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Encyclopedia > Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ ਰਣਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ ), also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab") (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. His Samadhi is located in Lahore, Pakistan. Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjabi people and the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Samadhi is a term used in Hindu and Buddhist yogic meditation. ... The Minar-e-Pakistan represents Pakistani independence The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate in 1870 Lahore (Urdu: لاھور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ...


Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a Sikh born in 1780. At the time much of Punjab was ruled by the Sikhs, who had divided the territory among factions known as misls. Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the commander of the Sukerchakia misl and controlled a territory in west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala. Ranjit Singh succeeded his father at the young age of 12. After several campaigns he united the Sikh factions into one state and he took the title of Maharaja on April 12, 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day), with Lahore having served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the holy city of Amritsar. 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is about the current Major Indoor Soccer League. ... He was a Punjabi Sikh chief part of the Sikh Confederacy. ... The Sukerchakia Misl was one of 11 Sikh Misls in Punjab during the 18th century. ... Gujranwala is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a population of 3. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... --69. ... Amritsar (Punjabi: , , Hindi: . ), meaning Pool of the Nectar of Immortality, is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ...

Postal stamp issued in the year 1966
Postal stamp issued in the year 1966

He then spent the following years fighting the Afghans, driving them out of western Punjab. He also captured Pashtun territory including Peshawar. This was the first time ever that Pashtuns were ruled by non-Muslims. In a historical perspective, this event was very important. For more than a thousand years invaders had come down from the Khyber pass and ruled eastern lands. Ranjit Singh reversed this trend. When the Sikh empire finally fell to the English, they were able to retain this province. He captured the province of Multan which encompassed the southern parts of Punjab, Peshawar (1818), Jammu and Kashmir (1819) and the hill states north of Anandpur, the largest of which was Kangra. Singh also hired European mercenaries to train his troops, creating a powerful military force whose presence delayed the eventual British colonization of Punjab. Image File history File linksMetadata Ranjit_Singh_1966. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ranjit_Singh_1966. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Peshāwar (پیشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ...


He also modernized his army, hiring European mercenaries to create the first modern Indian Army. The effect was to create a powerful and heavily armed state and at this point Punjab was the only state not controlled by the British. He brought law and order, yet was relucant to use the death penalty. He stopped Indian non-secular style practises by treating Hindus and Muslims equally. He banned the discriminatory "jizya" tax on Hindus and Sikhs. The composition of the Sikh empire was Muslim (60%), Hindu (25%) and Sikh(15%). The majority of Ranjit Singh's subjects were Muslim and had an intense loyalty towards him and his Sikh's. This was once highlighted when the foreign minister of the Sikh Empire, a Muslim named Fakir Azizuddin, had a meeting with the British Governor-General. When Lord Auckland asked Fakir Azizuddin which of the Maharaja's eye was missing, he replied: "the Maharaja is like the sun and sun has only one eye. The splendour and luminosity of his single eye is so much that I have never dared to look at his other eye." The Governor General was so pleased with the reply that he gave his golden wrist-watch to the Maharaja's Minister at Simla. Most Punjabi historians accord this loyalty, to him and his Sikh’s, to recognition of the fact he and his men had bought to them peace, prosperity, protection from Afghan atrocities, massacres and subjugation. Most importantly every Punjabi had regained esteem and pride to belong to such powerful nation on the sub-continent. Moreover, the slaves (Punjabis) to the Afghans had now become their masters. The Empire was effectively secular as it did not discriminate against Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus or even atheists. It was relatively modern and had great respect for all religions and non-religious traditions of the Empire. The only main prominent religious symbols of the empire were the Maharaja and royal family being Sikh (but not Khalsa) and the Army being dominated by Sikh nobles and the Khalsa. The Maharaja never forced Sikhism on his subjects. This was in sharp contrast with the ethnic & religious cleansing of past Moghul rulers. Ranjit Singh had created a state based upon Sikh and Hindu noble traditions, where everyone worked together, regardless of background, and where citizens were made to look at the things that they shared in common, e.g. being Punjabi, rather than any religious differences. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... Lord Auckland may refer to: William Eden, 1st Lord Auckland (1744-1814 George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, 2nd Lord Auckland (1784-1849) Robert John Eden, 3rd Lord Auckland, Bishop of Sodor and Man (1799-1870) William George Eden, 4th Lord Auckland (1829-1890) William Morton Eden, 5th Lord Auckland... Shimla Shimla (शिमला) is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and a hill station in North India. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ... The Golden Temple is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (Punjabi: , ), is a panentheistic religion based on the teachings of ten Gurus who lived in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. ...


The British at this time, on the subcontinent, where expanding and consolidating their grip on power. Whereas, in Punjab they had met a comprehensive road block for complete supremacy, on the subcontinent. Ranjit Singh had stopped the ever expansion of the British Empire, during this time- around Punjab, and this could have been permanently entrenched by competent political heirs. Ranjit Singh died in 1839 and the state went to his eldest son Kharak Singh. 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Kharak Singh (1801-1840) was the eldest legitimate son of Ranjit Singh and Maharani Datar Kaur. ...


The Kingdom, that he had worked so hard to build, began to crumble due to poor governance and political mismanagement by his heirs. His successors died through accidents and murder, while the nobility and army struggled for power till the end of the Second Anglo Sikh War, when it was annexed by the British from his youngest son Duleep Singh. However, after the First Anglo Sikh War, Punjab effectively ceased to be an independent state and all major decisions where made by the British Empire. The Punjabi Army had been reduced under the peace treaty, with the British Empire, to a tiny skeleton force. Moreover, massive punishing war compensation had destroyed any meaningful, independent fiscal policy. Most historians believe competent political heirs would have forged a highly durable, independent and powerful state (As Ranjit Singh had done during his rule). The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849), resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh kingdom and absorption of the Punjab into lands controlled by the British East India Company. ... Portrait of Duleep Singh by Franz Xaver Winterhalter Duleep Singh (Lahore, 6 September 1838 - Paris, 22 October 1893) was the last Maharaja during the Sikh Raj of Punjab. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in red, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Ranjit is remembered for uniting the Punjab as a strong state and his possession of the Koh-i-noor diamond. His most lasting legacy was the beautification of the Harmandir Sahib, holiest site of the Sikhs, with marble and gold from which the popular name of the "Golden Temple" is derived. Koh-i-noor (کوۂ نور) is from the Persian language and means Mountain of Light. The Koh-i-Noor, Koh-i-Nur, or Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21. ... The Golden Temple Harmandir Sahib (also Hari Mandir, Harimandar and other variants) (Punjabi: ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the most sacred gurdwara in all of Sikhism, located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. ... The Golden Temple The Golden Temple is also known as Harmandir Sahib or Hari Mandir by the Sikhs. ...


He was also known as Sher-e-Punjab, the Lion of Punjab and is considered one of the 3 Lions of India, the most famous and revered heros in North Indian history (Emperor Rajendra Chola and Asoka were the 2 most powerful Indian kings of history yet are not named part of the 3 Lions) - the other 2 Lions are Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar and Chhatrapati Shivaji, the legendary Maratha ruler. The title of Sher-e-Punjab is still widely used as a term of respect for a powerful man. The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Maharana Pratap (1540-1597) was the ruler of Mewar, a state in north-western India. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Shivaji and his faithful Maratha comrades The Marāthās is a collective term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu, Marathi-speaking castes of warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in...


After his death, the British took his heir, the young prince Maharaja Duleep Singh and took him to England where he was put under the protection of the Crown and converted to Christianity. Maharaja Duleep Singh was the son of the Sikh Emperor, Maharaja Ranjit Singh After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the young prince was taken by the British to England and placed under their protection. ...

Preceded by:
Sikh Confederacy
Sikh Empire
1801 –1849
Succeeded by:
British Empire
Preceded by:
None
Maharaja of the Sikh Empire
1801 –1839
Succeeded by:
Kharak Singh

Sikh Confederacy (1716-1799). ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707, starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in red, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707, starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... Kharak Singh (1801-1840) was the eldest legitimate son of Ranjit Singh and Maharani Datar Kaur. ...

See also

// Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707, starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... East and North sides of the Baradari. ...

External links

  • Ranjit Singh profile from sikh-history.com
  • Extra profile from sikh-history.com
  • Foreign officers in Ranjit Singh's Court

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ranjit Singh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (767 words)
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a Sikh born in 1780.
Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the commander of the Sukerchakia misl (faction) and controlled a territory in west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala.
Ranjit is remembered for uniting the Punjab as a strong state and his possession of the Koh-i-noor diamond.
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (200 words)
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is the mausoleum of the Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Ranjit Singh's ashes are contained in a marble urn in the shape of a lotus, sheltered under a marble pavilion inlaid with pietra dura, in the centre of the tomb.
Two small monuments to the west of the main mausoleum commemorate Ranjit Singh's son Kharak Singh and grandson Nau Nihal Singh, and their wives.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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