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Encyclopedia > Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull.
Ramon Llull.

Ramon Llull (1232[1]June 29, 1315) (sometimes Raymond Lully or in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus, or in Spanish Raimundo Lulio) was a mallorquin writer and philosopher born into a wealthy family in Palma, Mallorca, in the Balearic Islands, then part of the Crown of Aragon, now part of Spain. He wrote the first major work of Catalan language literature. Recently surfaced manuscripts show him to have anticipated by several centuries prominent work on elections theory. He is sometimes considered a pioneer of computation theory, especially given his influence on Leibniz. Download high resolution version (928x1084, 241 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (928x1084, 241 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalan) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Palma de Mallorca) Website http://www. ... Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ...

Contents

Early life

Llull was well educated, and became the tutor of James II of Aragon. He wrote in Latin, Catalan, Occitan and Arabic. In 1265 he had a religious epiphany, and became a tertiary Franciscan. His first major work Art Abreujada d 'Atrobar Veritat (The Art of Finding Truth) was written in Catalan and then translated into Latin. He wrote treatises on alchemy and botany, Ars Magna, and Llibre de meravelles. He wrote the romantic novel Blanquerna, the first major work of literature written in Catalan, and perhaps the first European novel. Llull pressed for the study of Arabic and other then-insufficiently studied languages in Spain for the purpose of converting Muslims to Christianity. James II of Aragon James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Ramon Llull. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Schopenhauer described Llull's conversion, as recorded in Johann Jakob Brucker's Critical History of Philosophy, Book IV, Part I, page 10. "Hence men who have led a very adventurous life under the pressure of passions, men such as kings, heroes, or adventurers, have often been seen suddenly to change, resort to resignation and penance, and become hermits and monks. To this class belong all genuine accounts of conversion, for instance, that of Raymond Lull, who had long wooed a beautiful woman, was at last admitted to her chamber, and was looking forward to the fulfillment of all his desires, when, opening her dress, she showed him her bosom terribly eaten away with cancer. From that moment, as if he had looked into hell, he was converted; leaving the court of the King of Majorca, he went into the wilderness to do penance." (The World as Will and Representation, Vol. I, § 68) Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... Johann Jakob Brucker (1696 - 1770) was a German historian of philosophy. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...


Ars generalis ultima (Ars Magna)

Around 1275, Llull designed a method, which he first published in full in his Ars generalis ultima or Ars magna (1305), of combining attributes selected from a number of lists. It is believed that Llull's inspiration for the Ars magna came from observing Arab astrologers use a device called a zairja. // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... A zairja was a device used by medieval Arab astrologers to calculate ideas by mechanical means. ...


It was intended as a debating tool for winning Muslims to the Christian faith through logic and reason. Through his detailed analytical efforts, Llull built an in-depth theological reference by which a reader could enter in an argument or question about the Christian faith. The reader would then turn to the appropriate index and page to find the correct answer.


Llull also invented numerous 'machines' for the purpose. One method is now called the Lullian Circle, each of which consisted of two or more paper discs inscribed with alphabetical letters or symbols that referred to lists of attributes. The discs could be rotated individually to generate a large number of combinations of ideas. A number of terms, or symbols relating to those terms, were laid around the full circumference of the circle. They were then repeated on an inner circle which could be rotated. These combinations were said to show all possible truth about the subject of the circle. Llull based this on the notion that there were a limited number of basic, undeniable truths in all fields of knowledge, and that we could understand everything about these fields of knowledge by studying combinations of these elemental truths.


The method was an early attempt to use logical means to produce knowledge. Llull hoped to show that Christian doctrines could be obtained artificially from a fixed set of preliminary ideas. For example, one of the tables listed the attributes of God: goodness, greatness, eternity, power, wisdom, will, virtue, truth and glory. Llull knew that all believers in the monotheistic religions - whether Jews, Muslims or Christians - would agree with these attributes, giving him a firm platform from which to argue.


The idea was developed further by Giordano Bruno in the 16th century, and by Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century for investigations into the philosophy of science. Leibniz gave Llull's idea the name ars combinatoria, by which it is now often known. Some computer scientists have adopted Llull as a sort of founding father, claiming that his system of logic was the beginning of information science. Giordano Bruno. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Ars Combinatoria may refer to one of the following. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ...


There is an episode in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (II:III:V; 1721), where the hero is shown a mechanical engine that generates knowledge by combining words at random. Swift does not mention Llull by name, but that passage can only be a parody of his method. Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer( first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, is a novel by Jonathan Swift that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the travellers tales literary sub-genre. ... Parody of Back to the Future In contemporary usage, a parody is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...


Llull was vocally opposed by the Grand Inquisitor of Aragon, Nicolau Aymerich. As a result, Pope Gregory XI banned some of his writings. Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Nicolau Aymerich, b. ... Gregory XI, né Pierre Roger de Beaufort (ca. ...


First mission

In 1285 Llull visited Rome and from there embarked on a mission to convert the 'infidels' of Tunis to Christianity. He was violently expelled from Tunis, in an incident which was magnified by some later historians into a stoning to death, and therefore a martyrdom. On his return, Llull began to preach for a unification of the three monotheistic faiths - Judaism, Christianity and Islam - which together, he hoped, would be able to defeat the Asian invaders then threatening Europe and the Middle East. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


In spite of what is generally believed, Llull, although influenced by the doctrine of St Francis Assisi -but also by the religious style of the Dominicans- never entered the Franciscan Order. Llull remained a lay person during all his life.


In 1297 Llull met Duns Scotus, after which he was given the nickname Doctor Illuminatus. Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ...


Second mission

Llull travelled to Tunis a second time in about 1304, and wrote numerous letters to the king of Tunis, but little else is known about this part of his life.


Third mission and death

In the early 14th century Llull visited North Africa on a reconnaissance mission for a crusade being planned by the Pope. He returned in 1308, reporting that the conquest should be achieved through prayer, not through military force. Llull died at home in Palma some years later. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ...


Reputation after death

Posthumously, Llull became celebrated as a great alchemist, although he had been opposed to occult beliefs. At one time he was credited with discovering ether, in about 1275, although there is no contemporary evidence for this. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ...


Chairs for the propagation of the theories of Llull were set up at the University of Barcelona and the University of Valencia. His rationalistic mysticism was formally condemned by Pope Gregory XI in 1376 and the condemnation was renewed by Pope Paul IV. The University of Barcelona (Catalan: , Spanish: , UB) is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Spain. ... The University of Valencia (Catalan: Universitat de València) is a Spanish university, located in the city of Valencia. ... Gregory XI, né Pierre Roger de Beaufort (ca. ... Paul IV, né Giovanni Pietro Carafa (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ...


Nonetheless, the Roman Catholic Church has given Llull the status of a Blessed (Bl. Ramon Lull), in that his cult was confirmed in 1858 by Pope Pius IX, although he has not been canonized. He has also been called, 'Doctor Illuminatus', but is not one of the 33 Doctors of the Church. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ...


He is regarded as one of the most influential authors in Catalan; the language is sometimes referred to as la llengua de Llull, as other languages might be referred to as la langue de Molière (French) or la lengua de Cervantes (Castilian).


The logo of the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas ("Higher Council of Scientific Research") is Llull's Tree of Science. Ramon Llull University, a private university established in Barcelona in 1990, is named for the philosopher. The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spanish for Spanish National Research Council is the largest public research organisation in Spain. ... Ramon Llull University is a private university in Barcelona, Spain, founded in 1990. ...


Mysticism

Ramon Llull also had a strong mystical side, instantiated in his work The Book of the Lover and His Beloved, written in order to illuminate weary, sterile souls. He was also interested in, and wrote about, astrology. Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mustikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (musteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ...


Mathematics and statistics

With the 2001 discovery of his lost manuscripts Ars notandi, Ars eleccionis, and Alia ars eleccionis, Llull is given credit for discovering the Borda count and Condorcet criterion, which Jean-Charles de Borda and Marquis de Condorcet independently discovered centuries later. [2] The terms Llull winner and Llull loser are ideas in contemporary voting systems studies that are named in honor of Llull. Also, Llull is recognized as pioneer of computation theory, especially due to his great influence on Gottfried Leibniz. The Borda count is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... The Condorcet candidate or Condorcet winner of an election is the candidate who, when compared in turn with each of the other candidates, is preferred over the other candidate. ... Jean-Charles de Borda (May 4, 1733 - February 19, 1799) was a French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor. ... Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... // Introduction The Llull winner is similar to the Condorcet winner in voting systems. ... Voters at the voting booths in the US in 1945 Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Other recent coverage

Martin Gardner has written extensively about Llull. His analyses can be found in Logic Machines and Diagrams and Science - Good, Bad and Bogus. Martin Gardner (b. ...


Llull, now going under the name 'Cole Hawlings' and revealed to be immortal is a major character in The Box of Delights the celebrated Children's novel by poet John Masefield. In the BBC TV adaptation of 1984 he was played by Patrick Troughton. The Box of Delights is a childrens fantasy novel by John Masefield. ... John Edward Masefield, OM, (1 June 1878 – 12 May 1967), was an English poet and writer, and Poet Laureate from 1930 until his death in 1967. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... Patrick George Troughton (March 25, 1920 – March 28, 1987) was a versatile and prolific English actor best known in his role as the second incarnation of the Doctor in the long running British science-fiction television series Doctor Who, which he played from 1966 until 1969. ...


Works

Llull is known to have written at least 265 works, including:

  • The Book of the Lover and the Beloved
  • Blanquerna (a novel; 1283) [1]
  • Desconort (on the superiority of reason)
  • Tree of Science (1295)
  • Tractatus novus de astronomia
  • Ars Magna (The Great Art) (1305) or Ars Generalis Ultima (The Ultimate General Art)
  • Ars Brevis (The Short Art; an abbreviated version of the Ars Magna)
  • Llibre de meravelles
  • Practica compendiosa
  • Liber de Lumine (The Book of Light)
  • Ars Infusa (The Inspired Art)
  • Book of Propositions
  • Liber Chaos (The Book of Chaos)
  • Book of the Seven Planets
  • Liber Proverbiorum (Book of Proverbs)
  • Book on the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit
  • Ars electionis [2] (on voting)
  • Artifitium electionis personarum [3] (on voting)
  • Ars notatoria
  • Introductoria Artis demonstrativae
  • Book of the Gentile and the Three Wise Men
  • Libre qui es de l'ordre de cavalleria (The Book of the Order of Chivalry written between 1279-1283)

About another 400 works are doubtfully or spuriously attributed to him. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Ramon Llull. ...


Bibliography

  • Barber, William Theodore Aquila, Raymond Lull, the illuminated doctor : a study in mediaeval missions, London : C.H. Kelly, 1903.
  • Zwemer, Samuel Marinus, Raymund Lull, first missionary to the Moslems, New York and London : Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1902.

Samuel Marinus Zwemer (April 12, 1867-April 2, 1952) was an American missionary, traveler, and scholar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Born 1232 per Mark D. Johnston in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998. Older sources (such as versions of Encyclopædia Britannica at least up to 1955, give 1235; the current Britannica gives 1232/33.
  2. ^ G. Hägele and F. Pukelsheim (2001). "Llull's writings on electoral systems". Studia Lulliana 3: 3-38. 

External links



  Results from FactBites:
 
Ramon Llull - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1388 words)
Ramon Llull (1235 – June 29, 1315) (sometimes Raymond Lully or in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus) was a writer and philosopher born into a wealthy family in Palma, Majorca, in the Balearic Islands, now part of Spain.
Llull was well educated, and became the tutor of James II of Aragon.
Llull based this on the notion that there were a limited number of basic, undeniable truths in all fields of knowledge, and that we could understand everything about these fields of knowledge by studying combinations of these elemental truths.
Ramon Llull - definition of Ramon Llull in Encyclopedia (728 words)
Ramon Llull (1235 - June 29, 1315) (in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus) was a writer and philosopher born into a wealthy family in Palma, Mallorca.
Llull pressed for the study of Arabic and other then-insufficiently studied languages in Spain for the purpose of the conversion of Muslims to Christianity.
Llull had always found his spirtual beliefs close to those of Francis of Assisi, and around 1295 he joined the Franciscan order.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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