registered trademark of 3D Systems, Inc. ... Renato M.E. Sabbatini Renato Marcos Endrizzi Sabbatini, Brazilian biomedical and computer scientist, educator, science writer, entrepreneur and administrator, born in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on 20 February 1947. ... Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that solid. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Look up model in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... Exhibition may refer to: Exhibition (scholarship), a small grant Worlds Fair Exhibition game, a friendly match Art exhibition Exhibition (equestrian), a sport involving horse and riders Science fair State fair Funfair Trade fair Xzibit See also Look up exhibition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Introduction

Rapid prototyping takes virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software, transforms them into thin, virtual, horizontal cross-sections and then creates each cross-section in physical space, one after the next until the model is finished. It is a WYSIWYG process where the virtual model and the physical model correspond almost identically. With additive fabrication, the machine reads in data from a CAD drawing and lays down successive layers of liquid, powder, or sheet material, and in this way builds up the model from a series of cross sections. These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross section from the CAD model, are joined together or fused automatically to create the final shape. The primary advantage to additive fabrication is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature. This article is about computer-aided design. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... WYSIWYG (IPA Pronunciation [] or []), is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, used in computing to describe a system in which content during editing appears very similar to the final product. ...


The standard data interface between CAD software and the machines is the STL file format. An STL file approximates the shape of a part or assembly using triangular facets. Tiny facets produce a higher quality surface. An interface defines the communication boundary between two entities, such as a piece of software, a hardware device, or a user. ... STL (Standard Tessellation Language)[] is a file format native to the stereolithography CAD software created by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA, USA. STL files are imported and exported by many other software packages. ...


The word "rapid" is relative: construction of a model with contemporary methods can take from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems for rapid prototyping can typically produce models in a few hours, although it can vary widely depending on the type of machine being used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.


Some solid freeform fabrication techniques use two materials in the course of constructing parts. The first material is the part material and the second is the support material (to support overhanging features during construction). The support material is later removed by heat or dissolved away with a solvent or water. Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that solid. ...


Traditional injection molding can be less expensive for manufacturing plastic products in high quantities, but additive fabrication can be faster and less expensive when producing relatively small quantities of parts. Injection molding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from thermoplastic material in production. ...


Technologies

A large number of competing technologies are available in the marketplace. As all are additive technologies, their main differences are found in the way layers are built to create parts. Some are melting or softening material to produce the layers (SLS, FDM) where others are laying liquid materials thermosets that are cured with different technologies (SLA, MJM, PolyJet). In the case of lamination systems, thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS®, a registered trademark of 3D Systems, Inc. ... Fused deposition modeling, which is often referred to by its initials FDM, is a type of rapid prototyping or rapid manufacturing (RP) technology commonly used within engineering design. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) are polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation, Electron beam (EB) or heat. ... Stereolithography is one of the more commonly used rapid manufacturing and rapid prototyping technologies. ...

Prototyping Technologies Base Materials
Selective laser sintering (SLS) Thermoplastics, metals powders
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Thermoplastics, Eutectic metals.
Stereolithography (SLA) photopolymer
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Paper
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Titanium alloys
3D Printing (3DP) Various materials

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS®, a registered trademark of 3D Systems, Inc. ... A thermoplastic is a plastic that softens when heated and hardens again when cooled. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... Fused deposition modeling, which is often referred to by its initials FDM, is a type of rapid prototyping or rapid manufacturing (RP) technology commonly used within engineering design. ... A thermoplastic is a plastic that softens when heated and hardens again when cooled. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... Stereolithography is one of the more commonly used rapid manufacturing and rapid prototyping technologies. ... A photopolymer is a polymer which is cured by exposure to light, often in the ultraviolet spectum. ... Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM™) is a rapid prototyping system developed by Helisys Inc. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Electron Beam Melting (EBM), is a type of rapid prototyping for metal parts. ... Titanium alloys are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. ... Three-dimensional printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. ...

References

See also

  • Solid freeform fabrication: A list of technologies used in rapid prototyping.
  • 3D printing: Faster, more affordable rapid prototyping
  • MeshLab An open source Windows and Linux application for visualizing, processing and converting 3D meshes to or from the STL file format.
  • 3D microfabrication
  • RepRap - an open-source multi-material self-replicating rapid prototyping machine
  • The TCT Magazine: Bi Monthly Magazine covering RP

Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that solid. ... Three-dimensional printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. ... MeshLab is an open-source general-purpose mesh processing software program; the system is aimed to help the processing of the typical not-so-small unstructured models arising in 3D scanning, providing a set of tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering and converting this kind of meshes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Something to do with a self replicating robot. ... The TCT Magazine (formerly Rapid News and Time-Compression Technologies) has published the latest information on Rapid Product Development Technologies for 15 years. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rapid prototyping - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (683 words)
Rapid prototyping, is the automatic construction of physical objects using solid freeform fabrication.
The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts.
Rapid prototyping takes virtual designs (from computer aided design (CAD) or from animation modeling software), transforms them into cross sections, still virtual, and then creates each cross section in physical space, one after the next until the model is finished.
Connect: Information Technology at NYU (2652 words)
Rapid prototyping does not represent a break with the tradition of cyclical design by incremental improvement or successive approximation; rather, it speeds the design cycle and increases the use of prototypes to an extent that new ideas, new results, and new techniques become possible.
Rapid prototyping in a sense marries these two technologies by allowing designers to create plans for real world objects in the virtual world of the computer, and then in a single step to create a physical object directly from those plans.
Rapid prototyping, on the other hand, is an additive process: the desired object is built from bottom to top in very thin layers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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