FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rambutan" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rambutan
Rambutan

Rambutan fruit
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Nephelium
Species: N. lappaceum
Binomial name
Nephelium lappaceum
L.

The rambutan (IPA[ramˈbu.t̪ɑn], Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae, and the fruit of this tree. It is probably native to Southeast Asia, although its precise natural distribution is unknown. It is closely related to several other edible tropical fruits including the Lychee, Longan and Mamoncillo. It is believed to be native to the Malay Archipelago.[1]. Rambutan in Indonesian or Malay literally means hairy or hairy fruit caused by the 'hair' that covers this fruit. In Panama, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, it is known as mamón chino. There is a second species regularly for sale at Malay markets which is known as "wild" rambutan. It is a little smaller than the usual red variety and is colored yellow. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Binomial name Nephelium lappaceum var. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of fruits#Tropical fruits. ... Binomial name Sonn. ... Binomial name Dimocarpus longan Lour. ... Binomial name Melicoccus bijugatus P.Browne The Mamoncillo Melicoccus bijugatus, also known as the Quenepa, Chenet, Genip, Spanish Lime, or Kinnip, is a fruit-bearing tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to a wide area of the American tropics including Central America, Colombia and the Caribbean. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ...

Contents

Description

It is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 10-20 m. This article is about plant types. ...


The leaves are alternate, 10-30 cm long, pinnate, with 3-11 leaflets, each leaflet 5-15 cm long and 3-10 cm broad, with an entire margin. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The flowers are small, 2.5-5 mm, apetalous, discoidal, and borne in erect terminal panicles 15-30 cm long. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ...


Rambutan trees are either male (producing only staminate flowers and, hence, produce no fruit), female (producing flowers that are only functionally female), or hermaphroditic (producing flowers that are female with a small percentage of male flowers). In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ...


The fruit is a round to oval drupe 3-6 cm (rarely to 8 cm) long and 3-4 cm broad, borne in a loose pendant cluster of 10-20 together. The leathery skin is reddish (rarely orange or yellow), and covered with fleshy pliable spines, hence the name rambutan, derived from the Malay word rambut which means hairs. The fruit flesh is translucent, whitish or very pale pink, with a sweet, mildly acidic flavour. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... This article is about the body feature. ...


The single seed is glossy brown, 2-3 cm long, with a white basal scar. The seed is soft and crunchy. They are mildly poisonous when raw, but may be cooked and eaten. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Production

It is a popular garden fruit tree and propagated commercially in small orchards. It is one of the best known fruits of southeast Asia and is also widely cultivated elsewhere the tropics including Africa, Cambodia, the Caribbean islands, Central America, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Thailand is the largest producer. Rambutan production is increasing in Australia and, in 1997, was one of the top three tropical fruits produced in Hawaii. It is also produced in Ecuador where it is known as "achotillo". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The fruit are usually sold fresh, used in making jams and jellies, or canned. Evergreen rambutan trees with their abundant coloured fruit make beautiful landscape specimens. Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ...

Rambutan before ripening
Rambutan before ripening
Rambutan cut open.
Rambutan cut open.
Rambutan for sale in Bangkok.
Rambutan for sale in Bangkok.

Download high resolution version (800x656, 123 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x656, 123 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Cultivation and uses

Rambutan is adapted to warm tropical climates and is sensitive to temperatures below 10 , and is grown commercially within 15° of the equator. The trees do best on deep soils that are high in organic matter and thrive on hilly terrain as they require good drainage. Rambutan is propagated by grafting, air-layering, and budding; the latter is most common as trees grown from seed often produce sour fruit. Budded trees may fruit after 2-3 years with optimum production occurring after 8-10 years. Trees grown from seed bear after 5-6 years. World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Layering is a technique for plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem is encouraged to grow roots while still attached to the parent plant, and then removed and planted as a new plant. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ...


The aril is attached to the seed in some commercial cultivars, but "freestone" cultivars are available and in high demand. There is usually a single light brown seed which is high in certain fats and oils (primarily oleic acid and eicosanoic acid) valuable to industry, and used in cooking and the manufacture of soap. Rambutan roots, bark, and leaves have various uses in medicine and in the production of dyes. Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Arachidic acid also called eicosanoic acid is a saturated fatty acids found in peanut oil. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ...


Rambutan trees bear twice annually, once in late fall and early winter with a shorter season in late spring and early summer. The fragile nutritious fruit must ripen on the tree, then they are harvested over a four to seven week period. The fresh fruit are easily bruised and have a limited shelf life. An average tree may produce 5,000-6,000 or more fruit (60-70 kg or 130-155 lb per tree). Yields begin at 1.2 tonnes per hectare (0.5 tons/acre) in young orchards and may reach 20 tonnes per hectare (8 tons per acre) on mature trees. In Hawaii, 24 of 38 cultivated hectares (60 of 95 acres) were harvested producing 120 tonnes of fruit in 1997. It has been suggested that yields could be increased via improved orchard management, including pollination, and by planting high yielding compact cultivars. This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Most commercial care ultivars are hermaphroditic (producing flowers that are female with a small percentage of male flowers); cultivars that produce only functionally female flowers require the presence of male trees. Male trees are seldom found as vegetative selection has favored hermaphroditic clones that produce a high proportion of functionally female flowers and a much lower number of flowers that produce pollen. There are over 3000 greenish-white flowers in male panicles, each with 5-7 anthers and a non-functional ovary. Male flowers have yellow nectaries and 5-7 stamens. There are about 500 greenish-yellow flowers in each hermaphroditic panicle. Each flower has six anthers, usually a bi-lobed stigma, and one ovule in each of its two sections (locules). The flowers are receptive for about one day but may persist if pollinators are excluded. SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


In Malaysia, rambutan flowers from March to July and again between July and November, usually in response to rain following a dry period. Flowering periods differ for other localities. Most, but not all, flowers open early in the day. Up to 100 flowers in each female panicle may be open each day during peak bloom. Initial fruit set may approach 25% but a high level of abortion contributes to a much lower level of production at harvest (1 to 3%). The fruit matures 15-18 weeks after flowering.


Both male and female flowers are faintly sweet scented and have functional nectaries at the ovary base. Female flowers produce 2-3 times more nectar than male flowers. Nectar sugar concentration ranges between 18-47% and is similar between the flower types. Rambutan is an important nectar source for bees in Malaysia. // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ...


Cross-pollination is a necessity because pollen is absent in most functionally female flowers. Although apomixis may occur in some cultivars, research has shown that rambutan, like lychee, is dependent upon insects for pollination. In Malaysia, where only about one percent of the female flowers set fruit, research revealed that no fruit is set on bagged flowers while hand pollination resulted in 13 percent fruit set. These studies further suggest that pollinators may maintain a fidelity to either male or hermaphroditic flowers (trees), thus limiting pollination and fruit set under natural conditions where crossing between male and female flowers is required. In botany, apomixis is asexual reproduction, without fertilization. ...


Cultivars

There are well over 200 cultivars developed from selected clones available throughout tropical Asia. Most of the cultivars are also selected for compact growth reaching a height of only 3-5 m for easier harvesting. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Some seedling trees in Nicaragua are nearly 50% hermaphrodite. The seeds were given by representatives from a World Relief / European Union joint team in 2001 to organizations such as APAC (Ascociación Pueblos en Acción Comunitaria) to distribute the seeds to more than 100 farmers throughout Nicaragua. Some of Nicaragua's farmers in 2005-2006 saw the first production of Rambutan from their trees. Commercial production of the fruit for domestic use is sought in the country, as it is finding favor among Nicaraguans, but it will be several years before growing practices and distribution of the fruits are perfected. Other than seedling trees, the only known commercial cultivars in Nicaragua are R134, R162 and a Yellow Rambutan that lost its name when it was smuggled from Honduras in 2004-2005 (Frankie, J. A., Winrock International). For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ...


Pollination

Aromatic rambutan flowers are highly attractive to many insects, especially bees. Those commonly found visiting rambutan flowers include bees (Apis spp. and Trigona spp.), butterflies, and flies (Eristalis sp. and Lucilia sp.). Apis cerana colonies foraging on rambutan flowers produce large quantities of honey. Bees foraging for nectar routinely contact the stigmata of female flowers and gather significant quantities of the sticky pollen from male blossoms. Little pollen has been seen on bees foraging female flowers. Although male flowers open at 6 am, foraging by A. cerana is most intense between 8 am and 11 am, tapering off rather abruptly thereafter. In Thailand, A. cerana is the preferred species for small scale pollination of rambutan. For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Apis Species Categories: Stub | Insects ... Subgenera Duckeola Frieseomelitta Geotrigona Heterotrigona Homotrigona Lepidotrigona Papuatrigona Tetragona Tetragonisca Trigona Trigonisca Trigona is the largest genus of stingless bees, formerly including many more subgenera than the present assemblage; many of these former subgenera have been elevated to generic status[1]. There are approximately 150 species presently included in the... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... Eristalis also known as the dronefly, because it bears a superficial resemblance to honeybee drones is a type of flower fly in the order Diptera. ... Lucilia is the wife of the Roman philosopher Lucretius and is mentioned in Chaucers Canterbury Tales in the The Wife of Baths Prologue. ... Binomial name Fabricius, 1793 Apis cerana, or the Asiatic honey bee (or the Eastern honey bee), are small honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia, such as China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh and Papua New Guinea. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

See also

Binomial name K.D.Koenig The Ackee or Akee (Blighia sapida) is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote DIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ... Binomial name Nephelium hypoleucum The Korlan (Nephelium hypoleucum) is a tree in the family Sapindaceae and the fruit of this tree. ... Here are lists of fruits considered edible in some cuisine. ... Binomial name Dimocarpus longan Lour. ... Binomial name Sonn. ... Binomial name Melicoccus bijugatus P.Browne The Mamoncillo Melicoccus bijugatus, also known as the Quenepa, Chenet, Genip, Spanish Lime, or Kinnip, is a fruit-bearing tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to a wide area of the American tropics including Central America, Colombia and the Caribbean. ...

References

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Opening the rambutan (1189 words)
The word "rambut" in the fruit name 'rambutan' is Malay for 'hairy,' and this refers to the spiky rind.
Indeed, without the soft spines on the rind, the rambutan would resemble the lychee (or litchee) which is in the same botanical family.
In addition, the edible proportion inside each rambutan fruit may be reduced in the seedling due to typically smaller outside diameters combined with medium to large seeds.
Rambutan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1129 words)
The Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium to large sized tropical tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to southeast Asia, and the fruit of this tree.
Rambutan is adapted to warm tropical climates and is sensitive to temperatures below 10 °C, and is grown commercially within 15° of the equator.
Rambutan is propagated by grafting, air-layering, and budding; the latter is most common as trees grown from seed often produce sour fruit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m