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Encyclopedia > Rape
Abuse
Concepts

Violence · Coercion
Abuse of power · Persecution
Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... SHAWN KEENER IS A RAPIST, he lives in Kansas City Kansas and goes to Johnson County Community COllege and HE RAPED one, if not more girls, and he needs to be in prison, if anyone has any info post it on here, he is a class A example of a... Abuser redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Forms of abuse

Animal abuse
Bullying
Child abuse
Child sexual abuse
... commercially
Coercive persuasion
Corporal punishment
Cyber-bullying
Cyberstalking
Dating violence
Domestic violence
Elder abuse
Fabricated or Induced Illness
Harassment
Hate mail
Hate speech
Human experimentation
Humiliation
Intimidation
Mobbing
Parental alienation
Police brutality
Prisoner abuse
Prostitution of children
Psychological abuse
Psychological punishment
Rape
Relational aggression
Sexual abuse
Sexual harassment
... in education
Sexual slavery
Shunning
Slavery
Spousal abuse
Stalking
Torture
Trafficking in human beings
Trafficking of children
White slavery
White torture
Workplace bullying
Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that causes unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. ... Bullying is the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child, often synonymous with the terms child maltreatment and child abuse and neglect. ... Child sexual abuse (CSA) is the sexual assault of a minor or, according to the American Psychological Association[1], sexual activity between a minor and an older person in which the dominant position of the older person is used to coerce or exploit the younger. ... The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has been defined as one of the worst forms of child labour by the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to correct behavior or to punish. ... Cyber bullying (cyberbullying, cyber-bullying, online bullying) is the use of electronic information and communication devices such as e-mail, instant messaging, text messages, mobile phones, pagers and defamatory websites to bully or otherwise harass an individual or group through personal attacks or other means, and it may constitute a... Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elder abuse is a single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person. ... Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is the formal name of a type of abuse in which a caregiver feigns or induces an illness in a person under their care, in order to attract attention, sympathy, or to fill other emotional needs. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... Hate mail (as electronic, postal, or otherwise) is a form of harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments towards the recipient. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ... Humiliation is literally the act of being made humble, or reduced in standing or prestige. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... Mobbing refers to a group behavioural phenomenon and a type of animal behavior. ... Parental Alienation is any behaviour by a parents, a childs mother or father, whether conscious or unconscious, that could create alienation in the relationship between a child and the other parent. ... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... Prostitution of children refers to the use of children as prostitutes. ... Psychological abuse refers to the humiliation or intimidation of another person, but is also used to refer to the long-term effects of emotional shock. ... A psychological punishment is a type of punishment that relies not or only in secondary order on the actual harm inflicted (such as corporal punishments or fines) but on psychological effects, mainly emotions, such as fear, shame and guilt. ... Relational aggression is a term used to describe psychological (social/emotional) aggression between people in relationships. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Slave redirects here. ... Spousal abuse is a wide spectrum of abuse types. ... For other uses, see Stalking (disambiguation). ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Trafficking in human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... White torture is a term referring to torture that includes sensory deprivation and according to number of sources it is practiced on Iranian political prisoners in the Evin prison. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Related topics

Adult Protective Services
Anti-psychiatry
Brainwashing
Child Protective Services
Comfort women
Genital integrity
Human rights
Holocaust
Incest
Informed consent
Massacre
Mind control
U.N. Declaration - Human Rights
There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Dorlands Medical Dictionary defines brainwashing (also known as thought reform or re-education) as any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his will, usually beliefs in conflict with his prior beliefs and knowledge. ... Child Protective Services is the name of a governmental agency in many states in the United States that responds to child abuse and neglect. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese armys brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China and other occupied territories and were recruited... The symbol of the Genital integrity movement is the ribbon Genital Integrity. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

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Rape is a form of assault involving the non-consensual sexual violation of the sexual, anal, or oral organs of another person's body. The assailant can be of either sex, as can their target. Sexual assault is any undesired physical contact of a sexual nature perpetrated against another person. ... Rape may refer to: Look up rape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Rape is generally considered one of the most serious sex crimes and can be very difficult to prosecute. Sexual violence can also be a war crime under international law. Consent may be absent due to duress arising from the use, or threat, of overwhelming force or violence, or because the subject is incapacitated in some way such as intoxication and/or underage innocence. In some cases coercion might also be used to negate consent. Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


There is no universally accepted distinction between rape and other forms of assault involving one or both participant's sexual organs. Some criminal codes explicitly consider all kinds of forced sexual activity to be rape, whereas in others only acts involving a coupled penis and vagina are included. Some restrict rape only to instances where a woman is forced by a man. Other assaults involving sexual organs in some way may then be grouped under the term sexual assault. In some jurisdictions rape may also be committed by assailants using objects, rather than their own body parts, against the sexual organs of their target. Sexual assault is any undesired physical contact of a sexual nature perpetrated against another person. ...


The rape of women by men is the most frequent form of the assault. Male-male rape is common, primarily in correctional facilities. There are an increasing number of female assailants being convicted for the rape of men, most commonly, statutory rape. It is thought that female rapists who rape other women are almost never caught or convicted [5] and research on female rapists is rare [6].

Contents

History of rape

Main article: History of rape

The word rape originates from the Latin verb rapere: to seize or take by force. The word originally had no sexual connotation and is still used generically in English. The history of rape, and the alterations of its meaning, is quite complex. The Latin term for the act of rape itself is raptus. Historically, rape has been seen (incorrectly) as a 'female' issue. Rape is now considered to be a crime committed against members of either sex. The concept of rape, both as an abduction and in the sexual sense, makes its first appearance in early religious texts. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (432x604, 161 KB) Summary Photo by Arc. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (432x604, 161 KB) Summary Photo by Arc. ... Facsimile of the sculpture in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Originally, the word rape was akin to rapine, rapture, raptor, and rapacious, and referred to the more general violations, such as looting, destruction, and capture of citizens that are inflicted upon a town or country during war, eg. ...


Many developments in law took place during the twentieth century. These included landmark decisions by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda that defined (female-male) rape as an institutionalized weapon of war and a crime of genocide. The first female judge of the tribunal Navanethem Pillay played a key part in those decisions. Similarly, many other changes occurred through the development of the feminist movement and perceptions of women's rights. Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Navanethem Pillay is a South African judge who serves on the International Criminal Court since 2003. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ...


Male-male rape has historically been shrouded in secrecy, probably due to the stigma men associate with being raped by other men. Male-male rape is commonly thought to occur inside correctional institutions where reporting is difficult or impossible. Today, male-male rape is seen as common in the United States, but is rarely reported, acknowledged or prosecuted due to the settings in which it occurs.


Most cultures worldwide have not considered the possibility that women can commit rape against men and women. Most legal codes on rape do not legislate for this as a crime, as rape is generally defined to include the act of penetration on behalf of the rapist. However, some activists in the Men's rights movement consider that rape of men by women is possible and campaign to have it recognised in law.[citation needed] Mens rights is a stream in the mens movement. ...


Definitions of rape

In most jurisdictions the crime of rape is defined to occur when sexual intercourse takes place (or is attempted) without valid consent of one of the parties involved. It is frequently defined as penetration of the anus or the vagina by a penis. In some jurisdictions the penetration need not be by penis but can be by other body parts (e.g. one or more fingers, i.e. digital penetration) or by objects (e.g. a bottle), or may involve the forcing of a vagina or anus onto a penis by a female assailant.[citation needed] For other uses, see fingering (disambiguation). ...


Other jurisdictions expand the definition of rape to include other acts committed using the sexual organs of one or both of the parties, such as oral copulation and masturbation, for example, again enacted without valid consent. Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia or another body part for sexual pleasure. ... Mulher sentada de coxas abertas, 1916 drawing by Gustav Klimt Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, particularly of ones own genitals and often to the point of orgasm, which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by...


The lack of valid consent does not necessarily mean that the victim explicitly refused to give consent. Generally, consent is considered invalid if it is obtained from someone who is:

  • Under any kind of duress (force, violence, blackmail, etc.)
  • Judgementally impaired or incapacitated by alcohol or drugs (legal or otherwise)
  • Mentally impaired whether by illness or developmental disability
  • Below the age of consent defined in that jurisdiction

In Pakistan, under the Hudood Ordinance in force from 1979 to 2006, the definition of rape required a woman to have supporting evidence from four male eye-witnesses. The sexual act was otherwise considered adultery. Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age twenty-two. ... The Hudood Ordinance is a law in Pakistan, which enforces punishments mentioned in the Quran and sunnah for crimes such as adultery, rape and theft. ... Adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a partner other than the lawful spouse. ...


Statutory rape refers to a sexual act that is considered rape by the law regardless of whether it was coercive or consensual. Such laws are common and exist in order to prevent adults from having sex with minors who are deemed legally unable to give effective informed consent. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sexual activity involving a person below the age of consent is often known as statutory rape although some jurisdictions prefer terms such as "unlawful sexual intercourse" to avoid the forcible connotation of the word. While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any contract or behaviour regulated by...


The Brazilian Penal Code defines rape as unconsensual vaginal sex. Therefore, unlike most of Europe and the Americas, male rape, anal rape, and oral rape are not considered to be rape crimes. Instead, such an act is a "violent attempt against someone's modesty" ("Atentado violento ao pudor"). The penalty, however, is the same. It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia or another body part for sexual pleasure. ...


The definition used by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in its landmark 1998 judgement was "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive."[1]

Criminal law
Part of the common law series
Elements of crimes
Actus reus  · Causation  · Concurrence
Mens rea  · Intention (general)
Intention in English law  · Recklessness
Willful blindness  · Criminal negligence
Ignorantia juris non excusat
Vicarious liability  · Corporate liability
Strict liability
Classes of crimes
Felony/Indictable  · Hybrid offence
Misdemeanor/Summary
Infraction
Lesser included offense
Crimes against the person
Assault  · Battery  · Robbery
Kidnapping  · Rape
Mayhem  · Manslaughter  · Murder
Crimes against property
Burglary  · Larceny  · Arson
Embezzlement  · False pretenses
Extortion  · Forgery  · Computer crime
Crimes against justice
Obstruction of justice  · Bribery
Perjury  · Misprision of felony
Inchoate offenses
Solicitation  · Attempt
Conspiracy  · Accessory
Subsets
Criminal procedure
Criminal defenses
Other areas of the common law
Contract law · Tort law  · Property law
Wills and trusts  · Evidence
Portals: Law  · Criminal justice

Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Actus reus is the action (or inaction, in the case of criminal negligence and similar crimes which are sometimes called acts of omission) which, in combination with the mens rea (guilty mind), produces criminal liability in common law based criminal law jurisdictions such as the United States, United Kingdom. ... In law, causation is the name given to the process of testing whether defendants should be fixed with liability for the outcome to their acts and omissions that injure or cause loss to others. ... For other uses, see concurrency. ... The mens rea is the Latin term for guilty mind used in the criminal law. ... In the criminal law, intention is one of the three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional as opposed to strict liability crime. ... In English criminal law, intention is one of the types of mens rea (Latin for guilty mind) that, when accompanied by an actus reus (Latin for guilty act) constitutes a crime. ... In the criminal law, recklessness (sometimes also termed willful blindness which may have a different meaning in the United States) is one of the three possible classes of mental state constituting mens rea (the Latin for guilty mind). To commit an offence of ordinary as opposed to strict liability, the... Willful blindess is a term used in law to describe a situation in which an individual seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally putting himself in a position where he will be unaware of facts which would render him liable. ... Criminal negligence, in the realm of criminal common law, is a legal term of art for a state of mind which is careless, inattentive, neglectful, willfully blind, or reckless; it is the mens rea part of a crime which, if occurring simultaneously with the actus reus, gives rise to criminal... It has been suggested that presumed knowledge of the law be merged into this article or section. ... The legal principle of vicarious liability applies to hold one person liable for the actions of another when engaged in some form of joint or collective activity. ... In the criminal law, corporate liability determines the extent to which a corporation as a fictitious person can be liable for the acts and omissions of the natural persons it employs. ... In criminal law, strict liability is liability where mens rea (Latin for guilty mind) does not have to be proved in relation to one or more elements comprising the actus reus (Latin for guilty act) although intention, recklessness or knowledge may be required in relation to other elements of the... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... In many common law jurisdictions (e. ... A hybrid offence or dual offence are the special offences in Canadian criminal law where the prosecution may choose whether to proceed with a summary offence or an indictment. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ... For the similarly written medical term referring to a blocked artery, see infarction. ... A lesser included offense, in criminal law, is a crime for which all of the elements necessary to impose liability are also elements found in a more serious crime. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mayhem, under the common law of crimes, consisted of the intentional and wanton removal of a body part that would handicap a persons ability to defend themselves in combat. ... In the United States, larceny is a common law crime involving stealing. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... False pretenses is a common law crime. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... Computer Crime, Cybercrime, E-Crime, Hi-Tech Crime or Electronic Crime generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the tool, target, or place of a crime. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... Misprision of felony, under the common law of England, was the crime of failing to report knowledge of a felony to the appropriate authorities. ... An inchoate offence is a crime. ... Solicitation is a crime; it is an inchoate offense that consists of a person inciting, counseling, advising, urging, or commanding another to commit a crime with the specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime. ... The crime of attempt occurs when a person does an act amounting to more than mere preparation for a criminal offense, with specific intent to commit a crime, if that act tends but fails to effect the commission of the offense intended. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... An accessory is a person who assists in or conceals a crime, but does not actually participate in the commission of the crime. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... In the common law, a tort is a civil wrong for which the law provides a remedy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The law of trusts and estates is generally considered the body of law which governs the management of personal affairs and the disposition of property of an individual in anticipation and the event of such persons incapacity or death, also known as the law of successions in civil law. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ...

Types of rape

Main article: Types of rape

There are several types of rape, generally categorized by reference to the situation in which it occurs, the sex or characteristics of the victim, and/or the sex or chacteristics of the perpetrator. Different types of rape include but are not limited to: date rape, gang rape, marital rape, prison rape, acquaintance rape, and wartime rape. For more information on specific types of rape, see UCSB's SexInfo. It is important to note that almost all rape research and reporting to date has been limited to male-female forms of rape. Research on male-male and female-male is beginning to be done. However, almost no research has been done on female-female rape. Such widespread research biases and social double standards can and do cause systemic biases in how rape is reported and acknowledged. Sometimes animals are accused of rape, yet sometimes it is unclear who was doing the raping in these situations.[2] Women can be charged with rape, it is usually in underage male situations[3] however it can be rape of an adult on some few occasions.[4] There are several types of rape, generally categorized by reference to the situation in which it occurs, the identity or chacteristics of the victim, and/or the identity or chacteristics of the perpetrator. ...


Rape statistics

Main article: Rape statistics

A United Nations report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries.[5] Statistics on rape are among the most unreliable for serious crimes. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Many reports suggest that rape statistics are not reliable because some kinds of rape are excluded from official reports altogether, (The FBI's definition for example excludes all rapes except forcible rapes of adult females by males), because a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and also because a significant number of rapes reported to the police cannot be verified and possibly did not occur.[6]


In addition, rape by women is a barely understood phenomenon that is widely denied in most societies and one that usually causes surprise, shock, or utter revulsion.[7]


In the United States, the adjusted per-capita victimization rate of rape has declined from about 2.4 per 1000 people (age 12 and above) in 1980 to about 0.4 per 1000 people, a decline of about 85%. [8]


While researchers and prosecutors do not agree on the percentage of false allegations, the consensus is that approximately 40% to 50% of charges are clearly false. This number does not include unresolved allegations held “in limbo” where evidence is too weak to try the case even under shield laws, relaxed rules, and comparatively weak evidentiary standards applied to rape cases:

Effect of rape

For more details on this topic, see Effects of rape and aftermath.

After being raped it is common for the victim to experience intense, and sometimes unpredictable, emotions, and they may find it hard to deal with their memories of the event. Victims can be severely traumatized by the assault and may have difficulty functioning as well as they had been used to prior to the assault, with disruption of concentration, sleeping patterns and eating habits, for example. They may feel jumpy or be on edge. In the month(s) immediately following the assault these problems may be severe and very upsetting and may prevent the victim from revealing their ordeal to friends or family, or seeking police or medical assistance. This may result in Acute Stress Disorder. Symptoms of this are: The effects of rape can be physical, psychological, or both. ...

  • feeling numb and detached, like being in a daze or a dream, or feeling that the world is strange and unreal
  • difficulty remembering important parts of the assault
  • reliving the assault through repeated thoughts, memories, or nightmares
  • avoidance of things -places, thoughts, feelings- that remind the victim of the assault
  • anxiety or increased arousal (difficulty sleeping, concentrating, etc.)
  • avoidance of social life or place of rape

In 1972, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Lynda Lytle Holstrom embarked on a study of the psychological effects of rape. They interviewed and counseled rape victims at the emergency room of Boston City Hospital and observed a pattern of reactions which they named Rape Trauma Syndrome.[9]. They defined this as having two components which they called the Acute and Reorganisation phases. Boston Medical Center (BMC) is a non-profit 547-bed medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


During the Acute Phase the survivor may experience shock and disbelief, or feel frozen, and may attempt to disconnect themselves from "the person who was raped". They may feel humiliated, confused, dirty, ashamed, or at fault for the assault, particularly if the assailant was an acquaintance. Extreme nightmares, heightened anxiety, frequent flashbacks, and a strong attempt to disconnect from one's emotions are common, as is denial - trying to convince oneself that the assault did not actually occur. If raped by an acquaintance the victim may try to protect the perpetrator. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... As in film, a flashback in literature is a technique which takes the narrative back in time from the point the story has reached, to recount events that happened before and give the back-story. ... Denial is a defense mechanism in which a person is faced with a fact that is too painful to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. ...


Victims may respond to the rape in either an expressive or a controlled way. The expressive way involves obvious outward effects and emotions such as crying, shaking, rage, tenseness, ironic and uncomfortable laughter (part of their denial), and restlessness. The controlled way occurs when the victim appears to be quite calm and rational about the situation, even if facing severe internal turmoil. There is no single response to rape; every individual deals with their intensely traumatic emotions differently. Turmoil is a villainess with a Russian accent who appears in the episode Cry Turmoil in the animated television series SWAT Kats: The Radical Squadron, voiced by Kath Soucie. ... Trauma can represent: A serious and often body-altering physical injury, such as the removal of a limb. ...


After the acute phase, the Reorganization Phase begins and the survivor attempts to recreate the world that they once knew. This stage may last for months or even years following the assault and despite their best efforts this phase is often riddled with feelings of guilt, shame, fear, and anxiety. Emotions such as anger, anxiety, denial, and loss (of security) surface. Development of an inability to trust is a frequent consequence of sexual assault. This loss of the fundamental need for security can wreak havoc on the survivor’s life, causing them to feel powerless and not in control of their body. They may feel unsafe, which can cause a heightened state of anxiety as well as difficulty with intimate relationships. Victims may attempt to return to normal social interaction (i.e. go out to social engagements) and find themselves unable to do so and their attempts to re-establish themselves in relationships may be hindered by a lack of trust. Fear is a powerful, unpleasant feeling of risk or danger, either real or imagined. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Denial is a defense mechanism in which a person is faced with a fact that is too painful to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. ...


Survivors often isolate themselves from their support network either physically or emotionally. The survivor may feel disconnected from peers as a result of the perceived personal experience. The shattering of trust can adversely affect intimate relationships, as survivors may have a heightened suspicion of others' motives and feelings. Look up trust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another area of research referred to as "second victimization," has to do with the caustic and interrogatory way the police and medical staff sometimes treat people who allege rape or sexual assault.


Sexual assault can affect an individual forever, changing them into someone living in a constant state of turmoil. In extreme cases the outcome may be suicide.[7]


Sociobiological analysis of rape

For more details on this topic, see Sociobiological theories of rape.

Some argue that rape, as a reproductive strategy, is encountered in many instances in the animal kingdom (ie: ducks, geese, and certain dolphin species).[10].[11] It is difficult to determine what constitutes rape among animals, as the lack of informed consent defines rape amongst humans. See also Non-human animal sexuality. Sociobiological theories of rape are theories that explore what role, if any, evolutionary-psychological adaptations play in causing the act of rape in animals and humans. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... See Animal. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Genera See article below. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ...


Young orangutan males also rape and have even attempted to do so on occasion to humans. It is undeniable that male orangutans rape to produce offspring and that it is indeed rape. The females constantly struggle and try to get away but can't because the foe is twice her size, interestingly enough just like many if not most human cases. It would be good to note that male orangutans do not rape but instead call and patiently wait for the females to come to them. Also, the female has little defense against the possibility of rape, either go high up in the trees where the heavy male can't get her or avoid all males at all times which is unlikely as the female would not know what he would do to her. In truth the ultimate defense against rape is killing the infant caused from rape, making it so the child cannot go on and pass it to his children.


Some sociobiologists argue that our ability to understand rape, and thereby prevent it, is severely compromised because its basis in human evolution has been ignored.[12] Some studies indicate that it is an evolutionary strategy for certain males who lack the ability to persuade the female by non-violent means to pass on their genes.[13] Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that explains behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


American social critic, intellectual, author and teacher Camille Paglia and some sociobiologists have argued that the victim-blaming intuition may have a non-psychological component in some cases, because a few sociobiological models suggest that it may be genetically-ingrained for certain men and women to allow themselves to be more vulnerable to rape, and that this may be a biological feature of members of the species.[14] Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947[1] in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, intellectual, author and teacher. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that explains behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that explains behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ...


Loss of control and privacy

Rape has been regarded as "a crime of violence and control" since the 1970s. Psychological analysis literature identifies control as a key component in most definitions of privacy: The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to keep their lives and personal affairs out of public view, or to control the flow of information about themselves. ...

  • "Privacy is not the absence of other people from one's presence, but the control over the contact one has with them." (Pedersen, D. 1997).
  • "Selective control of access to the self." (Margulis, 2003)

Control is important in providing:

  • what we need for normal psychological functioning;
  • stable interpersonal relationships; and
  • personal development. (Pedersen, D. 1997)

Violation of privacy or "control" comes in many forms, with sexual assault and the resulting psychological traumas being one of the most explicit forms. Many victims of sexual assault suffer from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, which also center around control issues. Therefore, some argue that it makes more sense to look at the issue of sexual assault as an invasion of privacy (Mclean, D. 1995): For the symphonic black metal band, see Anorexia Nervosa (band) Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. ... Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia, is a psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: vomiting inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas...

The more comfortable a person is with talking about invasion of privacy and in insisting that he or she has privacy that deserves respect, the clearer that person’s understanding of rape will be…

Approaching rape through the concept of privacy helps bypass certain social stigmas. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ...


Media attention

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Hounddog is a film written, directed and produced by Deborah Kampmeier and starring child actress Dakota Fanning. ... Hannah Dakota Fanning[1] (born February 23, 1994) is an American child actress. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... Baytown is a city located in Texas, partly in Chambers County and partly in Harris County. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Emasculation is the removal of the genitalia of a male, notably the penis and/or the testicles, by surgery, violence, or accident (see castration). ... The 2006 Duke University lacrosse team scandal began in March 2006 when Crystal Gail Mangum falsely alleged that three members of Duke Universitys mens lacrosse team had raped her during a party held at the residence of two of the team captains. ... There is an ongoing problem with sexual assault in the U.S. military which has resulted in a series of scandals which have received extensive media coverage. ... The Tailhook Association is a US based, fraternal, non-profit organization, supporting the interests of aircraft carrier aviation. ... This article concerns a particular scandal which received a great deal of media coverage. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Accused is a 1988 dramatic film starring Jodie Foster and Kelly McGillis, directed by Jonathan Kaplan. ... All My Children (AMC) is an American soap opera that has been broadcast Monday through Friday on the ABC TV network since January 5, 1970. ... Eden Riegel, in a still from the opening sequence of All My Children. ... General Hospital (GH) is the longest-running daytime American soap opera on the American Broadcasting Company television network, and is also the longest-running soap opera produced in Hollywood (having been taped at the Prospect Avenue ABC Television Center West and Sunset-Gower Studios). ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Degrassi: The Next Generation is a Canadian television series, which follows the lives of a group of high school students. ... The title Date Rape is a very general term which has come to represent some very different situations. ... Law & Order: Special Victims Unit - Season 5 DVD Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (also known as Law & Order: SVU) is the first of three spin-offs of Law & Order (the other two being Law & Order: Criminal Intent and Law & Order: Trial by Jury; all series are presented on the NBC...

Notes

  1. ^ Fourth Annual Report of ICTR to the General Assembly (1999), accessed at [1] March 23, 2007
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ english.pravda.ru
  4. ^ english.pravda.ru
  5. ^ The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001 - 2002) - Table 02.08 Total recorded rapes
  6. ^ Dick Haws, "The Elusive Numbers on False Rape," Columbian Journalism Review (November/December 1997).[3]
  7. ^ Myriam S. Denov, Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial (Ashgate Publishing 2004) - ISBN 0-7546-3565-1.
  8. ^ Anthony D'Amato. Porn Up, Rape Down. Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 913013
  9. ^ Burgess A., & Holmstrom L. (1974). Rape Trauma Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry.
  10. ^ Gowaty, P.A. & Buschhaus, N., "Functions of aggressive and forced copulations in birds: female resistance and the CODE hypothesis," American Zoologist (1997).
  11. ^ Gowaty, P.A. & Buschhaus, N., supra.
  12. ^ Thornhill, R., & Palmer, C.T., A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion (MIT Press, 2001).
  13. ^ Thornhill, R., & Thornhill, N.W., "Human rape: an evolutionary analysis," Ethology and Sociobiology (1983).
  14. ^ Paglia, C., Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence From Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson (Yale University Press, 1990).
  15. ^ Porretto, J., "Rapist targets young men in Texas," Prescott Herald (12/2006).[4]

Further reading

Academic and reference books

Reference books

  • Smith, M. D. (2004). Encyclopedia of Rape. USA: Greenwood Press.
  • Macdonals, John (1993). World Book Encyclopedia. United States of America: World Book Inc.
  • Kahn, Ada. (1992). The A-Z of women's sexuality : a concise encyclopedia. Alameda, Calif.: Hunter House.
  • The Columbia encyclopedia. Sixth edition, 2001-04.
  • Leonard, Arthur S. (1993). Sexuality and the law : an encyclopedia of major legal cases. New York : Garland Pub
  • Kazdin, Alan E. (2000). Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association ; Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press
  • Sedney, Mary Anne, "rape (crime)." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006 [8]
  • Kittleson, M., Harper, J., & Hilgenkamp, K. (2005). The Truth About Rape. USA: Facts on File
  • Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture (2004) Rape as a Method of Torture Edited by Dr Michael Peel

Secondary victimization and victim blame

  • Lamb, Sharon, The Trouble with Blame: Victims, Perpetrators and Responsibility, Harvard Univ Press, 1999.
  • Madigan, L. and Gamble, N. (1991). The Second Rape: Society's Continued Betrayal of the Victim. New York: Lexington Books.
  • Murray JD, Spadafore JA, McIntosh WD. (2005) Belief in a just world and social perception: evidence for automatic activation. J Soc Psychol. Feb;145(1):35-47.
  • Frese, B., Moya, M., & Megius, J. L. (2004). Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors. Journal-of-Interpersonal-Violence, 19(2), 143-161.
  • Pauwels, B. (2002). Blaming the victim of rape: The culpable control model perspective. Dissertation-Abstracts-International:-Section-B:-The-Sciences-and-Engineering, 63(5-B)
  • Blumberg, M. & Lester, D. (1991). High school and college students' attitudes toward rape. Adolescence, 26(103), 727-729.
  • Shaver (2002). Attribution of rape blame as a function of victim gender and sexuality, and perceived similarity to the victim. Journal of Homosexuality, 43(2)
  • Anderson, K. J. & Accomando, C. (1999). Madcap Misogyny and Romanticized Victim-Blaming: Discourses of Stalking in There's Something About Mary. Women & Language, 1, 24-28.
  • The effect of participant sex, victim dress, and traditional attitudes on causal judgments for marital rape victims. (Author Abstract). Mark A. Whatley. Journal of Family Violence 20.3 (June 2005): p191(10).
  • Kay, Aaron C., Jost, John T. & Young, Sean (2005) Victim Derogation and Victim Enhancement as Alternate Routes to System Justification. Psychological Science 16 (3), 240-246.

Self blame

  • Tangney, June Price and Dearing, Ronda L., Shame and Guilt, The Guilford Press, 2002
  • Matsushita-Arao, Yoshiko. (1997). Self-blame and depression among forcible rape survivors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 57(9-B). pp. 5925.
  • Branscombe, Nyla R.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Owen, Susan; Allison, Julie A.; N'gbala, Ahogni. (2003). Counterfactual Thinking, Blame Assignment, and Well-Being in Rape Victims. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 25 (4). p265, 9p.
  • Frazier, Patricia A.; Mortensen, Heather; Steward, Jason. (2005). Coping Strategies as Mediators of the Relations Among Perceived Control and Distress in Sexual Assault Survivors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Jul2005, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p267-278

Causes of multiple victimization

  • Follette et. al., (1996). Cumulative trauma: the impact of child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and spouse abuse. J Trauma Stress.9(1):25-35.
  • Sarkar, N. N.; Sarkar, Rina, (2005). Sexual Assault on a Woman: Its Impact on Her Life and Living in Society. Sexual & Relationship Therapy. 20 (4), 407-419
  • Parillo, K., Robert C. Freeman, & Paul Young. (2003) Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in Adulthood Among Women Sex Partners of Injection Drug Users. Violence and Victims. 18(4): 473-484.
  • Shields, N. & Hanneke, C. (1988). Multiple Sexual Victimization: The Case of Incest and Marital Rape. In G. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. Kirkpatrick, & M. Strauss (Eds), Family abuse and its consequences: New directions in research. (pp. 255-269). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Sorenson SB, Siegel JM, Golding JM, Stein JA. (1991). Repeated sexual victimization. Violence Vict., 6(4): 299-308.

Male victims

  • Dorais, Michel, Don't Tell: The Sexual Abuse of Boys, McGill-Queen Univ Press, 2002.
  • Mezey, Gillian, and King, Michael, Male Victims of Sexual Assault, Oxford, 2000.
  • Morgan, Luke "Hollyoaks : Luke's Secret Diary" by kaddy benyon (2002)

Theories

  • Anderson, Peter and Struckman-Johnson Cindy, Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies, Guilford, 1998.
  • Harris, Grant, et al, The Causes of Rape: Understanding Individual Differences in Male Propensity for Sexual Aggression, American Psychological Association, 2005.
  • "Psychosexual Disorders." Section 15, Chapter 192 in The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy , edited by Mark H. Beers, MD, and Robert Berkow, MD. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2002.
  • Brownmiller, Susan: Against Our Will : Men, Women, and Rape, Ballantine Books, 1975.
  • Gavey, Nicola, Just Sex: The Cultural Scaffolding of Rape, Routledge, 2005.
  • Scruton, Roger, Sexual Desire: A Moral Philoshopy of the Erotic, Free, 1986.
  • Ellis, Lee, Theories of Rape: Inquiries Into the Causes of Rape, Hemisphere, 1989.
  • McDonald, John, Rape: Controversial Issues: Criminal Profiles, Date Rape, False Reports, and False Memories, Charles C Thomas, 1995.
  • Cothran, Helen, Sexual Violence: Opposing Viewpoints, Thompson Gale, 2003.
  • Holmes, Ronald and Steven, Current Perspectives on Sex Crimes, Sage, 2002.
  • Emilie Buchwald, Pamela Fletcher, Martha Roth (ed.), Transforming a Rape Culture, Milkweed Editions, 2005.
  • Kanin, Eugene J. (1994). False Rape Allegations. Archives of Sexual Behavior.
  • Sarah Projansky, Watching Rape: Film and Television in Postfeminist Culture, New York University Press 2001
  • Thornhill, Randy and Palmer, Craig T. A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. MIT Press, 2001.
  • Roussel, D.E. and R. Bolen. (2000). The Epidemic of Rape and Child Sexual Abuse in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Mclean, D. (1995). Privacy and its invasion. CT: Praeger.
  • Margulis, Stephen T., (2003). Privacy as a social issue and behavioral concept. Journal of social issues 59(2):243-261
  • Pedersen, DM (1997) Psychological functions of privacy. Journal Of Environmental Psychology, 17:147-156

Child rape and child sexual assault Susan Brownmiller (b. ...

  • Levesque, Roger, Sexual Abuse of Children, Indiana University Press, 1999.
  • Pryor, Douglass, W. Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children, New York University Press, 1996.

Female Sex Offenders

  • Women's sexual aggression against men: prevalence and predictors
  • Denov, Myriam S., Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial, Ashgate, 2004.
  • Pearson, Patricia, When She Was Bad: Violent Women and the Myth of Innocence, Viking Adult, 1997.
  • Adams, Ken, Silently Seduced: When Parents Make their Children Partners-Understanding Covert Incest, HCI, 1991.
  • Anderson, Peter B., and Struckman-Johnson Cindy, Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies, Guilford, 1998.
  • Kierski, Werner, Female Violence: Can We Therapists Face Up to it?, Counseling and Psychotherapy Journal, 12/2002.
  • Rosencrans, Bobbie, The Last Secret: Daughters Sexually Abused by Mothers, Safer Society, 1997.
  • Miletski, Hani, Mother-Son Incest: The Unthinkable Broken Taboo, Safer Society, 1999.
  • Elliot, Michelle, Female Sexual Abuse of Children, Guilford, 1994
  • Hislop, Julia, Female Sex Offenders: What Therapists, Law Enforcement and Child Protective Services Need to Know, Issues Press, 2001.

Marital/Intimate Partner Rape

  • Easteal, P, and McOrmond-Plummer, L, Real Rape, Real Pain: Help for Women Sexually Assaulted by Male Partners, Hybrid Publishers, 2006.
  • Russell, Diana E.H., Rape in Marriage, MacMillan Publishing Company, 1990.
  • Bergen, Raquel K., Wife Rape: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers, Sage Publications Inc., 1996.
  • Finkelhor, D. and Yllo, K., License to Rape: Sexual Abuse of Wives, The Free Press, 1985.
  • Hall, R., James, S. and Kertesz, J., The Rapist Who Pays the Rent Women Against Rape, UK.

Male Sexual Offenders

  • Shapcott, David, The Face of the Rapist, Penguin Books, Auckland, 1988.
  • Groth, Nicholas A., Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the offender, Plenum Press, New York, 1979.

Others

  • de Becker, Gavin (1998). The Gift of Fear: Survival Signals that Protect Us from Violence. New York: Dell. ISBN 0-440-22619-8 (recognising and handling dangerous people and situations)
  • Doe, Jane (2003). The Real Story of Jane Doe. Toronto: Random House.
  • Ghiglieri, Michael P. (1999). The Dark Side of Man: Tracing the Origins of Violence. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1999. ISBN 073820076X.
  • Hillers, Marta. A Woman in Berlin: Six Weeks in the Conquered City. Translated by Anthes Bell. ISBN 0-8050-7540-2.
  • McElroy, Wendy (2001). Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0786411449.
  • Kipnes, Laura, The Female Thing: Dirt, Sex, Envy, Vulnerability. ISBN 0-375-42417-2.
  • Sebold, Alice (1999). Lucky: A Memoir. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0684857820. (author recounts her own rape at the age of 18)

Marta Hillers (1911–2001) was a German journalist and the author of the autobiographical Eine Frau in Berlin, her diary from 20 April to 22 June 1945 in Berlin during the Battle of Berlin. ... Alice Sebold (b. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rape - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (11795 words)
Rape is a crime where the victim is forced into sexual activity, in particular sexual penetration, against his or her will through use of physical force, threat of injury, or other duress.
Rape, as an adjunct to warfare, was prohibited by the military codices of Richard II and Henry V (1385 and 1419 respectively).
Typical rape shield laws prohibit cross-examination of the victim with respect to issues, such as his or her prior sexual history, or the manner in which he or she was dressed at the time of the rape.
Rape (1451 words)
Rape is a crime, whether the person committing it is a stranger, a date, an acquaintance, or a family member.
Most people who are raped know their rapists.
People who have been raped sometimes avoid seeking help because they're afraid that talking about it will bring back memories or feelings that are too painful.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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