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Encyclopedia > Ramesses III
Ramesses III
Also written Ramses and Rameses
Relief from the Sanctuary of Khonsu Temple at Karnak depicting Ramesses III
Relief from the Sanctuary of Khonsu Temple at Karnak depicting Ramesses III
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1186–1155 BC,  20th Dynasty
Predecessor Setnakhte
Successor Ramesses IV
Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye
Children Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII,
Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun,
Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef,
Pentawere, Duatentopet (?)
Father Setnakht
Mother Tiy-Merenese
Died 1155 BC
Burial KV11
Monuments Medinet Habu

Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt. He was the son of Setnakht and Queen Tiy-merenese. Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days.[1] (Alternate dates for this king are 1187 to 1156 BC). Image File history File links RamessesIII-KhonsuTemple-Karnak. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Setnakht Meryamunra (stX-nxt mrr-imnra) Seth Is Victorious ; Beloved Of Amon-Re[1] Praenomen Userkhaure-setepenre (wsr-xaw-ra stp. ... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issue Ramesses V Died 1149 BC Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ... Iset Ta-Hemdjert or Isis Ta-Hemdjert, also Isis Ta-Habadjilat was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the twentieth dynasty; the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses III and the mother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI[1]. She was probably of Asian origin; her mothers name Hemdjert (or Habadjilat... Tiye was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the twentieth dynasty; a secondary wife of Ramesses III, against whom she instigated a conspiracy[1]. Tiye is known from the Turin Legal Papyrus, which recorded that there was a conspiracy against Ramesses, in which several people of high positions were involved. ... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issue Ramesses V Died 1149 BC Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom... Nebmaatre-meryamun Nomen Ramesses (Amenherkhepeshef) Neterhekaiunu Horus name Kanakht Aanakhtu Nebty name Userkhepeshhedhefenu Golden Horus Userrenputmitatjenen Died 1134 BC Burial KV9 Ramesses VI (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fifth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt who reigned from 1142 BC to 1134 BC. His tomb, KV9, is... Usermaatre Akhenamun Ramesses VIII (also written Ramses and Rameses) Sethherkhepshef Meryamun(1126-1124 BC) was the seventh Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and is thought to have been a son of Ramesses III. He is the most obscure ruler of this Dynasty and... Amun-her-khepeshef was the eldest son and appointed heir of Pharaoh Ramesses III. Like many of his brothers, he was named after a son of Ramesses II, Amun-her-khepeshef. ... Khaemwaset was an Ancient Egyptian prince, a son of Pharaoh Ramesses III. His name can also be found as [1] Like many of his brothers, he was named after a son of Ramesses II, Khaemwaset, and like the 19th dynasty Khaemwaset, he was a priest of Ptah in Memphis (though... Meryatum was an Ancient Egyptian prince, a son of Pharaoh Ramesses III. His name can also be found as [1] Like many of his brothers, he was named after a son of Ramesses II, Meryatum, and like the 19th dynasty Meryatum, he was the High Priest of Ra in Heliopolis. ... Duatentopet or Tentopet was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the 20th dynasty. ... Setnakhte (also Sethnakhte or Setnakht) was the first Pharaoh (1186 BC-1183 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and father of Ramesses III. Originally, he was believed to have enjoyed a reign of only 2 Years based upon his Year 2 Elephantine stela but... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, from the air. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Setnakhte (also Sethnakhte or Setnakht) was the first Pharaoh (1186 BC-1183 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and father of Ramesses III. Originally, he was believed to have enjoyed a reign of only 2 Years based upon his Year 2 Elephantine stela but... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples...


A fixed chronological point for this pharaoh's reign was the eruption of the Hekla III Iceland volcano from 1159 BC onwards. Since it is well known that the king experienced difficulties provisioning his workmen at Deir el-Medina with supplies in his 29th year, it is probable that his 28th or 29th regnal year was equivalent to 1159 BC.[2] A minor discrepancy of 1 year is possible since Egypt's granaries could have had reserves to cope with at least a single bad year of crop harvests during the time of the Hekla III eruption. This means that the king's reign would have ended just 3 to 4 years later around 1156 or 1155 BC. The Ancient Greeks knew Ramesses III as Rhampsinitus which is a corruption of his popular Egyptian name, Ra-messu-pa-neter.[3] Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...

Contents

Tenure and chaos

For more details on this topic, see Battle of the Delta.

During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans) and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Weshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand to hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris papyrus states: The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Chad and Niger on the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Denyen or Danuna Based on New Kingdom Egyptian text, The Danuna are considered one of the major groups of the Sea Peoples. ... The Shardana or Sherden sea pirates are one of several groups of Sea Peoples who appear in fragmentary historical records (Egyptian inscriptions) for the Mediterranean region in the second millennium B.C.; little is known about them. ... The Tjekker were one of the Sea Peoples who raided Egypt and the Levant during the 13th and 12th centuries BCE. They raided Egypt repeatedly before settling in northern Canaan. ...

As for those who reached my boundary, their seed is not. Their hearts and their souls are finished unto all eternity. Those who came forward together upon the sea, the full flame was in front of them at the rivermouths, and a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore.

Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 6 and Year 11 respectively.[4]


The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the Egypt's favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset (now known as Deir el Medina), could not be provisioned.[5] The main reason for this deficiency was presumably caused by the massive and extended 1159 BC to 1140 BC eruption of the Hekla III volcano in Iceland, which expelled large amounts of plume and rock into the atmosphere thereby causing large-scale failures of Egypt's crop harvest.[6] The presence of significant quantities of volcanic soot in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. The result in Egypt was a substantial inflation in grain prices under the later reigns of Ramesses VI-VII whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant.[7] The eruption, hence, affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workman of the Deir el-Medina community. Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties). ... Hekla is a stratovolcano located in the south of Iceland at , with a height of 1,488 m (4,882 ft). ...

Osirid statues of Ramses III at his temple at Medinet Habu.
Osirid statues of Ramses III at his temple at Medinet Habu.

These difficult realities are completely ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, and which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, and his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt; however, the uncertainty of Ramesses' times is apparent from the massive fortifications which were built to enclose the latter. No Egyptian temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had ever needed to be protected in such a manner. Statues of Rameses III at Karnak, image scanned from 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Statues of Rameses III at Karnak, image scanned from 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Usermaatre-setepenre TheJustice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [1] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [1] Userrenput-aanehktu[2] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the Nile Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ...


Ramesses' two main names, shown left, transliterate as wsr-m3‘t-r‘–mry-ỉmn r‘-ms-s–ḥḳ3-ỉwnw. They are normally realised as Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesse-hekaiunu, meaning "Powerful one of Ma'at and Ra, Beloved of Amun, Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis". For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ...


Conspiracy against the king

Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts (dated to Ramesses III), it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu. The conspiracy was instigated by Tey, one of his two principal wives (the other being Isis), over whose son would inherit the throne. Isis's son, Ramesses IV, was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tey's son Pentawere. For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ... Migdol entrance to Medinat Habu Medinet Habu from the air First Pylon of the Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III Ceiling decoration in the peristyle hall Medinet Habu (Ancient Egyptian: Tjamet or Djamet Coptic: Djeme or Djemi) is an archaeological locality situated near the foot of the Theban Hills on the... Tiye was an Ancient Egyptian queen of the twentieth dynasty; a secondary wife of Ramesses III, against whom she instigated a conspiracy[1]. Tiye is known from the Turin Legal Papyrus, which recorded that there was a conspiracy against Ramesses, in which several people of high positions were involved. ... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issue Ramesses V Died 1149 BC Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom...


The trial documents[8] emphasize the extensive scale of the conspiracy to assassinate the king since many individuals were implicated in the plot.[9] Chief among them were Queen Tey and her son Pentawere, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, Pebekkamen, seven royal butlers (a respectable state office), two Treasury overseers, two Army standard bearers, two royal scribes and a herald. There is little doubt that all of the main conspirators were executed: some of the condemned were given the option of committing suicide (possibly by poison) rather than being put to death.[10] According to the surviving trials transcripts, 3 separate trials were started in total while 38 people were sentenced to death.[11] The tombs of Tey and her son Pentawere were robbed and their names erased to prevent them from enjoying an afterlife. The Egyptians did such a thorough job of this that the only references to them are the trial documents and what remains of their tombs.


Some of the accused harem women tried to seduce the members of the judiciary who tried them but were caught in the act. Judges who took part in the carousing were severely punished.[12]


It has been suggested that Pentawere, being a noble, was given the option to commit suicide by taking poison and so be spared the humiliating fate of some of the other conspirators who would have been burned alive with their ashes strewn in the streets. Such punishment served to make a strong example since it emphasized the gravity of their treason for ancient Egyptians who believed that one could only attain an afterlife if one's body was mummified and preserved--rather than being destroyed by fire. In other words, not only were the criminals killed in the physical world, but also in the afterlife. They would have no chance of living on into the next world,and thus suffered a kind of 'second death'. By committing suicide, Pentawere could avoid the harsher punishment of a second death. This could have permitted him to be mummified and move on to the afterlife.


It is not known if the assassination plot succeeded. Ramesses III died in his 32nd year before the summaries of the sentences were composed.[13] His body shows no obvious wounds. [14] But some measures would have left little or no visible traces on the body. Among the conspirators were practitioners of magic,[15] who might well have used poison. Some have put forth a hypothesis that a snakebite from a viper was the cause of the king's death but this proposal has not been proven. His mummy includes an amulet to protect Ramesses III in the afterlife from a snakebite. The servant in charge of his food and drink was among the listed conspirators, but there were also other conspirators called the snake and the lord of snakes. Synonyms Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperes - Cuvier, 1817 Viperides - Latreille, 1825 Viperina - Gray, 1825 Viperiodea - Fitzinger, 1826 Viperiodei - Eichwald, 1831 Viperinae - Cantor, 1847 Viperiformes - Günther, 1864 Viperida - Strauch, 1869[1] Common names: pitless vipers, true vipers, Old World vipers,[2] true adders. ...


In one respect the conspirators certainly failed. The crown passed to the designated successor, Ramesses IV. Ramesses III seems to have been doubtful as to the chances of his son to succeed him and in the Great Harris Papyrus he implored Amen to ensure his son's rights.[16] He may have initiated the trials to get rid of people he perceived as threats late in his life. Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection); its technical designation is papyrus British Museum 9999. ...


Legacy

The Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which was commissioned by his son and chosen successor Ramesses IV, chronicles this king's vast donations of land, gold statues and monumental construction to Egypt's various temples at Piramesse, Heliopolis, Memphis, Athribis, Hermopolis, This, Abydos, Coptos, El Kab and other cities in Nubia and Syria. It also records that the king dispatched a trading expedition to the Land of Punt and quarried the copper mines of Timna in southern Canaan. Papyrus Harris I has Ramesses III relating that: Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection). ... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issue Ramesses V Died 1149 BC Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Athribis or Athlibis (Greek: or , Herod. ... Black siltstone obelisk of King Nectanebo II. According to the vertical inscriptions he set up this obelisk at the doorway of the sanctuary of Thoth, the Twice-Great, Lord of Hermopolis. ... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... Qift (قفط) is a small town in the Qina governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile. ... The modern area around el-Kab is on the east side of the Nile, 90km south of Luxor, on the road to Edfu. ... The Land of Punt, which the Ancient Egyptians called Ta Netjeru, meaning Land of the Gods, was a fabled and exotic site in eastern Africa, which carried on extensive trade with Ancient Egypt, China and Arabia. ...

I sent my emissaries to the land of Atika, [ie: Timna] to the great copper mines which are there. Their ships carried them along and others went overland on their donkeys. It had not been heard of since the (time of any earlier) king. Their mines were found and (they) yielded copper which was loaded by tens of thousands into their ships, they being sent in their care to Egypt, and arriving safely." (P. Harris I, 78, 1-4)[17]
Medinet Habu temple relief of Ramesses III
Medinet Habu temple relief of Ramesses III

More notably, Ramesses began the reconstruction of the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak from the foundations of an earlier temple of Amenhotep III and completed the Temple of Medinet Habu (temple) around his Year 12.[18] He decorated the walls of his Medinet Habu temple with scenes of his Naval and Land battles against the Sea Peoples. This monument stands today as one of the best-preserved temples of the New Kingdom.[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Located with the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt, the Temple of Khons is an example of an almost complete New Kingdom temple, and was originally constructed by Ramesses III, on the site of an earlier temple (the construction seems to be mentioned in the Harris... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, from the air. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


The mummy of Ramesses III was discovered by antiquarians in 1886 and is regarded as the prototypical Egyptian Mummy in numerous Hollywood movies.[20] His tomb (KV11) is one of the largest in the Valley of the Kings. For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV11 was originally started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broken into another tomb (KV10), then restarted and extended by Ramesses III. Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Valley of the Kings ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to...


References

  1. ^ E.F. Wente & C.C. Van Siclen, "A Chronology of the New Kingdom" in Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes, (SAOC 39) 1976, p.235, ISBN 0-918986-01-X
  2. ^ Frank J. Yurco, "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause" in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente, ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456-458
  3. ^ Rhampsinitus Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books, 1992. p.271
  5. ^ William F. Edgerton, The Strikes in Ramses III's Twenty-Ninth Year, JNES 10, No. 3 (July 1951), pp. 137-145
  6. ^ Frank J. Yurco, "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause" in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente, ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456-458
  7. ^ Frank J. Yurco, op. cit., p.456
  8. ^ J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, §§423-456
  9. ^ Ramesses III: Egypt's last great pharaoh
  10. ^ James H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, §§446-450
  11. ^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, Thames & Hudson October 2006, p.170
  12. ^ Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press 2000, p.247
  13. ^ J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, op. cit., p.418
  14. ^ Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press 2000, p.247
  15. ^ J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, op. cit., pp.454-456
  16. ^ J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, §246
  17. ^ A. J. Peden, The Reign of Ramesses IV, Aris & Phillips Ltd, 1994. p.32 Atika has long been equated with Timna, see here B. Rothenburg, Timna, Valley of the Biblical Copper Mines (1972), 201-203 where he also notes the probable port at Jezirat al-Faroun.
  18. ^ Jacobus Van Dijk, 'The Amarna Period and the later New Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, Oxford University Press paperback, (2002) p.305
  19. ^ Van Dijk, op. cit., p.305
  20. ^ Bob Brier, The Encyclopedia of Mummies, Checkmark Books, 1998., p.154

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Ramesses III, Egypt's Last, Great Pharaoh (2849 words)
Ramesses was this king's birth name, as it was for most of the 20th Dynasty rulers who appear to have wished to emulate the great Ramesses II of the 19th Dynasty.
Another of Ramesses III's queens was Tiy, but in a several noteworthy papyrus from his reign, particularly one known today as the Harem Conspiracy Papyrus, we learn of an assassination attempt upon the king in which she was at least a part of the plot.
Ramesses III himself most likely commissioned the prosecution, but according to the language of the papyrus, probably died during the trial, though not necessarily from the effects of the plot.
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