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Encyclopedia > Ramesses II
Ramesses II
Ramesses the Great
alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses
Ramesses II: one of four external seated statues at Abu Simbel
Ramesses II: one of four external seated statues at Abu Simbel
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1279–1213 BC,  19th Dynasty
Predecessor Seti I
Successor Merneptah
Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari
Maathorneferure
Children Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen, see also: List of children of Ramesses II
Father Seti I
Mother Queen Tuya
Born 1303 BC
Died 1213 BC
Burial KV7
Monuments Abu Simbel, Ramesseum, Luxor and Karnak temples

Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses The Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses *Riʕmīsisu; also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne name, User-maat-re Setep-en-re)[3] was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh.[4] He was born c. 1303 BC, the exact date being unknown (it has been said that he was born on February 22, though this is uncertain).[citation needed] At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I.[4] He is believed to have taken the throne in his early 20s and to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC[5] for a total of 66 years and 2 months, according to Manetho. He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year. If he became king in 1279 BC as most Egyptologists today believe, he would have assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27.[6][7] Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 Sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh.[8] Image File history File links RamsesIIEgypt. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Re or bre (also in form more/mori and numerous variations thereof) is an interjection common to languages of Balkan linguistic union (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Macedonian, Romanian, Serbian and Turkish). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Henutmire was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. She is possibly the third and youngest child of Seti I and Queen Tuya, and the younger sister of Ramesses II and Princess Tia. ... Isetnofret (or Isis-nofret) (Ancient Egyptian: the beautiful Isis) was one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II and was the mother of his heir, Merneptah. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Maathorneferure at Tanis Maathorneferure was a princess of Hatti, and was married to Ramesses II in the 34th year of his reign. ... Statue of Khaemweset Prince Khaemweset (or Khaemwaset) was the fourth son of Ramesses II, and the second son by his queen Isetnofret and, by far, the best known son of this king whose memory was remembered for centuries after his death. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... Meritamen (also spelled Meritamun, Merytamen, Meryt-Amen; Ancient Egyptian: Beloved of Amun) was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great. ... Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II had a large number of children – 48-50 sons and 40-53 daughters[1] –, whom he had depicted on several monuments. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Queen Tuya was the wife of Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II. References Grajetkzi, Wolfram (2005) Ancient Egyptian Queens – a hieroglyphic dictionary Categories: | | | ... Tomb KV7, located in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses II, and is located in the main valley, opposite the tomb of his sons, KV5, and near to the tomb of his son and successor, Merenptah, KV8. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 40 years and... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... (Redirected from 1279 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... (Redirected from 1213 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC - 1210s BC - 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC Events and Trends 1213 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed and... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1279 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... The Season of the Harvest (in Egyptian shmw), is the third and last season in the ancient Egyptian calendar, following the Season of the Emergence. ... The sed festival (or heb sed) was an Ancient Egyptian ceremony held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. ...


Ancient Greek writers such as Herodotus attributed his accomplishments to the semi-mythical Sesostris. He is traditionally believed to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Sesostris was the name of a legendary king of ancient Egypt. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ...

Family and life

See also: Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree and List of children of Ramesses II

Ramesses II was the third king of the 19th dynasty, and the second child of Seti I and his Queen Tuya.[9] His only definite sibling was Princess Tia, though in the case of Henutmire, one of his Great Royal Wives, she may the younger half-sister of Ramesses.[10] The family tree of the Egyptian Nineteenth dynasty is the usual mixture of conjecture and interpretation. ... Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II had a large number of children – 48-50 sons and 40-53 daughters[1] –, whom he had depicted on several monuments. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Queen Tuya was the wife of Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II. References Grajetkzi, Wolfram (2005) Ancient Egyptian Queens – a hieroglyphic dictionary Categories: | | | ... Tia was an Ancient Egyptian princess during the 19th dynasty; the daughter of Pharaoh Seti I and Queen Tuya and the elder sister of Ramesses II. She is attested only on monuments dating tp Ramesses reign. ... Henutmire was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. She is possibly the third and youngest child of Seti I and Queen Tuya, and the younger sister of Ramesses II and Princess Tia. ... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ...


Ramesses had numerous consorts, the most famous being Nefertari.[citation needed] During his long reign, eight women held the title Great Royal Wife (often simultaneously): Nefertari and Isetnofret, whom he married early in his reign; Bintanath, Meritamen and Nebettawy, his own daughters who replaced their mothers Nefertari and Isetnofret when they died or retired; Henutmire; Maathorneferure, Princess of Hatti and another Hittite princess whose name did not survive.[11] A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Isetnofret (or Isis-nofret) (Ancient Egyptian: the beautiful Isis) was one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II and was the mother of his heir, Merneptah. ... Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II. She was born possibly when her father was still a co-regent with his father, Sethi I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses. ... Meritamen (also spelled Meritamun, Merytamen, Meryt-Amen; Ancient Egyptian: Beloved of Amun) was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great. ... Nebettawy (“Lady of the Two Lands”) was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, the fifth daughter and one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Nebettawy may have been the daughter of Ramesses most beloved wife, Nefertari, but this is by no means certain. ... Henutmire was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. She is possibly the third and youngest child of Seti I and Queen Tuya, and the younger sister of Ramesses II and Princess Tia. ... Maathorneferure at Tanis Maathorneferure was a princess of Hatti, and was married to Ramesses II in the 34th year of his reign. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern Bogazköy... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ...


The writer Terence Gray stated in 1923 that Ramesses II had as many as 20 sons and 20 daughters but scholars today believe his offspring numbered over one hundred. In 2004, Dodson and Hilton noted that the monumental evidence "seems to indicate that Ramesses II had around 110 children, [with] 48-55 sons and 40-53 daughters."[12] His children include Bintanath and Meritamen (princesses and their father's wives), Sethnakhte, Amun-her-khepeshef the king's first born son, Merneptah (who would eventually succeed him as Ramesses' 13th son), and Prince Khaemweset. Ramesses II's second born son, Ramesses B, sometimes called Ramesses Junior, became the crown prince from Year 25 to Year 50 of his father's reign after the death of Amen-her-khepesh.[13] Terence Gray (1895 - 1986), better known by the pen name Wei Wu Wei, was a 20th century Taoist philosopher and writer. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II. She was born possibly when her father was still a co-regent with his father, Sethi I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses. ... Meritamen (also spelled Meritamun, Merytamen, Meryt-Amen; Ancient Egyptian: Beloved of Amun) was a daughter and later Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... Statue of Khaemweset Prince Khaemweset (or Khaemwaset) was the fourth son of Ramesses II, and the second son by his queen Isetnofret and, by far, the best known son of this king whose memory was remembered for centuries after his death. ... Ramesses B was the second oldest son of Pharaoh Ramesses II and Queen Isetnofret A and is listed as number two in the list of procession of Ramesses sons. ...


As king, Ramesses II led several expeditions north into the lands east of the Mediterranean (the location of the modern Israel, Lebanon and Syria), he also lead expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Kalabsha. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The area known as New Kalabsha is located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ... New Kalabsha is an area located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ...


Ramesses the Great accomplished many things in his life. His main focus before the Battle of Kadesh was building temples, monuments and cities. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for the Hittite war. This city was built on the remains of the city of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos when they took over. This is also where the Temple of Seti was located. This was a very significant place for Ramesses because this is where he supposedly harnesed the power of Set, Horus, Re, Amun, and his father Seti.[citation needed]


Campaigns and battles

Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to return previously lost territories back to Egyptian hands and to secure Egypt's borders. By fighting more battles, he also contributed to the country's economy.[citation needed] He was also responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya. Although the famous Battle of Kadesh often dominates the scholarly view of Ramesses II's military prowess and power, he nevertheless did enjoy more than a few outright victories over the enemies and foes of Egypt. Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ...


Battle against Sherden sea pirates

In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Shardana or Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt.[14] The Sherden people came from the coast of Ionia or south-west Turkey, more likely Ionia. Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in one fell swoop.[15] A stela from Tanis speaks of their having come 'in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them'. There must have been a naval battle somewhere near the river-mouths, for shortly afterwards many Sherden captives are seen in the Pharaoh's body-guard, where they are conspicuous by their helmets with horns with a ball projecting from the middle, their round shields and the great Naue II swords with which they are depicted in inscriptions of the Battle with the Hittites at Kadesh. Ramesses would soon incorporate these skilled mercenaries into his army where they were to play a pivotal role at the battle of Kadesh.[citation needed] The Shardana or Sherden sea pirates are one of several groups of Sea Peoples who appear in fragmentary historical records (Egyptian inscriptions) for the Mediterranean region in the second millennium B.C.; little is known about them. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The word Tanis has a number of meanings: Tanis, slang - A ganster way of saying your a pimp Tanis Diena - A Latvian pig festival Tanis, Egypt - An archaeological temple site and capital of Egypts 21st and 22nd Dynasty Tanis Half-Elven - A character in the Dragonlance novels & game products... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of...


First Syrian campaign

The immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan and Palestine. His first campaign seems to have taken place in the fourth year of his reign and was commemorated by the erection of a stela near Beirut (Be'erot). The inscription is almost totally illegible due to weathering. His records tell us that he was forced to fight a Palestinian prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army was subsequently routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Palestine as live prisoners to Egypt. Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria.[16] Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ...


Second Syrian campaign

Further information: Battle of Kadesh

The Battle of Kadesh was the major engagement in a campaign Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatalli. In order to fight his Hittite foes more effectivly, he incorporated as many men as possible into his army including the Sherden sea pirates whom he had captured just a few years earlier specifically for this climatic battle. Ramesses also constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses where he built factories to manufacture weapons, chariots, and shields, supposedly producing some 1,000 weapons in a week, about 250 chariots in 2 weeks, and 1,000 shields in a week and a half. Although outnumbered at Kadesh, Ramesses fought a stalemate and returned to home a hero. While Ramesses had in theory won the battle, he could not secure the victory and capture Kadesh due to his large battlefield losses. Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of...


Once back in Egypt, Ramesses proclaimed that he had won a great victory but in reality all he had managed to do was to rescue his army. In a sense, however, the Battle of Kadesh was a personal triumph for Ramesses since after blundering into a devastating Hittite ambush, the young king had courageously rallied his scattered troops to fight on the battlefield while escaping death or capture.


Ramesses decorated his monuments with reliefs and inscriptions describing the campaign as a whole, and the battle in particular as a major victory. For example, on the temple walls of Luxor the near catastrophe was turned into an act of heroism:

His majesty slaughtered the armed forces of the Hittites in their entirety, their great rulers and all their brothers [...] their infantry and chariot troops fell prostrate, one on top of the other. His majesty killed them [...] and they lay stretched out in front of their horses. But his majesty was alone, nobody accompanied him [...].[citation needed]

On other monuments, Ramesses states that he was not accompanied by his troops and that he had defeated the enemy by himself.[citation needed]


Third Syrian campaign

Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands. Canaanite princes, seemingly influenced by the Egyptian incapability to impose their will and goaded on by the Hittites, started revolting against Egypt. In the seventh year of his reign, Ramesses II returned to Syria once again. This time he proved more successful against his Hittite foes. On this campaign he split his army into two forces. One of these forces was led by his son, Amun-her-khepeshef, and it chased warriors of the Šhasu tribes across the Negev as far as the Dead Sea, and captured Edom-Seir. It then marched on to capture Moab. The other force, led by Ramesses, attacked Jerusalem and Jericho. He, too, then entered Moab, where he rejoined his son. The reunited army then marched on Hesbon, Damascus, on to Kumidi, and finally recaptured Upi.[citation needed] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Edomite redirects here. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

Relief from Ramesseum showing the siege of Dapur
Relief from Ramesseum showing the siege of Dapur

Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Sieges ...

Later campaigns in Syria

Ramesses extended his military successes in his eighth and ninth years. He crossed the Dog River (Nahr el-Kelb) and pushed north into Amurru. His armies managed to march as far north as Dapur, where he erected a statue of himself. The Egyptian pharaoh thus found himself in northern Amurru, well past Kadesh, in Tunip, where no Egyptian soldier had been seen since the time of Thutmose III almost 120 years previously. He laid siege on the city before capturing it. His victory proved to be ephemeral. In year nine, Ramesses erected a stela at Beth Shean. After having reasserted his power over Canaan, Ramesses led his army north. A mostly illegible stela near Beirut, which appears to be dated to the king's second year, was probably set up there in his tenth.[citation needed] The thin strip of territory pinched between Amurru and Kadesh did not make for a stable possession. Within a year, they had returned to the Hittite fold, so that Ramesses had to march against Dapur once more in his tenth year. This time he claimed to have fought the battle without even bothering to put on his corslet until two hours after the battle began. Six of the sons of Ramsses, still wearing their side locks, took part in this conquest. He took towns in Retenu, and Tunip in Naharin. This second success here was equally as meaningless as his first since neither power could decisively defeat the other in battle.[citation needed] This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... Tunip was a city/city-state in western Syria during the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... Categories: Historical stubs | Sieges ...


Peace treaty with the Hittites

Tablet of treaty between Hattusili III of Hatti and Ramesses II of Egypt, at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum
Tablet of treaty between Hattusili III of Hatti and Ramesses II of Egypt, at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum

The deposed Hittite king, Mursili III fled to Egypt, the land of his country's enemy, after the failure of his plots to oust his uncle from the throne. Hattusili III responded to this event by demanding that Ramesses II extradite his nephew back to Hatti.[citation needed] ImageMetadata File history File links Kadesh. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Kadesh. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Hattusili III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1265 BC–1235 BC. He was the commander of Hittite forces in 1274 BC that defeated an Egyptian campign into Syria in the famous Battle of Kadesh. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern Bogazköy... Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi) is an archeological museum, located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. ...


This letter precipitated a crisis in relations between Egypt and Hatti when Ramesses denied any knowledge of Mursili's whereabouts in his country and the two Empires came dangerously close to war. Consequently, in the twenty-first year of his reign (1258 BC), Ramses decided to conclude an agreement with the new Hittite king at Kadesh, Hattusili III, to end the conflict. The ensuing document is the earliest known peace treaty in world history.[citation needed] Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC - 1250s BC - 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC Events and trends September 7, 1251 BC - A solar eclipse at this date might mark the birth... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...


The peace treaty was recorded in two versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the other in Akkadian, using cuneiform script; fortunately, both versions survive. Such dual-language recording is common to many subsequent treaties. This treaty differs from others, however, in that the two language versions are differently worded. Although the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version claims that the Egyptians came suing for peace, while the Egyptian version claims the reverse.[citation needed] The treaty was given to the Egyptians in the form of a silver plaque, and this "pocket-book" version was taken back to Egypt and carved into the Temple of Karnak. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Karnak is a village in Egypt that was once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes. ...


The Treaty was concluded between Ramesses II and Hattusili III in Year 21 of Ramesses' reign.[17] (c.1258 BC) Its eighteen articles calls for peace between Egypt and Hatti and then proceeds to maintain that their respective gods also demand peace. Hattusili III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1265 BC–1235 BC. He was the commander of Hittite forces in 1274 BC that defeated an Egyptian campign into Syria in the famous Battle of Kadesh. ...


The frontiers are not laid down in this treaty but can be inferred from other documents. The Anastasy A papyrus describes Canaan during the latter part of the reign of Ramses II and enumerates and names the Phoenician coastal towns under Egyptian control. The harbour town of Sumur north of Byblos is mentioned as being the northern-most town belonging to Egypt, which points to it having contained an Egyptian garrison.[citation needed] For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


No further Egyptian campaigns in Canaan are mentioned after the conclusion of the peace treaty, the northern border seems to have been safe and quiet so the rule of the pharaoh was strong until the death of Ramesses II.[citation needed] When the king of Mira attempted to involve Ramses in a hostile act against the Hittites, the Egyptian responded that the times of intrigue in support of Mursili III, had passed. Hattusili III wrote to Kadashman-Enlil II, king of Karduniash (Babylon) in the same spirit, reminding him of the time when his father, Kadashman-Turgu, had offered to fight Ramesses II, the king of Egypt. The Hittite king encouraged the Babylonian to oppose another enemy, which must have been the king of Assyria whose allies had killed the messenger of the Egyptian king. Hattusili encouraged Kadashman-Enlil to come to his aid and prevent the Assyrians from cutting the link between the Canaanite province of Egypt and the ally of Ramesses.[citation needed] Mursili III or Urhi-Yeshub was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) for 7 Years between 1272 BC–1265 BC. He was ousted from power by his uncle, Hattusili III. During his reign, the Assyrians captured Hanigalbat and this event severely weakened his legitimacy to rule the Empire. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


Campaigns in Nubia

Photo of the free standing part of Gerf Hussein temple, originally in Nubia
Photo of the free standing part of Gerf Hussein temple, originally in Nubia

Ramesses II also campaigned south of the first cataract into Nubia. When Ramesses was about 22, two of his own sons, including Amun-her-khepeshef, accompanied him in at least one one of those campaigns. By the time of Ramesses, Nubia had been a colony for two hundred years, but its conquest was recalled in decoration from the temples Ramesses II built at Beit el-Wali (It was the subject of epigraphic work by the Oriental Insitute during the Nubian salvage campaign of the 1960s.[citation needed]), Gerf Hussein and Kalabsha in Northern Nubia. Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... The area known as New Kalabsha is located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ... The area known as New Kalabsha is located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ... New Kalabsha is an area located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ...


Campaigns in Libya

During the reign of Ramesses II, we see evidence that the Egyptians were active for a 300km stretch along the Mediterranean coast, at least as far as Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham.[18] Whilst the exact events surrounding the foundation of the coastal forts and fortresses is not clear, some degree of political and military control must have been held over the region that allowed their construction. It must also have been foreseen that this would continue to allow the future maintenance of the settlements.[citation needed] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


There are no detailed accounts of Ramesses II undertaking large military actions against the Libyans, only generalised records to his conquering and crushing them, which may or may not refer to specific events, otherwise unrecorded. It may be that some of the records, such as the Aswan Stela of his year 2, are harking back to Ramesses' presence on his father's Libyan campaigns. Perhaps it was Seti I who achieved this proposed control over the region, and it was he who planned to establish the defensive system, in a manner similar to which he rebuilt those to the east, the Ways of Horus across Northern Sinai. Ultimately, however, maybe it was his son who oversaw the project's completion, which would fit in well with a construction date early in the reign of Ramesses II, as suggested by the use of the early form of his name found at Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham.[citation needed] The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Chad and Niger on the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


Religion and festivals

Ramesses the Great was the pharaoh most responsible for erasing the Amarna period from history.[citation needed] He, more than any other pharaoh, sought deliberately to deface the Amarna monuments and change the nature of the religious structure and the structure of the priesthood, in order to try to bring it back to where it had been prior to the reign of Akhenaten. Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ...


Sed festival

Further information: Sed festival

When Ramesses had reigned for 30 years, he had joined a selected group that included only a handful of Egypt's longest lived kings. By tradition the 30th year of his reign Ramesses celebrated a traditional jubilee called the Sed festival, during which the king was ritually transformed into a god.[19] Only a half way through what would be a 66 year reign, Ramesses had already eclipsed all but a few greatest kings in his achevements. He had brought peace, maintained Egyptian borders and built great and numerous monuments across the empire. His country was more prosperous and powerful than it had been in nearly a century. By becoming a god, Ramesses dramatically changed not just his role as ruler of Egypt, but also the role of his firstborn son, Amun-her-khepsef. As chosen heir and commander and chief of Egyptian armies, his son become a ruler of land and effective ruler in all but name. The sed festival (or heb sed) was an Ancient Egyptian ceremony held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ...


Min Festival

This ancient festival, dating back to pre-dynastic Egypt,[20] was still very popular during Ramesses II's time. It was connected with the worship of the king and was carried out in the last month of the summer.[21] The festival was carried out by the king himself, followed by his wife, royal family, and the court.[21] When the king entered the sanctuary of the god Min, he brought offerings and burning incense.[21] Then, the standing god was carried out of the temple on a shield carried by 22 priests.[21] In front of the statue of the god there were also two small seated statues of the pharaoh. In front of the god Min there was a large ceremonial procession that included dancers and priests. In front of them was a king with a white bull that was wearing a solar disc between its horns.[21] When the god arrived at the end of the procession, he was given sacrificial offerings from the pharaoh. At the end of the festival, the pharaoh was given a bundle of cereal that symbolised fertility.[21] A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ... The Egyptian God Min This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ...


Building activity and monuments

The Younger Memnon part of a colossal statue of Ramesses from the Ramasseum, now in the British Museum
The Younger Memnon part of a colossal statue of Ramesses from the Ramasseum, now in the British Museum

In contrast to the buildings of other pharaohs, many of the monuments from the reign of Ramesses II are well preserved. There are accounts of his honor hewn on stone, statues, remains of palaces and temples, most notable the Ramesseum in the western Thebes and the rock temples of Abu Simbel. He covered the land from the Delta to Nubia with buildings in a way no king before him had done.[22] He also founded a new capital city in the Delta during his reign called Pi-Ramesses; it had previously served as a summer palace during Seti I's reign.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 640 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the Younger Memnon From the Ramesseum, Thebes, Egypt 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC One of the largest pieces of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum Weighing 7. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 640 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the Younger Memnon From the Ramesseum, Thebes, Egypt 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC One of the largest pieces of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum Weighing 7. ... The Younger Memnon statue is one of two colossal granite heads from the Ancient Egyptian mortuary temple called the Ramesseum at Thebes, depicting the pharaoh Ramesses II wearing the nemes head-dress with a cobra diadem on top. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ...


His memorial temple Ramesseum, was just the beginning of the pharaoh's obsession with building. When he built, he built big, on a scale unlike almost anything before. In the third year of his reign Ramesses started the most ambitious building project after the pyramids, that were built 1500 years earlier. The population was put to work on changing the face of Egypt. In Thebes, the ancient temples were transformed, so that each one of them reflected honour to Ramesses as a symbol of this divine nature and power. Ramesses decided to eternalise himself in stone, so he ordered to change the way and the principle the stone was shaped. Previous pharaohs had carved across the images and words of their predecessors, and the elegant reliefs could have been easely transformed, so Ramesses insisted on a different style where the pictures were instead deeply engraved in stone. They showed and shined more clearly on the Egyptian sun reflecting his relationship with the sungod, Ra. But probably it was more important to him that they were much harder to erase so that any of his successors will not be able to efface him from history.[citation needed] Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...


Ramesses constructed many large monuments, including the archeological complex of Abu Simbel, and the mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum. He built on a monumental scale to ensure that his legacy would survive the ravages of time. It is said[attribution needed] that there are more statues of him in existence than of any other Egyptian pharaoh, since he was the second-longest reigning Pharaoh of Egypt after Pepi II. Ramesses also used art as a means of propaganda for his victories over foreigners and are depicted on numerous temple reliefs. Ramesses II also erected more colossal statues of himself than any other pharaoh. He also usurped many existing statues by inscribing his own cartouche on them. Many of these building projects date from his early years and it appears that there was a considerable economic decline towards the end of his 66-year reign.[citation needed] Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... nomen or birth name Pepi II was a ruler of the Sixth dynasty in Egypts Old Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ...


Pi-Ramesses

Further information: Pi-Ramesses

Here once stood some of the greatest monuments and buildings that Ramesses was building all across Egypt. This city was a jewel in the crown. Although Pi-Ramesses was mentioned and named in the Bible, as a site where the Isralites were forced to work hard for the pharaoh, for many centuries it was lost, considered nothing more than a myth. But after 20 years of excavation, it was finally found in the eastern Delta.[citation needed] Its foundations lie hidden several feet beneath lush farmland. At the site the colossal feet of the statue of Ramesses are almost all that remains above ground today, the rest is buried in the fields. The ancient city was dominated by huge temples, vast residential palace of the king, complete with its own zoo. The city also had a massive chariot base, as described in the Bible.[citation needed] Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Ramesseum

Further information: Ramesseum

Ever since the 19th century, the temple complex known as the Ramesseum, which was built by Ramesses II between Qurna and the desert, has been known by this name. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus marveled at his gigantic and famous temple which is now no more than a few ruins.[23] Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Kurna, Qurna or Qurnah is a town in middle Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile, in the Theban necropolis. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Oriented northwest and southeast, the temple itself was preceded by two courts. An enormous pylon stood before the first court, with the royal palace at the left and the gigantic statue of the king looming up at the back.[21] Only fragments of the base and torso remain of the syenite statue of the enthroned pharaoh, 17 meters high and weighing more than 1000 tons. The scenes of the great pharaoh and his army triumphing over the Hittite forces fleeing before Kadesh, represented on the pylon.[21] Remains of the second court include part of the internal facade of the pylon and a portion of the Osiride portico on the right.[21] Scenes of war and the rout the Hittites at Kadesh are repeated on the walls.[21] In the upper registers, feast and honor of the phallic god Min, god of fertility.[21]On the opposite side of the court the few Osiride pillars and columns still left can furnish an idea of the original grandeur.[21] Syenite leucocratic variety of nepheline syenite from Sweden (särnaite). ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish, separated by lined registers. ... Min can be: // Abbreviation for minimum function in mathematics. ...

Ramesseum courtyard
Ramesseum courtyard

Scattered remains of the two statues of the seated king can also be seen, one in pink granite and the other in black granite, which once flanked the entrance to the temple.[21] Thirty-nine out of the forty-eight columns in the great hypostyle hall (m 41x 31) still stand in the central rows. They are decorated with the usual scenes of the king before various gods.[citation needed] Part of the ceiling decorated with gold stars on a blue ground has also been preserved.[21] The sons and daughters of Ramesses appear in the procession on the few walls left. The sanctuary was composed of three consecutive rooms, with eight columns and the tetrastyle cell.[21] Part of the first room, with the ceiling decorated with astral scenes, and few remains of the second room are all that is left. Vast storerooms built in mud bricks stretched out around the temple.[21] Traces of a school for scribes were found among the ruins.[citation needed] Image File history File links Ramesseum-Cour_et_Colosse. ... Image File history File links Ramesseum-Cour_et_Colosse. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... Tetrastyle temple with its tetrastyle portico of four Ionic columns, The Temple of Portunus In classical architecture, Tetrastyle is a colonnaded portico of four columns at the front of a building, usually a temple, or a building incorporating a tetrastyle colonnade. ...


A temple of Seti I, of which nothing is now left but the foundations, once stood to the right of the hypostyle hall.[citation needed] It consisted of a peristyle court with two chapel shrines. The entire complex was enclosed in mud brick walls which started at the gigantic southeast pylon.[citation needed] Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre...


Abu Simbel

Further information: Abu Simbel

In the year 1255 BC Ramesses and his queen Nefertari had traveled into Nubia to inaugurate a new temple, a wonder of the ancient world, this was the great Abu Simbel. Its an ego cast in stone. The man who built it intended not only to become the Egypt´s greatest pharaoh but also one of its gods.[citation needed] Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ...


The great temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel was discovered in 1813 by the famous Swiss Orientalist and traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. However, four years passed before anyone could enter the temple, because an enormous pile of sand almost completely covered the facade and its colossal statues, blocking the entranceway. This feat was achieved by the great Paduan explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni, who managed to penetrate the interior on 4 August 1817.[24] Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Johann Ludwig Burckhardt Johann Ludwig (a. ... Giovanni Battista Belzoni, from Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia by Giovanni Battista Belzoni,London, 1820. ...


Colossal statue

Further information: Statue of Ramesses II (Mit Rahina)

The colossal statue of Ramesses II was reconstructed and erected in Ramesses Square in Cairo in 1955. In August 2006, contractors moved the 3,200-year-old statue of him from Ramesses Square to save it from exhaust fumes that were causing the 83-ton statue to deteriorate.[25] The statue was originally taken from a temple in Memphis. The new site will be located near the future Grand Egyptian Museum.[citation needed] Ramesses II, depicting him standing, that was discovered in 1882 at the Great Temple of Ptah of Mit-Rahina near Memphis, Egypt. ... The Statue of Ramesses II is a 3,200-year-old figure of Ramesses II, depicting him standing, that was discovered in 1882 at the Great Temple of Ptah of Mit-Rahina near Memphis, Egypt. ... The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) will be built by 2007-2010 at the cost of $US 350M. The museum will be sited on 50 hectares of land in Giza and is part of a new master plan for the plateau. ...


Tomb of Nefertari

Further information: Tomb of Nefertari
Tomb wall depicting Neferta
Tomb wall depicting Neferta

The important and famous consort of Ramesses was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in 1904.[24][21] Although it had been looted in ancient times, the tomb of Nefertari is extremely important, because its magnificent wall painting decoration is surely to be regarded as one of the greatest achievements of ancient Egyptian art.[24] A flight of steps cut out of the rock gives access to the antechamber, which is decorated with paintings based on Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead.[24] This astronomical ceiling represents the heavens and is painted in dark blue, with a myriad of golden five-pointed stars. The east wall of the antechamber is interrupted by a large opening flanked by representation of Osiris at left and Anubis at right; this in turn leads to the side chamber, decorated with offering scenes, preceded by a vestibule in which the paintings portray Nefertari being presented to the gods who welcome her. On the north wall of the antechamber is the stairway that goes down to the burial chamber.[24] This latter is a vast quadrangular room covering a surface area about 90 square meters, the astronomical ceiling of which is supported by four pillars entirely covered with decoration. Originally, the queen's red granite sarcophagus lay in the middle of this chamber.[24] According to religious doctrines of the time, it was in this chamber, which the ancient Egyptians called the "golden hall" that the regeneration of the deceased took place. This decorative pictogram of the walls in the burial chamber drew inspirations from chapters 144 and 146 of the Book of the Dead: in the left half of the chamber, there are passages from chapter 144 concerning the gates and doors of the kingdom of Osiris, their guardians, and the magic formulas that had to be uttered by the deceased in order to go past the doors.[24] QV66 is the tomb of Nefertari, the Great Wife of Rameses II. It was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli (the director of the Egyptian Museum in Turin), in 1904 in the Valley of the Queens. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2320, 333 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Art of Ancient Egypt ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2320, 333 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Art of Ancient Egypt ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ernesto Schiaparelli was an italian archaeologist who found Queen Nefertaris tomb in Deir al-Madinah. ... Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from c. ... For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anubis (disambiguation). ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...

Tomb KV5

Further information: KV5

In 1995, Professor Kent Weeks, head of the Theban Mapping Project rediscovered Tomb KV5. It has proven to be the largest tomb in the Valley of the Kings which originally contained the mummified remains of some of this king's estimated 52 sons. Approximately 150 corridors and tomb chambers have been located in this tomb as of 2006 and the tomb may contain as many as 200 corridors and chambers.[26] It is believed that at least 4 of Ramesses' sons including Meryatum, Sety, Amun-her-khepeshef (Ramesses' first born son) and "the King's Principal Son of His Body, the Generalissimo Ramesses, justified" (ie: deceased) were buried there from inscriptions, ostracas or canopic jars discovered in the tomb.[27] Joyce Tyldesley writes that thus far KV5 is the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, and the recent discovery of its great extent has been called the most amazing discovery in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. ... Dr. Kent R. Weeks (b. ... KV5 is the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, and the recent discovery of its great extent has been called the most amazing discovery in the Valley of the Kings since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. ... Amun-her-khepeshef or Amun-her-wenemef (13th century BCE) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses the Great and Queen Nefertari. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... 19th Dynasty canopic jars of alabaster (Berlin) Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ... Joyce Ann Tyldesely is a British archaeologist, academic, and free lance writer. ...

"no intact burials have been discovered and there have been little substantial funeral debris: thousands of potsherds, faience shabti figures, beads, amulets, fragments of Canopic jars, of wooden coffins... but no intact sarcophagi, mummies or mummy cases, suggesting that much of the tomb may have been unused. Those burials which were made in KV5 were thoroughly looted in antiquity, leaving little or no remains."[27]

Death and legacy

By the time of his death, he was suffering from severe dental problems and was plagued by arthritis and hardening of the arteries. When Ramesses finally died, he was about 90 years old, an incredible lifespan in a land where most people died before they were 50.[citation needed] He had outlived many of his wives and children and left great memorials all over Egypt, especially to his beloved first queen Nefertari. The great pharaoh had been called a father of his nation which was now paralyzed and struck with grief.[citation needed] Nine more pharaohs would take the name Ramesses in his honour, but few ever equalled his greatness. Nearly all of his subjects had been born during his reign and thought the world would end without him. In a way they were right. Ramesses II did become the legendary figure he so desperately wanted to be, but this was not enough. New enemies were attacking the empire which also suffered internal problems and it could not last. Less than 150 years after Ramesses died, the Egyptian empire fell, his descendants lost their power and the New Kingdom came to an end. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Mummy

Ramesses II was buried in the Valley of the Kings on the western bank of Thebes in Egypt, in KV7, but his mummy was later moved to the mummy cache at Deir el-Bahri, where it was found in 1881. In 1885, it was placed in Cairo's Egyptian Museum where it remains as of 2008.[citation needed] Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Tomb KV7, located in the Valley of the Kings, is the tomb of Ramesses II, and is located in the main valley, opposite the tomb of his sons, KV5, and near to the tomb of his son and successor, Merenptah, KV8. ... This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) A mummy in the British Museum A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


The pharaoh's mummy features a hooked nose and strong jaw, and is below average height for an ancient Egyptian, standing some five feet, seven inches.[28] His successor was ultimately to be his thirteenth son: Merneptah. Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ...

Mummy of Ramesses II.
Mummy of Ramesses II.

In 1974, Cairo Museum Egyptologists noticed that the mummy's condition was rapidly deteriorating. They decided to fly Ramesses II's mummy to Paris for examination. Ramesses II was issued an Egyptian passport that listed his occupation as "King (deceased)." According to a Discovery Channel documentary, the mummy was received at a Paris airport with the full military honours befitting a king.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1414x984, 153 KB)[edit] Summary Mummy of Ramesses II [edit] Licensing The use of this file is permitted only on Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1414x984, 153 KB)[edit] Summary Mummy of Ramesses II [edit] Licensing The use of this file is permitted only on Wikipedia. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


In Paris, Ramesses' mummy was diagnosed and treated for a fungal infection. During the examination, scientific analysis revealed battle wounds and old fractures, as well as the pharaoh's arthritis and poor circulation. Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ...

President Sadat visiting Ramesses II's mummy.
President Sadat visiting Ramesses II's mummy.

For the last decades of his life, Ramesses II was essentially crippled with arthritis and walked with a hunched back,[29] and a recent study excluded ankylosing spondylitis as a possible cause of the pharaoh's arthritis.[30] A significant hole in the pharaoh's mandible was detected while "an abscess by his teeth was serious enough to have caused death by infection, although this cannot be determined with certainty."[31] Microscopic inspection of the roots of Ramesses II's hair revealed that the king may have been a redhead.[31] After Ramesses' mummy returned to Egypt, it was visited by the late President Anwar Sadat and his wife. Image File history File links Sadat-Ramesses. ... Image File history File links Sadat-Ramesses. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibŭla, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... Redhead may refer to: A person with red hair The North American Redhead (duck), Aythya americana A colloquial name for the immatures and adult females (i. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...


The results of the study were edited by L. Balout, C. Roubet and C. Desroches-Noblecourt, and was titled 'La Momie de Ramsès II: Contribution Scientifique à l'Égyptologie (1985).' Balout and Roubet concluded that "the anthropological study and the microscopic analysis" of the pharaoh's hair showed that Ramses II was "a fair-skinned man related to the Prehistoric and Antiquity Mediterranean peoples, or briefly, of the Berber of Africa." Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


Pharaoh of the Exodus

For more details on this topic, see Pharaoh of the Exodus.

At least as early as Eusebius of Caesarea,[citation needed] Ramesses II was identified with the pharaoh of whom the Biblical figure Moses demanded his people be released from slavery. In the Bible, the name of the Pharaoh of the Exodus is not given. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Slave redirects here. ...


This identification has often been disputed, though the evidence for another solution is likewise inconclusive as Critics point out that Ramesses II was not drowned in the Sea. Although the Exodus account makes no specific claim that the pharaoh was with his army when they were "swept ... into the sea,"[32] the account in Psalm 136 does claim both Pharaoh and his army were destroyed at the sea.[33]


Critics of the theory also emphasize that there is nothing in the archaeological records from the time of Ramesses' reign to confirm the existence of the Plagues of Egypt. However, this is not surprising since few pharaohs wished to record natural disasters or military defeats in the same manner that their rivals documented these events (as in the Biblical narratives). For instance, after the serious Egyptian military setback at the Battle of Kadesh, Hittite archives uncovered in Boghazkoy reveal that "a humiliated Ramesses [was] forced to retreat from Kadesh in ignominious defeat" and abandon the border provinces of Amurru and Upi to the control of his Hittite rival without the benefit of a formal truce.[34] By contrast, no inconvenient references to Ramesses' loss of Amurru or Upi are preserved in the Egyptian records. Ramesses instead falsely claims that the "Hittite king sent a letter to the Egyptian camp pleading for peace. Negotiators were summoned and a truce was agreed, although Ramesses, still claiming an Egyptian victory...refused to sign a formal treaty. Ramesses [then] returned home to enjoy his personal triumph."[34] Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... Boghazkoy is the site of a major Hittite capital called Hattusas, in what is now Turkey, some 100 kilometers from the Black Sea and 150 miles from Ankara. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ...


The dates now ascribed to Ramesses' reign by most modern scholars do not match the internal biblical chronology regarding the date of the Exodus, and the now commonplace view is that the Pharaoh mentioned is not Ramesses.[citation needed]


Connection with the Biblical king Shishak

For more details on this topic, see Shishak.

Speculation that Ramesses II was the Biblical Pharaoh named Shishak who attacked Judah and seized war bounty from Jerusalem in Year 5 of Rehoboam is untenable because Ramesses II (and his son Merneptah) retained firm control over Canaan during their reigns. Neither Israel nor Judah could have existed as independent states during this period of Egypt's New Kingdom Empire.[citation needed] nomen or birth name Shoshenq I [alt. ... nomen or birth name Shoshenq I [alt. ... For other uses, see Wine bottle nomenclature. ...


The Shishak of the Bible has generally been associated with Shoshenq I of Egypt instead. A fragment of a stela bearing Shoshenq I's name has been found at Megiddo which affirms this king's claim, in several Karnak temple walls, that he invaded the land of Israel and conquered 170 towns there.[35] Shoshenq's Karnak triumphal inscription goes on to list the towns in alphabetical order including Megiddo. Jerusalem is not seen among this list of towns but the Karnak reliefs are damaged in several sections and some town's names were lost, so many scholars suggest that Jerusalem is mentioned in the damaged part [36]. Hedjkheperre Setepenre Nomen Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ...


Popular legacy

He was considered the inspiration for Percy Bysshe Shelley's famous poem "Ozymandias". Diodorus Siculus gives an inscription on the base of one of his sculptures as "King of Kings am I, Osymandias. If anyone would know how great I am and where I lie, let him surpass one of my works." [37] This is paraphrased in Shelley's poem. Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... This article is about Shelleys poem. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ...


The life of Ramesses II has inspired a large number of fictional representations, including the historical novels of the French writer Christian Jacq, the Ramsès, series, the graphic novel Watchmen, the character of Adrian Veidt uses Ramesses II to form part of the inspiration for his alter-ego known as 'Ozymandias' and Norman Mailer's novel Ancient Evenings is largely concerned with the life of Ramesses II, though from the perspective of Egyptians living during the reign of Ramesses IX, and Ramesses was the main character in the Anne Rice book The Mummy or Ramses the Damned. Although not a major character, Ramesses appears in Joan Grant's So Moses Was Born, a first person account from Nebunefer, the brother of Ramoses, which paints the picture of the life of Ramoses from the death of Seti, with all the power play, intrigue, plots to assassinate, following relationships are depicted: Bintanath, Queen Tuya, Nefertari, and Moses. A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Christian Jacq (born 1947) is a French author and Egyptologist. ... For other uses, see Watchman. ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Ancient Evenings is a novel by Norman Mailer. ... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Anne Rice (born on October 4, 1941) is a best-selling American author of gothic and later religious themed books. ... The Mummy, or Ramses the Damned, is a stand-alone historical-horror novel by Anne Rice, first published in 1989. ... Joan Marshall Grant (born April 12, 1907 - died 1989) was an author of historical fiction and reincarnationist. ... Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II. She was born possibly when her father was still a co-regent with his father, Sethi I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses. ... Queen Tuya was the wife of Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II. References Grajetkzi, Wolfram (2005) Ancient Egyptian Queens – a hieroglyphic dictionary Categories: | | | ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


In film, Ramesses was played by Yul Brynner in the classic film The Ten Commandments (1956). Here Ramesses was portrayed as a vengeful tyrant, ever scornful of his father's preference for Moses over "the son of [his] body". The animated film The Prince of Egypt, also featured a depiction of Ramesses (voiced by Ralph Fiennes), portrayed as Moses' adoptive brother. Yul Brynner (July 11, 1920[1] – October 10, 1985) was a Russian-born Broadway and Academy Award-winning Hollywood actor. ... The Ten Commandments is a 1956 motion picture dramatizing the Biblical story of Moses, an Egyptian prince-turned deliverer of the Hebrew slaves. ... The Prince of Egypt is a 1998 Academy Award-winning American animated film, the first traditionally animated film produced and released by DreamWorks. ... Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ...


See also

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Ramses II

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Notes & references

Notes

  1. ^ a b Clayton (1994) p. 146
  2. ^ a b c Tyldesly (2001) p. xxiv
  3. ^ Ozymandias. Retrieved on 2008-03-30.
  4. ^ a b James Putnan, An introduction to Egyptology, 1990
  5. ^ Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge, 1999
  6. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Mainz, (1997), pp.108 and 190
  7. ^ Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis, Brill, NV Leiden (2000), pp.302-305
  8. ^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998, p.16
  9. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004), p.164
  10. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.160
  11. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) pp.170-172
  12. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.166
  13. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.173
  14. ^ Grimal (1992) pp.250-253
  15. ^ Tyldesley (2000), pp.53
  16. ^ Grimal, Nicolas, A History of Ancient Egypt (1994) pp. 253ff.
  17. ^ Grimal, op. cit., p.257
  18. ^ Geoff Edwards. Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  19. ^ Sed festival. The Global Egyptian Museum. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  20. ^ Min.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Skliar (2005)
  22. ^ Wolfhart Westendorf, Das alte Ägypten, 1969
  23. ^ Diodorus Siculus. The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian, Ch.11,p.33. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Alberto Siliotti, Egypt: temples, people, gods,1994
  25. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Giant Ramses statue gets new home
  26. ^ Tomb of Ramses II sons
  27. ^ a b Tyldesley, Ramesses, p.161-162
  28. ^ Tyldesley, Ramesses p. 14
  29. ^ Bob Brier, The Encyclopedia of Mummies, Checkmark Books, 1998., p.153
  30. ^ Can. Assoc. Radiol. J. 2004 Oct;55(4):211-7, PMID 15362343
  31. ^ a b Brier, op. cit., p.153
  32. ^ Exodus 14
  33. ^ book_id=23&chapter=136&verse=15&version=9&context=verse Psalm 136:15
  34. ^ a b Tyldesley, Ramesses, p.73
  35. ^ K. A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William Erdsman & Co, 2003. pp.10, 32-34 & 607
  36. ^ The Epigraphic Survey, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak III: The Bubastite Portal, Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 74 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954)
  37. ^ RPO Editors. Percy Bysshe Shelley : Ozymandias. University of Toronto Department of English. University of Toronto Libraries, University of Toronto Press. Retrieved on 2006-09-18.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004)
  • James Putnan, An introduction to Egyptology, 1990
  • Von Beckerath, Jürgen. 1997. Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, Mainz, Philipp von Zabern.
  • Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis, Brill, NV Leiden (2000)
  • David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998
  • Tyldesley, Joyce. 2000. Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharaoh. London: Viking/Penguin Books
  • N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992)
  • Ania Skliar, Grosse kulturen der welt-Ägypten, 2005
  • Wolfhart Westendorf, Das alte Ägypten, 1969
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge, 1999
  • Alberto Siliotti, Egypt: temples, people, gods, 1994
  • Bob Brier, The Encyclopedia of Mummies, Checkmark Books, 1998
  • Can. Assoc. Radiol. J. 2004 Oct;55(4):211-7, PMID 15362343
  • The Epigraphic Survey, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak III: The Bubastite Portal, Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 74 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954)
  • RPO Editors. Percy Bysshe Shelley : Ozymandias. University of Toronto Department of English. University of Toronto Libraries, University of Toronto Press. Retrieved on 2006-09-18.

The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Hasel, Michael G. 1994. “Israel in the Merneptah Stela,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 296., pp. 45-61.
  • Hasel, Michael G. 1998. Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300–1185 BC. Probleme der Ägyptologie 11. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-10984-6
  • Hasel, Michael G. 2003. "Merenptah's Inscription and Reliefs and the Origin of Israel" in Beth Alpert Nakhai ed. The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, pp. 19–44. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. ISBN 0-89757-065-0
  • Hasel, Michael G. 2004. "The Structure of the Final Hymnic-Poetic Unit on the Merenptah Stela." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 116:75–81.
  • James, T. G. H. 2000. Ramesses II. New York: Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of buildings, art, etc. related to Ramesses II
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1982. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Monumenta Hannah Sheen Dedicata 2. Mississauga: Benben Publications. ISBN 0-85668-215-2. This is an English language treatment of the life of Ramesses II at a semi-popular level
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1996. Ramesside Inscriptions Translated and Annotated: Translations. Volume 2: Ramesses II; Royal Inscriptions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18427-9. Translations and (in the 1999 volume below) notes on all contemporary royal inscriptions naming the king.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1999. Ramesside Inscriptions Translated and Annotated: Notes and Comments. Volume 2: Ramesses II; Royal Inscriptions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 2003. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-4960-1.

Michael Gerald Hasel is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... Michael Gerald Hasel is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... Michael Gerald Hasel is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... Michael Gerald Hasel is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Ramesses II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ramesses the Great; Ramses II; Rameses II
SHORT DESCRIPTION third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty
DATE OF BIRTH 1302 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 1213 BC
PLACE OF DEATH

Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Narmer was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Scorpion and/or Ka, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first king of all Egypt. ... This article is about the Pharaoh. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Ankh. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Sneferu He of Beauty[1] Horus name Neb-maat[2] Nebty name Neb-maat-nebty[2] Golden Horus Bik-nub[2] Consort(s) Hetepheres I Issues Khufu Father Huni Mother Meresankh I Died 2589 BC Major Monuments Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek... For other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). ... The Pyramid of Khafra and the Great Sphinx of Giza Portrait of Khafra, originally found at Mit Rahina, now residing in the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo. ... Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... nomen or birth name Pepi II (c. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... nomen or birth name Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV was the last king of the 11th Dynasty. ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... King Tut redirects here. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Hedjkheperre Setepenre Nomen Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered... Wahibre Nomen Psamtik Horus name Aaib Nebty name Neba Golden Horus Qenu Issues Nitocris I Died 610 BC Burial Sais Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre... nomen or birth name Ankhkaenre Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC–525 BC. He ruled no longer than six months before he was defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia at Pelusium, carried to Susa in chains, and... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tiye. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... Weni the Elder was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Senemut was an 18th dynasty Ancient Egyptian architect and government official. ... Rekhmire was an 18th dynasty official, serving as Governor of the Town (Thebes) and Vizier during the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II. He is noted for constructing a lavishly decorated tomb for himself in the Valley of the Nobles, containing lively, well preserved scenes of daily life during... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (Egyptian official). ... Yuny was an official through the reign of Ramesses II, in the 19th Dynasty, serving as chief scribe of the court, the overseer of priests, and royal steward. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


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Ramesses II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2467 words)
Ramesses II was the third king of the 19th dynasty, and the second son of Seti I and his Queen Tuya.
Ramesses was compelled to retreat south with the Hittite commander Hattusili III relentlessly harrying the Egyptian forces through the Bekaa Valley; the Egyptian province of Upi was also captured according to the Hittite records at Boghazkoy.
A colossal statue of Ramesses II was reconstructed and erected on Ramses Square in Cairo in 1955.
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