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Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Indian people stubs | Indian philosophers ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with saptarshi. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Maharshi Jaimini is a student on Vyasa Maharishi. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Markandeya was an ancient Indian rishi (sage), and a devotee of Shiva and Vishnu. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Bhagwan Shree Swaminarayan Bhagwan Swaminarayan (April 2, 1781 - 1830) was born Ganshyam Pande to a brahmin family in the village of Chhapaiya, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ... Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c. ... GosvāmÄ« TulsÄ«dās (1532-1623; DevanāgarÄ«: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... A painting of Kabir KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was a mystic poet or poet sants of India, whose literature has greatly influenced the Bhakti as well as Sufi movements of India. ... Vasugupta (860–925) was the author of the famous Shiva Sutras. ... Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bengali ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Vaishnava monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal[1], (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh) and Orissa in India[2]. Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning...


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Ramanuja (Tamilராமானுஜர், Rāmānujar [?]; traditionally 10171137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. He is seen by Śrīvaiṣṇavas as the third and most important teacher (ācārya) of their tradition, and by Hindus as the leading expounder of Viśiṣṭādvaita, one of the classical interpretations of the dominant Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.[1] Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Exegesis (Greek ἐξηγεῖσθαι to lead out) is an extensive and critical interpretation of any text, or especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Koran, etc. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars is worshipped as the supreme God and is a monotheistic faith. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Contents

Establishing dates

The traditional biographies of Ramanuja place his life in the period of 10171137, yielding a lifespan of 120 years. However, the unusual length and roundness of this lifetime has led scholars to propose that Ramanuja was born 20–60 years later, and died as many as 20 years earlier than the traditional dates. Any chronology depends crucially on the major historical event mentioned in the traditional biographies: the persecution of Vaishnavas under the Chola king Kulothunga and Ramanuja's subsequent 12-year exile in Melkote, in Karnataka. Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Chola redirects here. ... Melkote (spelled Melu-kote) in Pandavapura taluk of Mandya District, Karnataka, is one of the sacred places in Karnataka. ... This article is about the Indian region. ...


In 1917, T. A. Gopinatha Rao proposed a chronology based on the traditional lifetime of 1017–1137. He identified the Chola king with Kulothunga Chola I (reigned 1070-1120), and dated the exile to Melkote from 1079 to 1126 CE (Rao 1923 cited in Carman 1974:45). However, this would extend the period of exile to 47 years, and in any case, Kulothunga I was not known for being an intolerate Shaivite. Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ...


A different chronology was proposed by T. N. Subramanian, an official in the Madras government (Subramanian 1957 cited in Carman 1974:45). This chronology identifies the Chola King with Kulothunga Chola II, who reigned from 1133–50 and was known for his persecution of Vaisnavites. It puts Ramanuja's exile from c. 1137 to 1148. Subramanian's hypothesis is aided by a fragment from the late Tamil biography Rāmānujārya Divya Caritai, which states that Ramanuja completed his most important work, the Śrībhāṣya, in 1155–56. Nevertheless, temple inscriptions in Karnataka indicate the presence of Ramanuja and his disciples before 1137. Carman (1974:45) hypothesizes that the traditional biographers conflated two different visits to Mysore into one. This later chronology has been accepted by several scholars, yielding a tentative lifetime of 10771157. Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...


Whatever the precise dates of Ramanuja's lifetime, it seems clear that all three of the great Śrīvaiṣṇava ācāryas lived under the relatively stable and ecumenical climate of the Chola empire, before its decline in the late 12th and 13th centuries (Carman 1974, p. 27).


Historical background

By the 5th century, the South Indian religious scene was diverse, with popular religion existing alongside Vedic sacrifice and non-Vedic traditions like Buddhism and Jainism. Indeed, the title character of the sixth century Tamil Buddhist epic Manimekalai is advised at one point to study the various Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Sankhya and Vaisheshika as well as Buddhism, Ajivika, Cārvāka, and Jainism. It was in this context that fears of a Buddhist or Jain takeover spurred a large Hindu revival that reached its peak in the 7th century and continued nearly into the 2nd millennium. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... Manimekalai, written by Seethalai Saathanar, is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and belongs to The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Ajivika (also transliterated Ä€jÄ«vika) was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent. ... (or Cārvāka Hindi चारवाक) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced on 1 January 1001, and ended at the end of 31 December 2000. ...


The popular aspects of this revival took the shape of several mystical and passionate bhakti movements, represented on the Vaishnavite side by the twelve alvars. The alvars came from a variety of social strata; their ranks include shudras and one woman. The intense devotionalism of their poetry and insistence that caste and sex are no barrier to a relationship with the Divine is uncharacteristic of classical Vedic thought, which laid a strong emphasis on the performance of the social and religious duties proper to one's place in the social structure. Some of these were collected into a definitive canon known as the Nālāyira Divya Prabandha, or "Four Thousand" Divine Composition, by Nathamuni in the 10th century, and came to be seen as a source of revelation equal in authority to the Vedas in the Śrīvaiṣṇava community. Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha (or Nalayira(4000) Divya Prabhandham) is a collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed before 8th century AD,[1] by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Veda redirects here. ...


On the philosophical side, this period saw the rise of the Vedanta school of philosophy, which focused on the elucidation and exegesis of the speculative and philosophical Vedic commentaries known as the Upanishads. The Advaita, or non-dualist interpretation of Vedanta was developed in this time by Adi Shankara and later by Mandana Mishra. It argued that the Brahman presented in the Upanishads is the static and undifferentiated absolute reality, and that the ultimately false perception of difference is due to avidya, or ignorance. Sri Adi Shankara was regarded one of the most profound scholars and preached to uphold the basic tenets of Vedic philosophy. For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... (c. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... Avidya is the Buddhist term for ignorance. ...


The goal of proving the Vedantic legitimacy of the popular conception of a personal deity and a genuine personal identity essentially characterizes Ramanuja's project, and the Advaitin school presents a natural object for his polemics. It is this synthesis between the classical Sanskrit writings and the popular Tamil poetry that is the source of one of the names of Ramanuja's system: Ubhaya Vedānta, or "Vedanta of both kinds."


Evaluating sources

In dealing with the lives of the Vedantic teachers, there is little in the way of actual history, and it is thus necessary to make reference to the many hagiographical works—both in verse and prose—that form a major genre in both Sanskrit and South Indian vernaculars.[2]


The earliest such hagiographies in prose is the Ārāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva, or "Six Thousand" Splendor of the Succession of Teachers (not to be confused with the well-known commentary on the Divya Prabandha of the same length, also commonly referred to as the "Six Thousand").[3] This was written by Piṉpaḻakiya Perumāḷ Jīyar in the 13th century in a highly Sanskritized dialect of Tamil known as Maṇipravāla. Perhaps earlier was a Sanskrit work of poetry, the Divya Sūri Carita or Acts of the Divine Sages, probably written in the 12th century by Garuḍavāhaṇa Paṇḍita, a contemporary disciple of Ramanuja's.[4] While the Pattu school flourished among certain sections of the society, the literature of the elite was composed in the curious mixture of Sanskrit and Malayalam which is referred to as Manipravalam, mani meaning ruby (Malayalam) and pravalam meaning coral (Sanskrit). ...


In later times, a number of traditional biographies proliferated, such as the 16th or 17th century Sanskrit work Prapannāmṛta and, following the split of the Śrīvaiṣṇava community into the Vaṭakalais and Teṉkalais, various sectarian works. The Muvāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva or the "Three Thousand" Splendor of the Succession of Teachers by Brahmatantra Svatantra Jīyar represents the earliest Vaṭakalai biography, and reflects the Vaṭakalai view of the succession following Ramanuja. Ārāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva, or "Six Thousand" Splendor of the Succession of Teachers referred in the previous paragraph represents the Tenkalai biography.


The various biographies differ in emphasis, facts, and sometimes even entire episodes. In general, the later biographies tend to be more fanciful and elaborate, and the Vaṭakalai and Teṉkalai biographies reflect their sectarian outlook: for instance, the Teṉkalai biographies tend to emphasize episodes that reflect more liberal attitudes toward caste on Ramanuja's part, while the Vaṭakalai biographies generally minimize them. These generalizations are often inaccurate, but the differences in the biographies do at any rate reflect the difficulty of coming up with a single historical narrative. Nonetheless, the traditional biographies agree in most of the facts of Ramanuja's life, and thus an outline of Ramanuja's life and achievements can be sketched.


Formative years

Ramanuja was born Ilaya Perumal in a Hindu family in the village of Perumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India in 1017 CE. His father was Asuri Keshava Somayaji Deekshitar and mother was Kanthimathi in sect of Vadama. To quote from Shyam Ranganathan's article on Ramanuja at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "From a young age he is reputed to have displayed a prodigious intellect and liberal attitudes towards caste. At this time he became friendly with a local, saintly Sudra (member of the servile caste) by the name of Kancipurna, whose occupation was to perform services for the local temple idol of the Hindu deity Vishnu. Ramanuja admired Kancipurna's piety and devotion to Vishnu and sought Kancipurna as his guru-much to the horror of Kancipurna who regarded Ramanuja's humility before him as an affront to caste propriety." Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Vadama (Northerners) is a sub group of the Iyers who are believed to have originated in the regions north of the Tamil Kingdoms. ... The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an online encyclopedia on philosophical topics and philosophers founded by James Fieser in 1995. ...


Shortly after being married in his teenage years, and after his father passed away, Ramanuja and his family moved to the neighboring city of Kancipuram. There Ramanuja found his first formal teacher, Yadavaprakasha, who was an accomplished professor of the form of the Vedanta philosophy that was in vogue at the time-a form of Vedanta that has strong affinities to Shankara's Absolute Idealistic Monism (Advaita Vedanta) but was also close to the Difference-and-non-difference view (Bhedabheda Vedanta). ("Vedanta" means the 'end of the Vedas' and refers to the philosophy expressed in the end portion of the Vedas, also known as the Upanishads, and encoded in the cryptic summary by Badharayana called the Vedanta Sutra or Brahma Sutra. The perennial questions of Vedanta are: what is the nature of Brahman, or the Ultimate, and what is the relationship between the multiplicity of individuals to this Ultimate. Vedanta comprises one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy.) " Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ...


From a young age, his intelligence and ability to comprehend highly abstract philosophical points were legendary. He took initiation from Yadavaprakasa, a renowned Advaitic scholar. Though his new guru was highly impressed with his analytical ability, he was quite concerned by how much emphasis Ramanuja placed on bhakti. After frequent clashes over interpretation, Yadavaprakasa decided the young Ramanuja was becoming too much of a threat and plotted a way to kill him. However, Ramanuja's cousin Govinda Bhatta (a favourite of Yadavaprakasa) discovered the plot and helped him escape. An alternative version is that one of Yadavaprakasa's students plotted to kill Ramanuja as a means of pleasing their teacher, but Sri Ramanuja escaped in the afore-mentioned manner. Yadavaprakasa was horrified when learnt about the conspiracy. Ramanuja returned to Yadavaprakasa's tutelage but after another disagreement, Yadavaprakasa asked him to leave. Ramanuja's childhood mentor, Kancipurna, suggested he meet with Kancipurna's own guru, Yamunacharya. After renouncing the life of a house-holder, Ramanuja travelled to Srirangam to meet an aging Yamunacharya, a philospoher of the remergent Vishishtadvaita school of thought. Yamunacharya had died prior to Ramanuja's arrival. Followers of Ramanuja relate the legend that three fingers of Yamunacharya's corpse were curled. Ramanuja saw this and understood that Yamunacharya was concerned about three tasks. Ramanuja vowed to complete these-- Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Yamunacharya was a vishistadvaita philosopher in Srirangam. ... Srirangam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீரங்கம்), also known as Thiruvarangam, is an island town in the district of Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... Yamunacharya was a vishistadvaita philosopher in Srirangam. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ...

  • Teach the doctrine of Saranagati (surrender) to God as the means to moksha.
  • Write a Visishtadvaita Bhashya for the Brahma Sutras of Vyasa which had previously been taught orally to the disciples of the Visishtadvaita philosophy.
  • That the names of Paraśara, the author of Vishnu Purana, and saint Śaţhakopa should be perpetuated.

Legend goes that on hearing the vow, the three fingers on the corpse straightened. Ramanuja accepted Yamunacharya as his Manasika Acharya and spent 6 months being introduced to Yamunacharya's philosophy by his disciple, Mahapurna although he did not formally join the community for another year. Ramanuja's wife followed very strict brahminical rules of the time and disparaged Mahapurna's wife as being of lower subcaste. Mahapurna and his wife left Srirangam. Ramanuja realized that his life as a householder was interfering with his philosophical pursuit as he and his wife had differing views. He sent her to her parent's house and renounced family and became a sanyasin. Ramanuja started travelling the land, having philosophical debates with the custodians of various Vishnu temples. Many of them, after losing the debates, became his disciples. Ramanuja standardized the liturgy at these temples and increased the standing and the membership of the srivaishnava school of thought. He wrote his books during this time. Ramanuja, who was a Vaishnavite, might have faced threats from some Shaivite Chola rulers who are religiously intolerant . Ramanuja and a few of his followers moved to the Hoysala kingdom of Jain king Bittideva and queen Shantala Devi in Karnataka. Bittideva converted to Srivaishanavism, in some legends after Ramanuja cured his daughter of evil spirits, and took the name Vishnuvardhana meaning "one who grows the sect of Vishnu". However, the queen and many of the ministers remained Jain and the kingdom was known for its tolerance. Ramanuja re-established the liturgy in the Cheluvanarayana temple in Melukote In Mandya District and Vishnuvardhana re-built it and also built other Vishnu temples like Chennakesava temple and Hoysaleswara temple. Saranagati (Sanskrit for surrender), in the devotional school of Hindu denominations known as Vaishnavism, is the process of total surrender to God (in this case Vishnu or Krishna). ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ...


Five acharyas

Swami Ramanuja incorporated teachings from 5 different people who he considered to be his acharyas An acharya is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ...

  1. Peria Nambigal who performed his samasrayana
  2. Thirukkotiyur Nambigal : who revealed the meaning of Charama slokam to swami on his 18th trip
  3. Thirumalai Nambigal : Ramayana
  4. Tirumalai Aandaan : Bhagavad Vishayam
  5. Thirukachchi Nambigal : The 6 sentences or PErarulAlan

For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...

Visishtadvaita philosophy

Ramanuja's philosophy is referred to as Vishishtadvaita because it combines Advaita (oneness of God) with Vishesha (attributes).


Differences with Shankara

Adi Shankara had argued that all qualities or manifestations that can be perceived are unreal and temporary. They are a result of ignorance. Ramanuja believed them to be real and permanent and under the control of the Brahman. God can be one despite the existence of attributes, because they cannot exist alone; they are not independent entities. They are Prakaras or the modes, Sesha or the accessories, and Niyama or the controlled aspects, of the one Brahman.


In Ramanuja’s system of philosophy, the Lord (Narayana) has two inseparable Prakaras or modes, namely, the world and the souls. These are related to Him as the body is related to the soul. They have no existence apart from Him. They inhere in Him as attributes in a substance. Matter and souls constitute the body of the Lord. The Lord is their indweller. He is the controlling Reality. Matter and souls are the subordinate elements. They are termed Viseshanas, attributes. God is the Viseshya or that which is qualified.


Ramanuja was during those days of cholas regarded as an incarnation of demon andhaka who was slain by lord sivan. This is because he advocated considering lord sivan as god. He also tried to interpret and propagate vedism like equality preaching Buddhist/Jain/Christian theological doctrines.


Ramanuja opines, wrong is the position of the Advaitins that understanding the Upanishads without knowing and practicing dharma can result in Brahman knowledge. The knowledge of Brahman that ends spiritual ignorance is meditational, not testimonial or verbal. The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


In contrast to Shankara, Ramanuja holds that there is no knowledge source in support of the claim that there is a distinctionless (homogeneous) Brahman. All knowledge sources reveal objects as distinct from other objects. All experience reveals an object known in some way or other beyond mere existence. Testimony depends on the operation of distinct sentence parts (words with distinct meanings). Thus the claim that testimony makes known that reality is distinctionless is contradicted by the very nature of testimony as a knowledge means. Even the simplest perceptual cognition reveals something (Bessie) as qualified by something else (a broken hoof, “Bessie has a broken hoof,” as known perceptually). Inference depends on perception and makes the same distinct things known as does perception.


He also holds that the Advaitin argument about prior absences and no prior absence of consciousness is wrong. Similarly the Advaitin understanding of a-vidya (not-Knowledge), which is the absence of spiritual knowledge, is incorrect. “If the distinction between spiritual knowledge and spiritual ignorance is unreal, then spiritual ignorance and the self are one.”


The Seven objections to Shankara's Advaita

Ramanuja picks out what he sees as seven fundamental flaws in the Advaita philosophy to revise them. He argues:


I. The nature of Avidya. Avidya must be either real or unreal; there is no other possibility. But neither of these is possible. If Avidya is real, non-dualism collapses into dualism. If it is unreal, we are driven to self-contradiction or infinite regress.


II. The incomprehensibility of Avidya. Advaitins claim that Avidya is neither real nor unreal but incomprehensible, {anirvacaniya.} All cognition is either of the real or the unreal: the Advaitin claim flies in the face of experience, and accepting it would call into question all cognition and render it unsafe.


III. The grounds of knowledge of Avidya. No pramana can establish Avidya in the sense the Advaitin requires. Advaita philosophy presents Avidya not as a mere lack of knowledge, as something purely negative, but as an obscuring layer which covers Brahman and is removed by true Brahma-vidya. Avidya is positive nescience not mere ignorance. Ramanuja argues that positive nescience is established neither by perception, nor by inference, nor by scriptural testimony. On the contrary, Ramanuja argues, all cognition is of the real.


IV. The locus of Avidya. Where is the Avidya that gives rise to the (false) impression of the reality of the perceived world? There are two possibilities; it could be Brahman's Avidya or the individual soul's {jiva.} Neither is possible. Brahman is knowledge; Avidya cannot co-exist as an attribute with a nature utterly incompatible with it. Nor can the individual soul be the locus of Avidya: the existence of the individual soul is due to Avidya; this would lead to a vicious circle.


V. Avidya's obscuration of the nature of Brahman. Sankara would have us believe that the true nature of Brahman is somehow covered-over or obscured by Avidya. Ramanuja regards this as an absurdity: given that Advaita claims that Brahman is pure self-luminous consciousness, obscuration must mean either preventing the origination of this (impossible since Brahman is eternal) or the destruction of it - equally absurd.


VI. The removal of Avidya by Brahma-vidya. Advaita claims that Avidya has no beginning, but it is terminated and removed by Brahma-vidya, the intuition of the reality of Brahman as pure, undifferentiated consciousness. But Ramanuja denies the existence of undifferentiated {nirguna} Brahman, arguing that whatever exists has attributes: Brahman has infinite auspicious attributes. Liberation is a matter of Divine Grace: no amount of learning or wisdom will deliver us.


VII. The removal of Avidya. For the Advaitin, the bondage in which we dwell before the attainment of Moksa is caused by Maya and Avidya; knowledge of reality (Brahma-vidya) releases us. Ramanuja, however, asserts that bondage is real. No kind of knowledge can remove what is real. On the contrary, knowledge discloses the real; it does not destroy it. And what exactly is the saving knowledge that delivers us from bondage to Maya? If it is real then non-duality collapses into duality; if it is unreal, then we face an utter absurdity.


Even though Bhagavad Ramanuja taught his followers to highly respect all Sri Vaishnavas irrespective of caste, he firmly believed in the tenets of Varnashrama Dharma.


His Saranagati philosophy emphasises that anyone, irrespective of colour, creed, caste, sex and religion can surrender their mind, body and soul to the Lotus feet of Lord Narayana and the God would accept him/her. But if one surrenders to any other deva than Vasudeva, such as Siva or Ganesha, he will have to be reborn as a vaishnava.


Cited from Sri Ramanuja, His Life, Religion, and Philosophy, published by Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India.


Writings

Ramanuja may have written 9 books. They are also referred to as the nine precious gems , the " Navarathnas ".

  • His most famous work is known as the Sri Bhasya or Brahma Sutra Bhasya. It is a commentary on the Brahma Sutras.
  • Gadhya Thrayam (three prose hymns). All three are important works in Vaishnava philosophy:
    • Vaikunta gadyam describing in great detail Vaikuntha, the realm of Vishnu and recommending meditating on it.
    • Sriranga Gadyam, a prayer of surrender to the feet of Ranganatha
    • Saranagati Gadhyam, an imagined dialogue between Ramanuja and Shri (Lakshmi) and Narayana where he petitions Lakshmi to recommend Narayana to give him grace. Narayana and Lakshmi accept his surrender.
  • Vedartha Sangraha (a resume of Vedanta). It sets out Ramanuja’s philosophy, which is theistic (it affirms a morally perfect, omniscient and omnipotent God) and realistic (it affirms the existence and reality of a plurality of qualities, persons and objects).
  • Vedanta Saara (essence of Vedanta) an appendix to Sri Bhasya
  • Vedanta Deepa (the light of Vedanta), another appendix/commentary to Sri Bhasya.
  • Gita Bhashya ( his commentary on the Bhagavad Gita)
  • Nithya Grantham (About the day to day activities to be performed by all Sri Vaishnavas)

The Sri Bhasya is the most famous work of Sri Ramanuja, (1017–1137). ... The Brahma sÅ«tras, also called Vedānta SÅ«tras, constitute the Nyāya prasthāna, the logical starting point of the Vedānta philosophy (Nyāya = logic/order). ... Vaikunta Gadyam is a Sanskrit prayer written by the Srivaishnavism philosopher Ramanuja towards the end of the 11th century. ... Vaikunta is the abode of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti Hindu Gods. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... // Sriranga Gadyam is a Sanskrit prayer written by the Srivaishnavism philosopher Ramanuja towards the end of the 11th century. ... Ranganatha, also known as Sri Ranganatha, Ranganathar, or Ranga, is a Hindu deity, more well-known in South India. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Narayana (Sanskrit: नारायण; ) or Narayan is an important Sanskrit name for Vishnu and is in many contemporary vernaculars, a common Indian name. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

Samadhi mandir

Ramanuja's thiruvarasu (sacred burial shrine) is the Ramanuja shrine (sannidhi) located inside the Sri Ranganathaswamy temple (periyakoyil[citation needed] or simply koyil) Srirangam, Tamil Nadu within the temple complex, where he attained his Acharyan Thiruvadi (the lotus foot of his Acharya). His mortal remains (thirumeni) have been interred inside the Sri Ramanuja shrine and on top of it his wax look-alike deity (the wax image has been covered with the saffron robes he had used when he was alive) has been consecrated and it is anointed with chandan (sandalwood paste) and saffron (kungumappoo). Another version says the body of Sri Ramanuja is the one which is seen at Srirangam temple today. When closely observed,the nails etc. of the body can be seen. Sandalwood paste and saffron are used to maintain the body and no other chemicals are added .His shrine is open to the general public for dharshan.


A living tradition

Ramanuja's achievements are visible to this day. The Tamil prabhandas are chanted at Vishnu temples on par with the Sanskrit vedas. Persons of all communities, and not just Brahmins, are given roles in rituals at Srirangam and other leading temples. The philosophic discources have been passed on to subseaquent generations by great successors like Lokacharya, Vedanta Desika and Manavala Mamuni who lived in the 13th and 14th centuries . Swamy Vedanta Desika, Sri Vaishnava Philosopher Vedanta Desika (1269 – 1370) is the second great name in Vaishnavism. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...



Srivaishnavas hold 108 sacred temples sung by azhwars as dhivyakshetras. In almost all the divyakshetrams, the prabhandha seva or the chanting of Tamil Vedas start with the invocation to Sri Manavala Mamuni as follows:


Srisailesa dhaya pathram dheebhakthyadhi gunarnavam Yatheendra pravanam vandhe Ramyajamataram munim


The above sloka was first recited by none other than Swami Ranganatha of Srirangam after listening to Mamuni's rendering of the Eedu Muppatharayairam, the celebrated commentary of Nampillai on Nammazhvar's thiruvaimozhi. In this reverential verse the Lord describes Mamuni as His preceptor.


At homes and temples, the chanting concludes with


Srimathe Ramyajamamathru muneendhraya Mahathmane Sriranga vasine bhooyath nithyasri nithya mangalam


This is an auspicious verse showing special love towards Srirangam and Mamuni


Footnotes

  1. ^ (Bartley 2002, p. 1), (Carman 1974, p. 24)
  2. ^ For further information on Vedantic hagiographies, see Granoff 1984.
  3. ^ The "Six Thousand" refers to the number of paṭis or granthas, units of 32 syllables.
  4. ^ Some modern authors have argued for a date two centuries later, and give the actual author as a descendant of the traditional one, pointing out that Garuḍavāhaṇa Paṇḍita is a family title. This possibility has been argued at greater length by Ramanujam 1936.)

References

  • Bartley, C. J. (2002), written at London, The Theology of Rāmānuja: Realism and religion, RoutledgeCurzon
  • Carman, John Braisted (1974), written at New Haven and London, The Theology of Rāmānuja: An essay in interreligious understanding, Yale University Press
  • Govindacharya, A. (1906), written at Madras, The Life of Rāmānuja, S. Murthy
  • Rao, T. A. Gopinatha (1923), written at Madras, Sir Subrahmanya Ayyar Lectures on the History of Śrī Vaiṣṇavas, University of Madras, Government Press
  • Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (1955), written at London, A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press
  • Sharma, Arvind (1978), written at New Delhi, Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta: A study, Heritage publishers
  • Srinivasa Aiyengar, C. R. (n.d.), written at Madras
  • Subramanian, T. N. (1957), "South Indian Temple Inscriptions", Madras Government Oriental Series, no. 157 3 (2): 145–60

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ...

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In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST ÅšrÄ« Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars is worshipped as the supreme God and is a monotheistic faith. ... Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Hindu idealism is a precursor of western idealism and the philosophical opposite of materialism. ... // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Atheism (Sanskrit: , lit. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ... (or Cārvāka Hindi चारवाक) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Svatantrika Madhyamaka school of Buddhism is a form of Madhyamaka in which reasoning is used to establish that phenomena (dharmas) have no self-nature, and further arguments to establish that the true nature of all phenomena is emptiness. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sri Ramanuja (28 words)
An Overview of the Vedartha-sangraha, Ramanuja's sweeping summary of Vedantic philosophy
A Brief Introduction to Ramanuja's magnum opus, the Sribhashya
Image of Sri Ramanuja at the Srirangam temple
Ramanuja's Commentary on the Vedanta Sutras (1433 words)
Ramanuja (c.1056-1137) was the founder of Visishtadvaita Vedanta (qualified non-dualism).
Ramanuja maintains that Brahman is the supreme Person who is free of any imperfection, who is free of any evil, who has created the world, who governs and sustains the world, who is all-knowing, whose will is perfect, and who is the source of all truths.
Ramanuja says that in pure knowledge there is no distinction between the knowing subject and the known object.
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