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Encyclopedia > Ramayana
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Hindu scriptures Ramanand Sagar (29 December 1917—12 December 2005) (born Chandramauli Chopra) was an Indian film director. ... Ramayan is a highly successful Indian television series created, written, and directed by Ramanand Sagar. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ...

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Samhita · Brahmana · Aranyaka · Upanishad Image File history File links Aum. ... Veda redirects here. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपिनषद्, IAST: ) are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. ...

Aitareya · Brihadaranyaka · Isha · Taittiriya · Chandogya · Kena · Mundaka · Mandukya · Katha · Prashna · Shvetashvatara The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... The Kena Upanishad (), is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Mundaka Upanishad is an Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. ... MāndÅ«kya Upanishad is one of the shortest Upanishads, that form of the revealed, so called metaphysical, parts of the Vedic texts, the Vedas. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... i hate prashna ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda . ...

Shiksha · Chandas · Vyakarana · Nirukta · Jyotisha · Kalpa The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... For the Yiddish slang word, see Shiksa. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ...

Mahabharata · Ramayana The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...

Other scriptures

Smriti · Śruti · Bhagavad Gita · Purana · Agama · Darshana · Pancharatra · Tantra · Sutra · Stotra · Dharmashastra · Divya Prabandha · Tevaram · Ramacharitamanas · Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut · Ananda Sutram The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thevaram (Verses). ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


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The Rāmāyaṇa (Devanāgarī: रामायण) is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage (maharishi) Valmiki and an important part of the Hindu canon (smti). It was the original story on which other versions were based such as the Thai Ramakien, the Lao Phra Lak Phra Lam and the Malay Hikayat Seri Rama. () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... Maharishi is a Rishi who has mastered many arts and is just before the stage of becoming a Brahmarishi. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific body of Hindu religious scripture. ... Figure of a giant at the golden chedi in Wat Phra Kaew Ramakien is Thailands national epic, derived from the Indian Ramayana epic. ... Phra Lak Phra Lam, pronounced [pÊ°aː lÉ‘k pÊ°aː laːm] (in Lao script: ພຮະລັກພຮະຮາມ), is the Lao version of Indias Ramayana. ...


The name Rāmāyaṇa is a tatpurusha compound of Rāma and ayana "going, advancing", translating to "Rāma's Journey".[1] The Rāmāyaṇa consists of 24,000 verses[2] in seven books, and 500 cantos (kāṇḍas)[3] and tells the story of Rāma, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, Rāvana. Thematically, the epic explores themes of human existence and the concept of dharma.[4] A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... A canto is a significant section of a long poem or the highest part in a piece of choral music. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... A rakshasa (Sanskrit: रक्षस, raká¹£asa; alternately, raksasa or rakshas) is a demon or evil spirit in Hinduism. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ... Ravana, Indian Demon King of Lanka In Hindu mythology, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, IAST Rāvaṇa; sometimes transliterated Raavana and as Ravan) is the principal antagonist of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Verses in Rāmāyana are written in thirty two syllable meter called anustubh and the epic was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Indian life and culture, primarily through its establishment of the śloka meter. But, like its epic cousin the Mahābhārata, the Rāmāyana is not just an ordinary story. It contains the teachings of the very ancient Hindu sages and presents them through allegory in narrative and the interspersion of the philosophical and the devotional. The characters of Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanumān and Rāvana (the villain of the piece) are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India. The main principle of Vedic meter is measurement by the number of syllables. ... Lakshaman (far left) with Rama (centre), Sita (far right) and Hanuman (kneeling) - Bhaktivedanta Manor Hare Krishna temple, Watford, England Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण; IAST Laká¹£maṇa) was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within Hindu tradition Lakshmana is considered to be... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, IAST Bharata) was the second brother of the main protagonist Lord Rama, and the son of Emperor Dasaratha and Kaikeyi of the Solar Dynasty. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ...


One of the most important literary works on ancient India, the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The story of Rama has inspired great amounts of latter-day literature in various languages, notable among which are the works of the fifteenth century Bengali poet Krittibas Ojha, known as the Krittivasi Ramayan; the sixteenth century Hindi poet Tulsidas, Tamil poet Kambar of the 13th century, Molla ramayanam in Telugu and the 14th century Kannada poet Narahari Kavi`s Torave Ramayan. The Ramayana became popular in Southeast Asia during the 8th century and was represented in literature, temple architecture, dance and theater. The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Krittibas Ojha (Bangla: কৄত্তিবাস ওঝা) is a medieval Bengali poet. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... GosvāmÄ« TulsÄ«dās (1532-1623; DevanāgarÄ«: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Kambar is one of the greatest Tamil poets. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ...

Contents

Authorship

Traditionally, Ramayana is ascribed to a single author, Vālmiki. Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman concludes that, in the face of unanimous Indian tradition and the uniform character of much of the work, there is no reason to believe that a man named Valmiki did not write the main portion of the Ramayana. However, the work as it is now known is believed to have many interpolations of a much later date than the original kernel of the work. [5] The Ramayana was a "growth of centuries, but the main story is the creation of one mind."[6] Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikÄ«) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... Ancient texts come down to us mostly in late handwritten copies, themselves copied from early copies. ...


Dating

According to literary scholarship, the main body of the Ramayana first appeared as an oral composition somewhere between 750 to 500 BC. Cultural evidence (the presence of sati in the Mahabharata but not in the main body of the Ramayana) suggests that the Ramayana predates the Mahabharata [7] Traditionally the epic belongs to the Treta Yuga, one of the four eons (yuga) of Hindu chronology, and is dated as far back as 880,000 years in the past.[8] Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga to King Daśaratha in ikshuaku vansh (clan) [9] // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... The Treta Yuga is the second out of four yugas, or ages of man, in the religion of Hinduism, following the Satya Yuga of perfect morality and preceding the Dvapara Yuga. ... The Hindu calendar used in Vedic times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars, as well as an Indian national calendar. ... Dasharatha (Sanskrit: दशरथ, IAST DaÅ›aratha) is the father of Rama, the heroic prince and avatar of Vishnu in the Hindu epic Ramayana. ...


Structure of Valmiki's Ramayana

Valmiki's Ramayana, the oldest version of Ramayana is the basis of all the various versions of the Ramayana that are relevant in the various cultures. The text survives in numerous complete and partial manuscripts, the oldest surviving of which is dated from the eleventh century AD.[10] The current text of Valmiki Ramayana has come down to us in two regional versions from the north and the south of India. Valmiki Ramayana has been traditionally divided into seven books, dealing with the life of Rama from his birth to his death. Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmīki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ...

  • Bala Kanda – Book of the Childhood
  • Ayodhya Kanda – Book of Ayodhya
  • Aranya Kanda – Book of the Exile
  • Kishkindha Kanda – Book of Kishkindha
  • Sundara Kanda – Book of Auspiciousness
  • Yuddha Kanda – Book of the War
  • Uttara Kanda – Book of Abandonment

There have been speculations on whether the first and the last chapters of Valmiki's Ramayan were written by the original author. Many experts are of the opinion that they are integral parts of the book in spite of the many differences in style and some contradictions in content between these two chapters and the rest of the book.[11][12] These two chapters contain most of the interpolations found in the Ramayana, such as the miraculous birth of Rama and his divine nature as well as the numerous legends surrounding Ravana.It is also inferred that the story of Rama's beheading shudra Shambuka as well as the one relating to Shravana kumara were not written by Valmiki. A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ...


Characters

  • Rama is the hero of this epic tale. He is portrayed as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. He is the eldest and the favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, Dasharatha. He is a popular prince loved by one and all. He is the epitome of virtue. Dasaratha, forced by one of his wives Kaikeyi commands Rama to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile by his father. While in exile, Rama kills the demon king Ravana using an arrow.
  • Sita is the beloved wife of Rama and the daughter of king Janaka. Sita is also known as Janaki. She is the incarnation of Goddess Laxmi (Lord Vishnu's wife). Sita is the epitome of womanly purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and there gets abducted by Ravana. She is imprisoned in the island of Lanka by Ravan. Rama rescues her by defeating the demon king Ravana.
  • Hanuman is a vanara belonging to the kingdom of Kishkindha. He is portrayed as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. He worships Rama and helps find Sita by going to the kingdom of Lanka crossing the great ocean.
  • Lakshmana, the younger brother of Rama, who chose to go into exile with him. He spends his time protecting Sita and Rama. He is deceived by the demon Marichi into believing that Rama was in trouble while Sita is abducted by Ravana.
  • Ravana, a rakshasa, is the king of Lanka. He received a boon from Brahma that he cannot be killed by either gods, demons or by spirits, after performing a severe penance for ten thousand years. He has ten heads and twenty arms, the former of which he began to cut off and throw into the sacrificial fire until Lord Brahma appeared to him. After getting his reward from Brahma, Ravana begins to lay waste the earth and disturbs the deeds of good Rishis. Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma.
  • Dasharatha is the king of Ayodhya and the father of Rama. He has three queens, Kousalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi, and three other sons; Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen forces him to make his son Bharata heir apparent and send Rama into exile. Dashratha dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile.
  • Bharata is the second son of Dasharatha. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi had forced Rama into exile and caused Dasharatha to die broken hearted, he storms out of the palace and goes in search of Rama. When Rama refuses to return from his exile to assume the throne, Bharata obtains Rama's sandals and places them on the throne as a gesture that Rama is the true king. Bharata then rules Ayodhya as a representative of Rama for the next fourteen years.
  • Vishvamitra is the sage who takes Rama into the forest in order to defeat the demons destroying his Yagna ceremonies. On the way back he takes Rama into Mithila where Rama and Sita meet each other for the first time and Rama participates in her swayamvara.

Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Dasaratha in Hindu mythology is the king of Ayodhya and a descendant of Raghuvamsa. ... Kaikeyi (Sanskrit: कैकेयी, kaikeyÄ«), in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was the youngest of King Dasarathas three wives and a queen of Ayodhya. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Lakshmi is also an actress in South Indian films. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ... Vanara is a Sanskrit word literally meaning monkey or inhabitants of forests=like the primitive tribes (probably vaanar as pronounced in hindi). ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... Lakshaman (far left) with Rama (centre), Sita (far right) and Hanuman (kneeling) - Bhaktivedanta Manor Hare Krishna temple, Watford, England Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण; IAST Laká¹£maṇa) was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within Hindu tradition Lakshmana is considered to be... Marichi or Mareechi (meaning a ray of light) is the son of Brahma, the cosmic creator. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... This article is about the demon in Hindu mythology. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... In Hinduism, the Rishis are sages and/or seers who heard the hymns of the Devas; and then wrote them down as Vedic scriptures. ... Dasaratha in Hindu mythology is the king of Ayodhya and a descendant of Raghuvamsa. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kousalya, Sumitra and Kaike are the three wives of King Dasaratha of Ayodhya, in the 24,000-verse Sanskrit epic called the Ramayana, and the mothers of the heroes Rama, Bharatha, and Lakshmana. ... Kousalya, Sumitra and Kaike are the three wives of King Dasaratha of Ayodhya, in the 24,000-verse Sanskrit epic called the Ramayana, and the mothers of the heroes Rama, Bharatha, and Lakshmana. ... Kaikeyi (Sanskrit: कैकेयी, kaikeyÄ«), in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was the youngest of King Dasarathas three wives and a queen of Ayodhya. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, IAST Bharata) was the second brother of the main protagonist Lord Rama, and the son of Emperor Dasaratha and Kaikeyi of the Solar Dynasty. ... Lakshaman (far left) with Rama (centre), Sita (far right) and Hanuman (kneeling) - Bhaktivedanta Manor Hare Krishna temple, Watford, England Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण; IAST Laká¹£maṇa) was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within Hindu tradition Lakshmana is considered to be... Shatrughna (Sanskrit: शत्रुघ्न, á¹£atrughna), in Hindu epic Ramayana was the youngest brother of Lord Rama. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, IAST Bharata) was the second brother of the main protagonist Lord Rama, and the son of Emperor Dasaratha and Kaikeyi of the Solar Dynasty. ... Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Sanskrit all-friend) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of since ancient times in India. ... Yagna is an ancient vedic ritual, where sacrifices are made to a particular divinity, using fire (Agni) as a medium. ... Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was a kingdom in ancient India. ... Swayamvara, in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a life partner, among a list of suitors by a girl of marriageable age. ...

Theological Significance

Rama, the hero of Ramayana, is a popular deity worshiped in the Hindu religion. Each year, many devout pilgrims trace his journey through India, halting at each of the holy sites along the way. The poem is not seen as just a literary monument, it serves as an integral part of Hinduism, and is held in such reverence that the mere reading or hearing of it, or certain passages of it, is believed by the Hindus to free them from sin and shower blessings upon the reader or listener. According to Hindu tradition, Rama is an incarnation (Avatar), of the god Vishnu. The main purpose of this incarnation is to demonstrate the righteous path (dharma) for all living creatures on Earth. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Contemporary versions

Hanuman as depicted in Yakshagana, popular folk art of Karnataka
Hanuman as depicted in Yakshagana, popular folk art of Karnataka

The TV serial by Ramanand Sagar contains a vast, near comprehensive collection of stories drawn from many different retellings of the Ramayana. A plot summary is found on the Ramayan (TV series) article. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Ramayan is a highly successful Indian television series created, written, and directed by Ramanand Sagar. ... Ramanand Sagar (29 December 1917—12 December 2005) (born Chandramauli Chopra) was an Indian film director. ... Ramayan is a highly successful Indian television series created, written, and directed by Ramanand Sagar. ...


Other contemporary versions of the Ramayana include Sri Ramayana Darshanam by Dr. K. V. Puttappa (Kuvempu) in Kannada and Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu by Viswanatha Satyanarayana in Telugu, both of which have been awarded the Jnanpith Award. A prose version called Geet Ramayan (Geet = song) in Marathi by G.D. (Gajanan Digambar) Madgulkar (also known as Ga Di Madgulkar or GaDiMA) was rendered in Music by Sudhir Phadke and is considered to be a masterpiece of Marathi literature. The popular Indian author R. K. Narayan wrote a shortened prose interpretation of the epic, and another modern Indian author, Ashok Banker, has so far written a series of six English language novels based on the Ramayana. In September 2006, the first issue of Ramayan 3392 A.D. was published by Virgin Comics, featuring the Ramayana as reinvisioned by author Deepak Chopra and filmmaker Shekhar Kapur. Sri Ramayana Darshanam (ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಮಾಯಣ ದರ್ಶನಂ) is the most famous work and the magnum opus by Kuvempu based on the hindu epic Ramayana. ... Kuvempu - kuppalli veMkaTappa puTTappa (1904 - 1994). ... Kuvempu - (ಕುವೆಂಪು) is the pen name of a well-known Kannada writer/poet of the 20th century, Kuppalli Venkatappa Puttappa (29 December 1904 - 1994). ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Viswantha Satyanarayana (1895-1976), popularly known as the Kavi Samraat or the emperor of poetry, was a modern Telugu poet. ... Telugu redirects here. ... The Jnanpith Award (ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार) is the highest literary honour conferred in the Republic of India. ... R. K. Narayan (October 10, 1906 - May 13, 2001), born Rasipuram Krishnaswami Ayyar Narayanaswami,[1] is among the best known and most widely read Indian novelists writing in English. ... Ashok Kumar Banker (born February 7, 1964 in Mumbai, India) is a novelist and short story writer living in Mumbai, India. ... The first cover of , by Alex Ross Ramayan 3392 A.D. (formerly called Ramayana Reborn) is a comic book series based upon the Indian epic called Ramayana. ... Devi Snakewoman The Sadhu Ramayana Reborn Seven Brothers End of Story Five upcoming titles Promotional poster Virgin Comics LLC is a comic book company, which produces Indian-related comics for an international audience. ... Deepak Chopra (Hindi: ; born October 22, 1946), an Indian medical doctor and writer, has written extensively on spirituality and diverse topics in mind-body medicine. ... Shekhar Kapur, born 6 December 1945 is a renowned film director and producer from India. ...


The Ramayana has been adapted on screen as well, in a television series from the 1980s of the same name by producer Ramanand Sagar, which was based primarily off of the Ramcharitmanas and Valmiki Ramayana. In the late 90s, Sanjay Khan made a series called Jai Hanuman. This series not only recounted the stories of the birth, childhood and later life of Hanuman but also chronicled in detail the life of the various other characters in the Ramayana like Rama, Ravana, Sita, Meghanada, Mandodari, Dasharatha, Janaka, Bali and Sugreeva etc as well as some lesser known characters. This serial was based on various sources including Valmiki Ramayana, Ramacharitmanas, Krittivas Ramayana, Ananda Ramayana, Adhyatma Ramayana, Paumacariyam etc. A Japanese animated film called Rama - The Prince of Light was also released in the early 1990s. Ramayan is a highly successful Indian television series created, written, and directed by Ramanand Sagar. ... Ramanand Sagar (29 December 1917—12 December 2005) (born Chandramauli Chopra) was an Indian film director. ...


See also

For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... Phra Lak Phra Lam, pronounced [pʰaː lɑk pʰaː laːm] (in Lao script: ພຮະລັກພຮະຮາມ), is the Lao version of Indias Ramayana. ... Figure of a giant at the golden chedi in Wat Phra Kaew Ramakien is Thailands national epic, derived from the Indian Ramayana epic. ... Ramas Bridge, also called Nalas Bridge and Adams Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. ... The first cover of , by Alex Ross Ramayan 3392 A.D. (formerly called Ramayana Reborn) is a comic book series based upon the Indian epic called Ramayana. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmīki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Vashisht (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ...

References

  • Milner Rabb, Kate, National Epics, 1896 - See eText Project Gutenburg
  • Raghunathan, N. (Trans), Srimad Valmiki Ramayanam, Vighneswara Publishing House, Madras (1981)
  • A different Song - Article from "The Hindu" August 12, 2005 - [1]
  • Dr. Gauri Mahulikar Effect Of Ramayana On Various Cultures And Civilisations, Ramayan Institute
  • Goldman, Robert P., The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India Princeton University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-691-01485-X
  • Arya, Ravi Prakash (ed.). Ramayana of Valmiki: Sanskrit Text and English Translation. (English translation according to M. N. Dutt, introduction by Dr. Ramashraya Sharma, 4-volume set) Parimal Publications: Delhi, 1998 ISBN 81-7110-156-9

Project Gutenberg (PG) was launched by Michael Hart in 1971 in order to provide a library, on what would later become the Internet, of free electronic versions (sometimes called e-texts) of physically existing books. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Note that the cerebral is due to infection by the word-initial r, see sandhi
  2. ^ About 480,002 words, or a quarter of the length of the full text of the Mahābhārata, or about four times the length of the Iliad.
  3. ^ Romesh Dutt, "Epilogue by the Translator", Ramayana, The Epic of Rama, Prince of India, London, J.M. Dent 2nd ed., (1902) p. 183. Dutt cites Ramayana, Book VII, "Uttra-Kinda".
  4. ^ Brockington, John (2003), "The Sanskrit Epics", in Flood, Gavin, Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 116-128, ISBN 0-631-21535-2 
  5. ^ Goldman, Robert P., The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India pp. 31
  6. ^ Romesh Dutt, "Epilogue", Ramayana (1902) as cited, p. 181.
  7. ^ Goldman, Robert P., The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India pp. 23
  8. ^ das, Krishna Dharma., The Ramayana pp. 1
  9. ^ Indian Wisdom Or Examples of the Religious, Philosophical, And Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, by Monier Williams, Published 2006
  10. ^ Robert P. Goldman, The Ramayan of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, pp 5
  11. ^ Raghunathan, N. (trans.), Srimad Valmiki Ramayana
  12. ^ Arya, R. P. (ed.), Ramayan of Valmiki

Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ...

External links

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Ramayana
Original text (Sanskrit)
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Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Dasaratha in Hindu mythology is the king of Ayodhya and a descendant of Raghuvamsa. ... Kausalya (Sanskrit: कौशल्या, kouÅ›alyā), in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was the eldest of King Dasarathas three wives and a queen of Ayodhya. ... Kousalya, Sumitra and Kaike are the three wives of King Dasaratha of Ayodhya, in the 24,000-verse Sanskrit epic called the Ramayana, and the mothers of the heroes Rama, Bharatha, and Lakshmana. ... Kaikeyi (Sanskrit: कैकेयी, kaikeyÄ«), in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was the youngest of King Dasarathas three wives and a queen of Ayodhya. ... In ancient India, Janaka (Sanskrit: जनक, janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक, rājā janaka) was the king of Mithila Kingdom. ... Manthara, in the Hindu epic Ramayana, is a servant who convinced Kaikeyi that the Ayodhya throne belonged to her son Bharata and that Rama should be exiled from the kingdom. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, IAST Bharata) was the second brother of the main protagonist Lord Rama, and the son of Emperor Dasaratha and Kaikeyi of the Solar Dynasty. ... Lakshaman (far left) with Rama (centre), Sita (far right) and Hanuman (kneeling) - Bhaktivedanta Manor Hare Krishna temple, Watford, England Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण; IAST Laká¹£maṇa) was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within Hindu tradition Lakshmana is considered to be... Shatrughna (Sanskrit: शत्रुघ्न, á¹£atrughna), in Hindu epic Ramayana was the youngest brother of Lord Rama. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... In Hindu epic Ramayana, Urmila was the daughter of King Janaka of Mithila and the younger sister of Sita. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Mandavi was the daughter of Kushadvaja, a brother of King Janaka of Mithila and hence a cousin of Sita. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Shrutakirti was the daughter of Kushadvaja, a brother of King Janaka of Mithila and hence a cousin of Sita. ... Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Sanskrit all-friend) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of since ancient times in India. ... Ahalya (Sanskrit: अहल्या, ahalyā) was the wife of Rishi Gautama. ... Ravana cuts Jatayus wings, by Ravi Varma In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Jatayu (Sanskrit: जटायू, jatāyÅ«) is the son of Aruna and nephew of Garuda. ... In Hindu mythology, Sampati was one of the two sons of Aruna the brother of Garuda. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ... In Hinduism, Sugriva was the younger brother of Vali. ... In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Vali was the monkey-King of Kishkindha, a son of Indra and the elder brother of Sugriva. ... In Hinduism, Angada is a Vanara who helped Rama find Sita in the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... Jambavantha (also known as Jambavan or Jamvanta) (Sanskrit: (जाम्‍बवान) is a bear in Hinduism and believe to lived from Treta Yuga to Dvapara Yuga. ... Vibhishana (Sanskrit: विभीषण, ) is a character in the epic Ramayana. ... Alternate spellings: Tadaka or Thadaka Tatakā (pronounced as Taataka) was a Yaksha woman and could change her form. ... Surpanakha is Ravanas sister in the epic Ramayana Surpanakha is Ravanas sister in the epic Ramayana. ... In Hindu mythology, Maricha was a demon who played a very important part in twisting the tale of Ramayana. ... Subahu, in Hindu mythology was a demon who tried to interrupt Viswamitras yaga. ... Khara, in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was a man-eating Rakshasa. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... Kumbhakarna (Sanskrit: कुम्भकर्ण, kumbhakarNa), in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was a Rakshasa and brother of Ravana. ... Mandodari (Sanskrit: मंदोदरी) was the daughter of the King of Danavas, Mayasura and celestial dancer, Hema. ... In Hindu mythology, Maya, or Mayasura was a great ancient king of the Asura, Daitya and Rakshasa races upon earth. ... Sumali is the grandfather of Ravana the principal antagonist of the Hindu epic, Ramayana . ... Victory of Meghanada. ... In the Hindu epic the Ramayana, Prahasta was a powerful rakshasa warrior and chief commander of Ravanas army of Lanka. ... Akshayakumara was one of the sons of Ravana. ... Atikaya was the son of Lord of Lanka, Ravana and Queen Dhanyamalini, who was the second wife of Ravana. ... Lava and his twin brother Kusha are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wife Sita Devi, whose story is told in the Ramayana. ... Kusha (Sanskrit: कुश), in Hindu mythology, was one of the twin sons of Lord Rama and Sita (the other being Lava). ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was a kingdom in ancient India. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ... The Sarayu (also Sarju; Dev. ... The Treta Yuga is the second out of four yugas, or ages of man, in the religion of Hinduism, following the Satya Yuga of perfect morality and preceding the Dvapara Yuga. ... // Introduction Raghuvamsa, in Hindu mythology is believed to be a lineage/race of warrior kings tracing its ancestry to Surya. ... Lakshman Rekha (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण रेखा), in Hindu mythology, is a line drawn by Lakshmana around their abode, to protect Sita, while he is away searching for Rama. ... The Aditya Hridayam, is a hymn associated with the Sun or Surya and was recited by the great sage Agastya to Rama on the battlefield before fighting with Ravana. ... Oshadhiparvata, that is the mountain of medicinal herbs, was a mythical mountain described in the Ramayana. ... Sundara Kanda is a book of almost unbelievable spiritual quality which is reputed by its readers to be virtually death defying. ... In Hindu mythology, Vedavati is speculated to have been the spirit of Sita Devi, the wife of Rama in the epic Ramayana. ... Vanara is a Sanskrit word literally meaning monkey or inhabitants of forests=like the primitive tribes (probably vaanar as pronounced in hindi). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... In the Hindu religion, SatÄ« (Devanagari: सती, the feminine of sat true) or Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Kali (Sanskrit ) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... A Rajastani style painting of Sri Radha Radha (Devanagari: राधा) is the principal paramour of Krishna in the Srimad Bhagavatam, and the Gita Govinda of the Hindu religion. ... Mahavidyas (Great Wisdoms) are aspects of Devi in Hinduism. ... Navadurga, which literally means nine Durgas, constitute, according to Hindu mythology, the manifestation of Durga in nine different forms. ... Matrikas, that is, the mothers, are a band of divinities, which always appear in a group. ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ... Murugan (also Murugan) (Tamil: ) is a popular Hindu deity amongst Tamil Hindus. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ramayana Audio (516 words)
he Ramayana is one of the greatest and most timeless epics in world literature.
Leading professional actors and storytellers are the voices on this recording, featuring Richard Ross, Stephen White, and Michael Sternfeld on Volumes I, II, and III, respectively.
Volume III brings the Ramayana to its thrilling conclusion with the final two books: Yuddha Kanda and Uttara Kanda.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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