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Encyclopedia > Ramakrishna
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Born February 18, 1836
Kamarpukur, West Bengal, India
Died 16 August 1886
Garden House in Cossipore.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. His teachings emphasised God-realisation as the highest goal of life, love and devotion for God, the oneness of existence, and the harmony of religions. Ramakrishna Paramhansa File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // The village and its surroundings The village Kamarpukur is situated in the Arambag Sub-division of the Hooghly District in West Bengal state of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Bengali language. ... This article is about the Bengali language. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Realization or realisation might be: Realization (climb), a sport climbing route in Ceüse, France Realization (finance), the pricing of security at market value Realization (probability), an actually observed value of random variable Realization (systems), a state space model implementing a given input-output behavior Category: ... A Devotion in Christianity has come to mean time spent alone or in a small group of people reading and studying the Bible in a way as it relates to ones spiritual health and wellbeing. ... Oneness (concept) is related to Enlightenment and is referring to the experience of oneness and nonduality. ... There is no universally accepted theory of what the word existence means. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...

Contents

Biography

Historically, in India, emphasis is given to the teachings of saints and less attention is paid to dates and details. In the case of Ramakrishna, however, there exist first-hand accounts of the details of his life. This was possible because many of his disciples were well-educated and had a strong desire to present only facts that could be verified from multiple sources.[2] Some credit for collecting and recording such facts goes to Swami Saradananda, a disciple of Ramakrishna. He wrote a biography from the legends and stories which were growing around Ramakrishna. General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Ramakrishna Paramahamsadev had sixteen direct disciples or apostles. ...


The best-known record of Ramakrishna's teachings is the Bengali Kathamrita written by Mahendranath Gupta (Sri M.). Swami Nikhilananda's translation of this into the English language, The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, is the most widely read. In the preface to his translation, Nikhilananda states, "I have made a literal translation, omitting only a few pages of no particular interest to English-speaking readers." Some claim, however, that Nikhilananda's omissions were quite significant and have led to Western difficulties in interpreting the Kathamrita. Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Mahendranath Gupta (1854–1932), who preferred to call himself M, was one of the foremost disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the author of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. ... Swami Nikhilananda (1895-1973), was an initiated disciple of Sri Sarada Devi. ...


Childhood

Gadadhar was born in the village of Kamarpukur, in what is now the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Gadadhar’s parents, Khudiram and Chandramani, were poor and made ends meet with great difficulty. Gadadhar was extremely popular in his village. He was considered handsome and had a natural gift for the fine arts. He, however, disliked going to school, and was not interested in the pursuit of money. He loved nature and spent his time in fields and fruit gardens outside the village with his friends. He was seen visiting monks who stopped at his village on their way to Puri. He would serve them and listen with rapt attention to the religious debates they often had. About why he was named Gadadhara in his childhood there is an interesting story describing which as a digression here can add importance to biography. Once Khshudhiram went to Gaya for offering foods to the manes of his forefathers ("pindodaan" as called in Bengal) at the Falgu River. There was no system of hotel, lodge etc during the early 19th century in India. People like Khshudhiram had no choice but to spend nights on the terrace of the temple of Lord Gadadhar (Lord Vishnu is known by this name in Gaya). At the end of the day Khshudhiram fell asleep as soon as he sat at one corner of that terrace with a content heart after discharging his duty towards his forefathers. Suddenly he saw in dream Lord Gadadhar standing before him and asking “Oh Khshudhiram, time has become ripe for my incarnation, would you mind if I come as your son?” Khshudhiram said “A poor Brahmin as I am, how can I dare to take the responsibility of serving you the Lord of the cosmos?” The Lord insisted “I shall be happy with whatsoever you treat me to. I am entering your wife’s womb now, go home, nurse her well and prepare for my advent in your family”. After this incident Khshudhiram’s youngest son is born and named Gadadhar. The following story would narrate how and by what kind of people Gadadhar was respected in his childhood and also would give an idea about what kind of people were Kamarpukur inhabitated by. There lived a maker of shell made bangles ("shaankhaa" as called in Bengal worn by married ladies) in Kamarpukur named Chinu Shankhari in Gadadhar's time; because of his accommodating and pious nature the villagers respected Chinu. He hailed from the Vaishnavite sect and was a staunch devotee of Lord Krishna. Holding a noble character Chinu had also the acumen to understand others’ characters. He identified Gadadhar as Lord Krishna Himself reborn. Chinu used to look upon guests as the forms of the Lord and any deficiency of alacrity in serving the guests was a sin to him. There is a famous incident relating to his hospitality which aggrandized his fame as a devotee. Once in a winter some of his guests expressed the desire to eat mango dal (dal boiled with the crux of raw mango or "kancha aam" as called in Bengal). He stood aghast at such request since he was not an affluent person who could afford to arrange such fruit in a time which is not the season thereof. He was habituated in praying to the Lord in any distress. Behind Chinu’s house there was a mango tree. A staunch Vaishnavite Chinu used to see the Lord in every thing and being. Forgetting his natural agoraphobia he knelt before the tree and yelled “Oh Lord, save me from failure to feed the guests, please!”. Immediately around half a dozen kancha aams fell from the tree. For common men this is a miracle in winter. Today also this incident is cited as an example of how God alleviates the miseries of his devotees. // The village and its surroundings The village Kamarpukur is situated in the Arambag Sub-division of the Hooghly District in West Bengal state of India. ... It has been proposed below that Hooghly District be renamed and moved to Hooghly district. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Puri is a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for having a Jagannath temple. ...


When arrangements for Gadadhar to be invested with the sacred thread were nearly complete, he declared that he would have his first alms as a Brahmin from a certain low-caste woman of the village. This was a shock in the days when tradition required that the first alms be from a brahmin, but he was adamant. He said he had given his word to the lady and if he did not keep his word, what sort of Brahmin would he be? No argument, no appeal, no amount of tears are said to have budged him from his position. Finally, Ramkumar, his eldest brother and the head of the family after the passing away of their father, gave in. Upanayana is a Hindu samskara for children of the three highest castes. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ...


Meanwhile, the family's financial position worsened every day. Ramkumar ran a Sanskrit school in Calcutta and also served as purohit priest in some families. About this time, a rich woman of Calcutta, Rani Rashmoni, founded a temple at Dakshineswar. She approached Ramkumar to serve as priest at the temple of Kali and Ramkumar agreed. After some persuasion, Gadadhar agreed to decorate the deity. When Ramkumar retired, Gadadhar took his place as priest. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Purohit means a priest exclusively for royal family or a king. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Situated on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River in India, the Dakshineswar Kali Temple was constructed by Rani Rasmani, a wealthy widow, between 1847 and 1855. ... Dakshineswar, a small place situated alongside the Vivekananda Setu, in the Hoogly district, north of Calcutta, on the East bank of Hoogli River, is famous for its temples. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Career as priest

When Gadadhar started worshipping the deity Bhavatarini, he began to question if he was worshipping a piece of stone or a living Goddess. If he was worshipping a living Goddess, why should she not respond to his worship? This question nagged him day and night. Then, he began to pray to Kali: "Mother, you've been gracious to many devotees in the past and have revealed yourself to them. Why would you not reveal yourself to me, also? Am I not also your son?" Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


He is known to have wept bitterly and sometimes even cry out loudly while worshipping. At night, he would go into a nearby jungle and spend the whole night praying. One day, the famous account goes, he was so impatient to see Mother Kali that he decided to end his life. He seized a sword hanging on the wall and was about to strike himself with it, when he is reported to have seen light issuing from the deity in waves. He is said to have been soon overwhelmed by the waves and fell unconscious on the floor.


Gadadhar, however, unsatisfied, prayed to Mother Kali for more religious experiences. He especially wanted to know the truths that other religions taught. Strangely, these teachers came to him when necessary and he is said to have reached the ultimate goals of those religions with ease. Soon word spread about this remarkable man and people of all denominations and all stations of life began to come to him.


Initiation

Ramakrishna was initiated in Advaita Vedanta by a wandering monk named Totapuri, in the city of Dakshineswar. Totapuri was "a teacher of masculine strength, a sterner mien, a gnarled physique, and a virile voice". Ramakrishna would soon affectionately address the monk as Nangta, the "Naked One". Nikhilananda interjects that this is because as a renunciate, Nangta did not wear any clothing.[3] Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Ishwar Totapuri (also Tota Puri) (1780-1866), born likely in Punjab, India, was a parivrajaka (wandering monk) who followed the path of the Advaita Vedanta. ... Dakshineswar, a small place situated alongside the Vivekananda Setu, in the Hoogly district, north of Calcutta, on the East bank of Hoogli River, is famous for its temples. ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ...

I [Ramakrishna] said to Totapuri in despair: "It's no good. I will never be able to lift my spirit to the unconditioned state and find myself face to face with the Atman." He [Totapuri] replied severely: "What do you mean you can't? You must!" Looking about him, he found a shard of glass. He took it and stuck the point between my eyes saying: "Concentrate your mind on that point." [...] The last barrier vanished and my spirit immediately precipitated itself beyond the plane of the conditioned. I lost myself in samadhi.[4]

After the departure of Totapuri, Ramakrishna reportedly remained for six months in a state of absolute contemplation:

For six months in a stretch, I [Ramakrishna] remained in that state from which ordinary men can never return; generally the body falls off, after three weeks, like a sere leaf. I was not conscious of day or night. Flies would enter my mouth and nostrils as they do a dead's body, but I did not feel them. My hair became matted with dust.[5]

Married life

Rumors spread to Kamarpukur that Ramakrishna had gone mad as a result of his over-taxing spiritual exercises at Dakshineswar. Alarmed, neighbors advised Ramakrishna’s mother that he be persuaded to marry, so that he might be more conscious of his responsibilities to the family. Far from objecting to the marriage, he, in fact, mentioned Jayrambati, three miles to the north-west of Kamarpukur, as being the village where the bride could be found at the house of one Ramchandra Mukherjee. The five-year-old bride, Sarada, was found and the marriage was duly solemnised. Sarada was Ramakrishna's first disciple. He attempted to teach her everything he had learned from his various gurus. She is believed to have mastered every religious secret as quickly as Ramakrishna had. Impressed by her religious potential, he began to treat her as the Universal Mother Herself and performed a puja considering Sarada as veritable Tripura Sundari Devi. He said, 'I look upon you as my own mother and the Mother who is in the temple'. Ramakrishna impressed upon Sarada Devi that she was not only the mother of his young disciples, but also of all humanity. Initially, Sarada Devi was shy about playing this role, but slowly, she filled it with courage. The village and its surroundings Jayrambati is located within the jurisdiction of Kotulpur Police Station in the Subdivision of Vishnupur in the District of Bankura, West Bengal state of India and is comparatively prosperous in relation to other neighbouring villages. ... The affectionate term Holy Mother refers to Sarada Devi (1853-1920), Ramakrishnas wife and spiritual counterpart. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Tripura Sundari is one of the mahavidyas. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ...


Her renunciation is believed by devotees to be a striking quality that she shared with her husband in a measure equal to, if not beyond, his. The true nature of their relationship and kinship was believed to be beyond the grasp of ordinary minds. Ramakrishna concluded, after close and constant association with her, that her relationship and attitude toward him were firmly based on a divine spiritual plane. Devotees believe that as they shared their daily lives, no other thought other than that of the divine presence, arose in their minds. An account of such continuous divine relationship between two souls of opposite gender is unique in religious records, not known in any of the past hagiographies. After the passing away of Ramakrishna, Sarada Devi became a religious teacher in her own right. Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


Later life

He soon came to be known as Ramakrishna Paramahansa, and like a magnet, is said to have begun to attract seekers of God. He taught the basic truths of religion ceaselessly for about fifteen years through parables, metaphors, songs, and above all by his own life. Paramahamsa (also paramahansa and paramhansa) -- This is a religio/theological title associated with particular Hindu saints, by their devotees; one thus sees these religious figures referred to as -- Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Paramahansa Yogananda. Hamsa is only an allegory. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He developed throat cancer and attained Mahasamadhi at a garden house in Cossipore on 16 August, 1886, leaving behind a devoted band of 16 young disciples headed by Swami Vivekananda, who would eventually become a well-known saint-philosopher, orator, and leader of the householder disciples. Among his contemporaries, Keshab Chandra Sen and Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Hindu reformers, were his admirers. This article or section should include material from Samadhi meditation Samadhi, or concentration of the mind, is the second of the three parts of the Buddhas teaching, namely Sila (morality), Samadhi (concentration), and Panna (insight/wisdom). ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... See house House OR In mathmatics, there exists a Householder transformation Categories: Disambiguation ... Keshab Chandra Sen (1838 to 1884) was a great scholar, orator, leader, and visionary. ... Indian postal stamp on Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (Bangla: ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর) (1820-1891) (born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyay) was a Bengali polymath. ...


Teachings

God-realisation

Ramakrishna (1881, Calcutta)
Ramakrishna (1881, Calcutta)

The key concepts in Ramakrishna's teachings were the oneness of existence; the divinity of all living beings; the unity of God and the harmony of religions; that the primal bondage in human life is lust and greed (kamini and kanchana in Bengali). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1020, 92 KB) Summary Photograph of Ramakrishna, taken on 10 December 1881 at the studio of The Bengal Photographers in Radhabazar, Calcutta, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1020, 92 KB) Summary Photograph of Ramakrishna, taken on 10 December 1881 at the studio of The Bengal Photographers in Radhabazar, Calcutta, India. ... Oneness (concept) is related to Enlightenment and is referring to the experience of oneness and nonduality. ... There is no universally accepted theory of what the word existence means. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Greed is excessive or uncontrolled desire for or pursuit of money, wealth, food, or other possessions, especially when this denies the same goods to others. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ...


Ramakrishna emphasised that God-realisation is the supreme goal of all living beings[6]. Religion, for him, was merely a means for the achievement of this goal. Ramakrishna's mystical realisation, classified by Hindu tradition as nirvikalpa samadhi (literally, "involuntary meditation", thought to be absorption in the all-encompassing Consciousness), led him to know that the various religions are different ways to reach The Absolute, and that the Ultimate Reality could never be expressed in human terms. This is in agreement with the proclamation in the Rig Veda that "Truth is one but sages call it by many names." As a consequence of this view, Ramakrishna actually spent periods of his life practicing his own understandings of Islam, Christianity and various Yogic and Tantric sects within Hinduism. Nirvikalpa samādhi ( निर्विकल्प समाघि ), sometimes also spelled as ‘Nirbikalpa Samadhi’, is one of the highest states of samādhi in Hinduism, in which the aspirant realizes his/her total oneness with Brahman. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... Higher Consciousness - also called Super Consciousness (Yoga), Buddhic Consciousness (Theosophy), Objective Consciousness (Gurdjieff), Christ Consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness and God-consciousness (Islam and Hinduism), to name but a few - are expressions used in various traditions of spiritual science and psychology to denote the consciousness of a human being who has reached... The Absolute is the totality of things, all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... Reality, in everyday usage, means the state of things as they actually exist. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Look up sage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... It has been suggested that Tantras be merged into this article or section. ...


Avidyamaya and vidyamaya

See also: Avidyamaya and vidyamaya and mayatita

Devotees believe that Ramakrishna's realisation of nirvikalpa samadhi also led him to an understanding of the two sides of maya, or illusion, to which he referred as Avidyamaya and vidyamaya. He explained that avidyamaya represents dark forces (e.g. sensual desire, evil passions, greed, lust and cruelty), which keep the world-system on lower planes of consciousness. These forces are responsible for human entrapment in the cycle of birth and death, and they must be fought and vanquished. Vidyamaya, on the other hand, represents higher forces (e.g. spiritual virtues, enlightening qualities, kindness, purity, love, and devotion), which elevate human beings to the higher planes of consciousness. With the help of vidyamaya, he said that devotees could rid themselves of avidyamaya and achieve the ultimate goal of becoming mayatita - that is, free from maya. Avidyamaya and Vidyamaya are conceps created by the Hindu sage Ramakrishna based on his realizations. ... Mayatita (Sanskrit, lit. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Avidyamaya and Vidyamaya are conceps created by the Hindu sage Ramakrishna based on his realizations. ... Greed is excessive or uncontrolled desire for or pursuit of money, wealth, food, or other possessions, especially when this denies the same goods to others. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Look up cruelty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... A Devotion in Christianity has come to mean time spent alone or in a small group of people reading and studying the Bible in a way as it relates to ones spiritual health and wellbeing. ... Mayatita (Sanskrit, lit. ...


Other teachings

Ramakrishna's proclamation of jatra jiv tatra Shiv (wherever there is a living being, there is Shiva) stemmed from his Advaitic perception of Reality. This would lead him teach his disciples, "Jive daya noy, Shiv gyane jiv seba" (not kindness to living beings, but serving the living being as Shiva Himself). This view differs considerably from what Ramakrishna's followers call the "sentimental pantheism" of, for example, Francis of Assisi. Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 – October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. ...


Ramakrishna, though not formally trained as a philosopher, had an intuitive grasp of complex philosophical concepts.[7] According to him brahmanda, the visible universe and many other universes, are mere bubbles emerging out of Brahman, the supreme ocean of intelligence [8]. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ...


Like Adi Sankara had done more than a thousand years earlier, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa revitalised Hinduism which had been fraught with excessive ritualism and superstition in the Nineteenth century and helped it become better-equipped to respond to challenges from Islam, Christianity and the dawn of the modern era[9]. However, unlike Adi Sankara, Ramakrishna developed ideas about the post-samadhi descent of consciousness into the phenomenal world, which he went on to term "vignana". While he asserted the supreme validity of Advaita Vedanta, he also proclaimed that he accepts both the Nitya (or the eternal substance) and the Leela (literally, "play", indicating the dynamic phenomenal reality) as aspects of Brahman. Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... The Monad was a symbol referred by the Greek philosophers as The First, The Seed, The Essence, The Builder, and The Foundation Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions, and a unified set of laws underlie nature. ... Lila is a concept from Hinduism that explains the universe as a cosmic puppet theater or playground for the gods. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ...


The idea of the descent of consciousness shows the influence of the Bhakti movement and certain sub-schools of Shaktism on Ramakrishna's thought. The idea would later influence Aurobindo's views about the Divine Life on Earth. Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Shiva and Shakti as One Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi Mata -- the Hindu name for the Great Divine Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence... Śrī Aurobindo Śrī Aurobindo (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, Evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... The Life Divine is Sri Aurobindos major philosophical opus. ...


Ramakrishna's impact

Part of a series on
Hindu philosophy
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Schools
Samkhya · Yoga
Nyaya · Vaisheshika
Purva Mimamsa · Vedanta
Schools of Vedanta
Advaita · Vishishtadvaita
Dvaita · Shuddhadvaita
Dvaitadvaita · Achintya Bheda Abheda
Ancient figures
Kapila · Patañjali
Gotama · Kanada
Jaimini · Vyasa
Medieval figures
Adi Shankara · Ramanuja
Madhva · Madhusudana
Tukaram · Namadeva
Modern figures
Ramakrishna · Ramana Maharshi
Vivekananda · Narayana Guru
N.C. Yati · Coomaraswamy
Aurobindo ·Sivananda
Satyananda · Chinmayananda
Ayya Vaikundar · Pandurang Shastri Athavale
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Born as he was during a social upheaval in Bengal in particular and India in general, Ramakrishna and his movement was an important part of the direction that Hinduism and Indian nationalism took in the coming years. Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with saptarshi. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c. ... Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ... Sri Ramana Maharshi (December 30, 1879 – April 14, 1950) was a Hindu Sage. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... Narayana Guru It has been suggested that the section Sri Narayana Guru from the article Ezhava be merged into this article or section. ... Nitya Chaitanya Yati (Nithya Chaithanya Yati) (2 November 1923 - May 14, 1999) was an Indian philosopher. ... Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy // Life of Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (22 August 1877 Colombo - 9 September 1947 Needham, Massachusetts) was the son of the famous Sri Lankan legislator and philosopher Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and his English wife Elizabeth Beeby. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Swami Satyananda (born in Almorah, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1923), a disciple of Swami Sivananda, is a modern yoga master and guru. ... Image:Swami Chinmayananda. ... According to Akilattirattu Ammanai, a scripture of the Ayyavazhi, Ayya Vaikundar அய்யா வைகுண்டர், was a Manu (father, sovereign) avatar (the incarnation of a deity) of Narayana. ... Pandurang Shastri Vaijnath Athavale (Gujarati: , Marathi: ) (October 19, 1920 – October 25, 2003), known as dada (Gujarati: , Marathi: ), meaning elder brother in marathi) A philosopher and social reformer who gave discourses upon Srimad Bhagawad Geeta and Upnishads. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...

On Hinduism

The Hindu Renaissance that India experienced in the 19th century may be said to have been spurred by his life and work. Although the Brahmo Samaj and the Arya Samaj preceded the Ramakrishna Mission, their influence was limited on a broader level. With the emergence of the Mission, however, the situation changed dramatically. The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Ramakrishna himself when he had distributed the gerua cloth of renunciation to his direct disciples. This is corroborated by Swami Vivekananda himself when he says that without Thakur's grace all this would not have been possible. Many Ramakrishnites believe that Vivekananda acted as Ramakrishna's message-bearer to the West and hence helped in the fulfillment of their master's spiritual mission. The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism...


Hinduism faced a huge intellectual challenge in the 19th century, from Westerners and Indians alike. The Hindu practice of 'idol worship' came under intense pressure specially in Bengal, then the center of British India, and was declared intellectually unsustainable by some intellectuals. Response to this was varied, ranging from Young Bengal movement that denounced Hinduism and embraced Christianity or atheism, to the Brahmo movement that retained primacy of Hinduism but gave up idol worship, and to the staunch Hindu nationalism of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Ramakrishna's influence was crucial in this period for a Hindu revival of a more traditional kind, and can be compared to that of Chaitanya's contribution centuries earlier, when Hinduism in Bengal was under similar pressure from the growing power of Islam.[10] Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Bronze Chola murti depicting Shivas most famous dancing posture, the Nataraja, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... A name attributed to a group of radical free thinkers emerging from Hindu College, Kolkata in the early 19th century. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


It would be difficult to give a comprehensive description of Ramakrishna's influence on Hinduism, but some important contributions of his can nevertheless be detected. In his worship of Mother Kali's murti, he questions the crux of idol worship - whether he is worshipping a piece of stone or a living Goddess and why she does not respond to his prayers. He is reassured several times by experiences that show him that she is present.[11][12] To the many that revered him, this reinforced centuries-old traditions that were in the spotlight at the time. Ramakrishna also touted an inclusive version of the religion, declaring Joto mot toto path (roughly meaning Every opinion yields a path). He adopted a name that is clearly Vaishnavite (Rama and Krishna are both incarnations of Vishnu), but was a devotee of Kali, the mother goddess, and known to have followed various other religious paths including Tantrism and even Christianity and Islam. Bronze Chola murti depicting Shivas most famous dancing posture, the Nataraja, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


On Indian Nationalism

Ramakrishna's impact on the growing Indian nationalism was, if more indirect, nevertheless quite notable. A large number of intellectuals of that age had regular communication with him and respected him, though not all of them necessarily agreed with him on religious matters. Numerous members of the Brahmo Samaj respected him. Though some of them embraced his form of Hinduism, the fact that many others didn't shows that they detected in him a possibility for a strong national identity in the face of a colonial adversary that was intellectually undermining the Indian civilisation. As Amoury de Riencourt states,"The greatest leaders of the early twentieth century, whatever their walk of life -- Rabindranath Tagore, the prince of poets; Aurobindo Ghosh, the greatest mystic-philosopher; Mahatma Gandhi, who eventually shook the Anglo-Indian Empire to destruction-- all acknowledged their over-riding debt to both the Swan and the Eagle, to Ramakrishna who stirred the heart of India, and to Vivekananda who awakened its soul."[13] This is particularly evident in Ramakrishna's development of the Mother-symbolism and its eventual role in defining the incipient Indian nationalism/s. [14] A similar statement could be made about the fact that Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Ramakrishna held each other in high esteem, in spite of the fact that the first was a declared atheist. Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Indian postal stamp on Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (Bangla: ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর) (1820-1891) (born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyay) was a Bengali polymath. ...


Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission

See also: Apostles of Ramakrishna

Vivekananda, Ramakrishna's most illustrious disciple, is considered by some to be one of his most important legacies. Vivekananda spread the message of Ramakrishna across the world. He also helped introduce Hinduism to the west. He founded two organisations based on the teachings of Ramakrishna. One was Ramakrishna Mission, which is designed to spread the word of Ramakrishna. Vivekananda also designed its emblem. Ramakrishna Math was created as a monastic order based on Ramakrishna's teachings. Ramakrishna Paramahamsadev had sixteen direct disciples or apostles. ... Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ... Monastic Order for Men Ramakrishna Math consists of monks (Sannyasins and Brahmacharins) belonging to a monastic order for men. ...


The Ramakrishna Mission went to the courts in the 1980s in order to have their organisation and movement declared as a non-Hindu minority religion.[15] They sought to gain in this way the same privileges that are accorded only to the minority religions. The constitution grants privileges to minority religions; for example, in Article 30(1) it gives them greater control over their educational institutions: “All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.” But their case was turned down by the Calcutta High Court and the Supreme Court.[16]


Contemporary influence

It could be argued that Ramakrishna's vision of Hinduism, and its popularisation by western converts like Christopher Isherwood, have largely coloured Western notions of what Hinduism is. Some, like Andrew Harvey and Ken Wilber, see the beginning of a new planetary consciousness with Ramakrishna's life. Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... Andrew Harvey is a Shakespeare scholar and mystic. ... Ken Wilber Kenneth Earl Wilber Jr. ... The noosphere can be seen as the sphere of human thought being derived from the Greek νους (nous) meaning mind in the style of atmosphere and biosphere. In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere...


In 1991, historian Narasingha Sil wrote an account of Ramakrishna that suggests that Ramakrishna's mystical experiences were pathological and originated from alleged childhood sexual trauma.[17]Other scholars, most notably psychologist Sudhir Kakar, judged Sil's study to be simplistic and misleading. Kakar sought a meta-psychological non-pathological explanation that focuses on the pre-Oedipal and the Lacanian Real, and connects Ramakrishna's mystical noesis with creativity. Kakar also argues that culturally relative concepts of eroticism and gender have contributed to the Western difficulty in comprehending Ramakrishna.[18]Sil's theory has also been viewed as reductive by William B. Parsons, who has called for an increased empathetic dialogue between the classical/adaptive/transformative schools and the mystical traditions for an enhanced understanding of Ramakrishna's life and experiences.[19] Narasingha Sil is a Bengali-American religious scholar and historian. ... The Real is a term used by the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan in his theory of psychic structures. ... Bhava is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for being or becoming, from the root bhū to be, to become. Synonyms: 有 Cn: yǒu; Jp: u; Vi: hữu Tibetan: In Buddhism, bhava means the continuity of life and death, conditioned upon grasping (upādāna), the desire for further...


In 1995, Religious scholar Jeffrey Kripal completed a controversial psychoanalytic study of Ramakrishna.[20] Kripal adopts a Freudian approach to probe into the life of the mystic and uncover the connections between Tantric and psychoanalytic hermeneutical traditions. The book theorises upon an alleged homoerotic strain in Ramakrishna's life, practice, and teachings. It has been criticised by the Ramakrishna Mission and other followers as being based on many mistranslations of primary sources, deceptions, and an incorrect use of psychoanalysis as a tool in forming the theory. Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... Jeffrey Kripal is Professor of Religious Studies at Rice University and author of the 1995 book Kalis Child: The Mystical and the Erotic in the Life and Teachings of Ramakrishna, a highly controversial psychoanalytic study of the great Bengali mystic Ramakrishna. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... A Sadhana is a ritualistic meditation practice from Hindu and Buddhist spiritual traditions which is followed in order to achieve a form of spiritual purification or enlightenment. ... The Ramakrishna Mission Emblem The Ramakrishna Mission (Bengali: ) is an association founded by Sri Ramakrishnas chief disciple and religious leader, Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


In 2006, composer Philip Glass wrote The Passion of Ramakrishna, a choral work. It premiered on September 16, 2006 at the Orange County Performing Arts Center in Costa Mesa, California, performed by Orange County's Pacific Symphony Orchestra conducted by Carl St. Clair with the Pacific Chorale directed by John Alexander.[21] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Orange County Peforming Arts Center is a performing arts complex located in Costa Mesa, California. ... Official website: http://ci. ... Cities in Orange County Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. ...


Quotations

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Ramakrishna

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References

  1. ^ Smart, Ninian The World's Religions (1998) p.409, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-63748-1
  2. ^ Gupta, Mahendranath, "Three Classes of Evidences" in Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita, (Kolkata:Kathamrita Bhavan, 1901,1949- 17th edition), Part I, introductory page
  3. ^ Swami Nikhilananda, The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (1972), Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, New York
  4. ^ Roland, Romain The Life of Ramakrishna (1984), Advaita Ashram
  5. ^ Swami Nikhilananda, Ramakrishna, Prophet of New India, New York, Harper and Brothers, 1942, p. 28.
  6. ^ Kathamrita, 1/10/6
  7. ^ Hixon, Lex, Great Swan: Meetings with Ramakrishna, (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992, 2002), p. xvi
  8. ^ Gospel of Ramakrishna, vol. 4
  9. ^ Das, Prafulla Kumar, "Samasamayik Banglar adhymatmik jibongothone Sri Ramakrishner probhab", in Biswachetanay Ramakrishna, (Kolkata: Udbodhon Karyaloy, 1987,1997- 6th rep.), pp.299-311
  10. ^ Mukherjee, Jayasree, "Sri Ramakrishna’s Impact on Contemporary Indian Society". Prabuddha Bharata, May 2004Online article
  11. ^ Swami Saradananda,Sri Sri Ramakrishna Leelaproshongo, (Kolkata:Udbodhon Karyaloy, 1955), Part I, pp.113-125
  12. ^ Gupta, Mahendranath, Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita, (Kolkata: Kathamrita Bhavan, 1901, 1949 17th edition), Part I, pp. 20-21
  13. ^ de Riencourt, Amaury, The Soul of India, (London: Jonathan Cape, 1961), p.250
  14. ^ Jolly, Margaret,"Motherlands? Some Notes on Women and Nationalism in India and Africa".The Australian Journal of Anthropology,Volume: 5. Issue: 1-2,1994
  15. ^ Koenraad Elst Who is a Hindu? (2001) [1] ISBN 8188388254
  16. ^ Koenraad Elst Who is a Hindu? (2001) [2] ISBN 8188388254
  17. ^ Sil, Narasingha, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. A Psychological Profile, (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1991), p.16
  18. ^ Kakar, Sudhir, The Analyst and the Mystic, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), p.34
  19. ^ Parsons, William B., The Enigma of the Oceanic Feeling: Revisioning the Psychoanalytic Theory of Mysticism, (New York, Oxford University Press, 1999), pp.125-139
  20. ^ Kripal, Jeffrey J., The Mystical and the Erotic in the Life and Teachings of Ramakrishna, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, 1998)
  21. ^ Philipglass.com

Who is a Hindu? is a book by Koenraad Elst published in 2001 by Voice of India. ... Who is a Hindu? is a book by Koenraad Elst published in 2001 by Voice of India. ...

Further reading

  • Gupta, Mahendranath. The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (translation from Bengali by Swami Nikhilananda; Joseph Campbell and Margaret Woodrow Wilson, translation assistants - see preface; foreword by Aldous Huxley) (I & II)
  • The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (Hardcover) by Swami Nikhilananda (Translator) ISBN 0-911206-01-9
  • C. Rajagopalachari, Sri Ramakrishna Upanishad ISBN B0007J694K
  • Swami Saradananda, Ramakrishna and His Divine Play ISBN 0-916356-65-5
  • Romain Rolland, The life of Ramakrishna ISBN 81-85301-44-1
  • Christopher Isherwood, Ramakrishna and his disciples ISBN 0-87481-037-X
  • Ramakrishna: a biography in pictures ISBN 81-7505-131-0
  • Swami Chetanananda, Ramakrishna as we saw Him ISBN 81-85301-03-4
  • Lex Hixon, Great Swan: Meetings with Ramakrishna ISBN 0-943914-80-9
  • Hans Torwesten, Ramakrishna and Christ, or, The paradox of the incarnation ISBN 81-85843-97-X
  • Paul Hourihan, Ramakrishna and Christ: The Supermystics ISBN 1-931816-00-X
  • Shree Maa and Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Ramakrishna, The Nectar of Eternal Bliss ISBN 1-877795-66-6

Mahendranath Gupta (1854–1932), who preferred to call himself M, was one of the foremost disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the author of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Swami Nikhilananda (1895-1973), was an initiated disciple of Sri Sarada Devi. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Romain Rolland. ... Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... // Lex Hixon Alexander Paul Hixon, PhD, 1941-1995, spiritual teacher and author In his 53 years of life, Lex Hixon, an accomplished poet, philosopher and spiritual practitioner, explored extensively the truth of the great religious traditions. ...

External links

Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ...

Links to Ramakrishna organisations


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sri Ramakrishna (478 words)
Drawn by the magnetism of Sri Ramakrishna's divine personality, people flocked to him from far and near -- men and women, young and old, philosophers and theologians, philanthropists and humanists, atheists and agnostics, Hindus and Brahmos, Christians and Muslims, seekers of truth of all races, creeds and castes.
The greatest contribution of Sri Ramakrishna to the modern world is his message of the harmony of religions.
To Sri Ramakrishna all religions are the revelation of God in His diverse aspects to satisfy the manifold demands of human minds.
Ramakrishna (376 words)
Ramakrishna was constantly absorbed in the thought of God.
Among his many other noteworthy characteristics were his universality and childlike purity, his intense sincerity, his vast knowledge of things spiritual and human (which came not from book-learning but from direct perception), and his extraordinary power to transform lives.
Ramakrishna's teachings regarding the highest truths of spiritual life were delivered in the simplest language and were punctuated by parables and homely metaphors as illustrations.
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