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Encyclopedia > Ramesses IV
Ramesses IV
Also written Ramses and Rameses
Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting his enemies.
Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting his enemies.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1155-1149 BC,  20th Dynasty
Predecessor Ramesses III
Successor Ramesses V
Consort(s) Duatentopet
Children Ramesses V
Died 1149 BC
Burial KV2
Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed the crown prince by Year 22 of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him.[2] His promotion to crown prince: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1056 × 1618 pixel, file size: 2. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Nomen: Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Children Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pentawere, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiy-Merenese Died 1155 BC Burial KV11 Monuments Medinet Habu Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses... Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned 1146 BC to 1142 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Duatentopet or Tentopet was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the 20th dynasty. ... Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned 1146 BC to 1142 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is a lunar deity, and a son of Amun and Mut. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... History of Ancient Egypt, Twentieth Dynasty The Twentieth Dynasty was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Rameses III, who modelled his career after Rameses II the Great. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Nomen: Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Children Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pentawere, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiy-Merenese Died 1155 BC Burial KV11 Monuments Medinet Habu Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses...

'is suggested by his appearance(suitably entitled) in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22 [of his father's reign]. (the date is mentioned in the poem inscribed there)'[3]

Prince Ramesses IV employed three distinctive titles as his father's chosen successor: "Hereditary Prince", "Royal scribe" and "Generalissimo"; the latter two of his titles are mentioned in a text at Amenhotep III's temple at Soleb[4] and all three royal titles are given in a lintel now in Florence, Italy.[5] Henceforth, he took on increasing responsibilities; for instance, in Year 27 of his father's reign, he is depicted appointing a certain Amenemopet to the important position of Third Prophet of Amun in the latter's TT 148 tomb.[6][7] Amenemope's Theban tomb also accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles.[8] Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne. His rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC. Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... (Redirected from 1145 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC Events and Trends 1147 BC - Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC Events and trends 1147 BC - Demophon, legendary King of Athens and veteran of the Trojan War, dies...

Contents

Projects

At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building campaign program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai.[9] The Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition--dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27--consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht.[10] The scribes who composed the text conscientiously noted that this figure excluded 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list."[11] Consequently, once this omitted figure is added to the tally of 8,368 men who survived the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 9,268 men perished during this massive endeavour for a mortality rate of almost 10%. This gives an indication of the harshness of life in Egypt's stone quarries. Usermaatre-setepenre TheJustice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [1] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [1] Userrenput-aanehktu[2] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties). ... Wadi Hammamat (Arabic: Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypts Eastern Desert, about halfway between Qusier and Qena. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stone structure. ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... Ramessesnakht was appointed as the High Priest of Amun at Thebes under Ramesses IV. He served in office until the reign of Ramesses IX. Ramessesnakht was married to Adjedet-Aat and had at least two sons: Nebamun and Amenhotep, and a daughter Tamerit. ...


Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines the Sinai; a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit el-Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, Sobekhotep, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise (on) his fourth expedition."[12] This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V.[13] Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el-Khadim.[14] The stela reads: Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Ancient Egypt | Egypt | Geography of Egypt ... Serabit el-Khadim (Arabic, also transliterated Serabit al-Khadim, Serabit el-Khadem) is a locality in the south-west Sinai Peninsula where turquoise was mined extensively in antiquity, mainly by the ancient Egyptians. ...

Year 5, second month of Shomu [ie: summer]. The sending by His Majesty <to> build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise, by Panefer, the Scribe of the Commands of the Army, son of Pairy, justified.[15]

While little is known regarding the route that the mining missions took from Egypt to Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, AJ Peden who wrote a biography of Ramesses IV's reign in 1994 states that there were "two obvious routes" to reach this site:

"The first was a straightforward march from a Delta base, such as Memphis, east south-east and then south into Sinai. Surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented formidable logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted. This would involve a departure from the Delta to a site near the modern port of Suez. From here they could have proceeded by boat to the ports of Abu Zenima or El-Markha on the west coast of the Sinai peninsula and from there it is a short journey inland of only a day or two to the actual site of Serabit el-Khadim."[16]

Attestations

Ramesses IV is attested by his aforementioned building actvity at Wadi Hammamate and Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai as well as several papyri and even one obelisk. The creation of a royal cult in the Temple of Hathor is known under his reign at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai while Papyrus Mallet (or P. Louvre 1050) dates to Years 3 and 4 of his reign.[17] Papyrus Mallet is a six column text dealing partly with agricultural affairs; its first column lists the prices for various commodities between Year 31 of Ramesses III until Year 3 of Ramesses IV.[18] The final four columns contain a memorandum of 2 letters composed by the Superintendent of Cattle of the Estate of Amen-Re, Bakenkhons, to several mid-level administrators and their subordinates.[19] Meanwhile, surviving monuments of Ramesses IV in the Delta consists of an obelisk recovered in Cairo and a pair of his cartouches found on a pylon gateway both originally from Heliopolis.[20] Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ...


The most important document to survive from this pharaoh's rule is Papyrus Harris I, which honours the life of his father, Ramesses III, by listing the latter's many accomplishments and gifts to the temples of Egypt, and the Turin papyrus, the earliest known geologic map. Ramesses IV was perhaps the last New Kingdom king to engage in large-scale monumental building after his father as "there was a marked decline in temple building even during the longer reigns of Ramesses IX and VI. The only apparent exception was the attempt of Ramesses V and VI to continue the vast and uncompleted mortuary temple of Ramesses IV at the Assasif."[21] Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection). ... The Turin Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian map, generally considered the oldest surviving map of topographical interest from the ancient world. ... A geologic map is a special-purpose map made for the purpose of showing subsurface geological features. ...


Death

Despite Ramesses IV's many endeavours for the gods and his prayer to Osiris—preserved on a Year 4 stela at Abydos—that "thou shalt give me the great age with a long reign [as my predecessor]", the king did not live long enough to accomplish his ambitious goals.[22]


After a short reign of about six and a half years, Ramesses IV died and was buried in tomb KV2 in the Valley of the Kings. His mummy was found in the royal cache of Amenhotep II's tomb KV35 in 1898.[23] His chief wife is Queen Duatentopet or Tentopet who was buried in QV74. His son, Ramesses V, would succeed him to the throne.[24] ➥the Epopt 30 June 2005 19:23 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) is the tomb of Amenhotep II. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898. ... Duatentopet or Tentopet was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the 20th dynasty. ... Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned 1146 BC to 1142 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ...


References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994, p.167
  2. ^ Jacobus Van Dijk, 'The Amarna Period and the later New Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, Oxford University Press paperback, 2002, p.306
  3. ^ A. J. Peden, The Reign of Ramesses IV, Aris & Phillips Ltd, 1994. p.2
  4. ^ KRI, V 372: 16
  5. ^ KRI, V, 373 (3)
  6. ^ G.A. Gaballa & K.A. Kitchen, "Amenemope, His Tomb and Family," MDAIK 37 (1981), pp.164-180
  7. ^ Ramesses IV by J. Dunn
  8. ^ Gaballa & Kitchen, op. cit., pp.172-173 & 176-177
  9. ^ Van Dijk, op. cit., pp.306-307
  10. ^ KRI, VI, 12-14
  11. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.89
  12. ^ KRI, VI, 85-86
  13. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.28
  14. ^ PM, VIII, 347-365
  15. ^ KRI, VI, 29:4
  16. ^ Peden, op. cit., pp.28-29
  17. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.33
  18. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.72
  19. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.72
  20. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.33
  21. ^ Peden, op. cit., p.81
  22. ^ Clayton, Chronicle, p.167
  23. ^ Clayton, Chronicle, p.167
  24. ^ Van Dijk, op. cit., p.307

External links

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