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Encyclopedia > Ralph Vaughan Williams
A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking.
A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking.

Ralph Vaughan Williams, OM (October 12, 1872August 26, 1958) was an influential English composer of symphonies, chamber music, opera, choral music, and film scores. He was also an important collector of English folk music and song. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1220 KB) Description: view of Dorking in Kent, United Kingdom Source own photography --Immanuel Giel 11:41, 25 October 2006 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1220 KB) Description: view of Dorking in Kent, United Kingdom Source own photography --Immanuel Giel 11:41, 25 October 2006 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A film score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Folk song redirects here. ... This article is about the musical composition. ...

Contents

Life

Early years

Ralph Vaughan Williams was born in Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, where his father, the Rev. Arthur Vaughan Williams, was vicar. Following his father's death in 1875 he was taken by his mother, Margaret Susan Wedgwood (1843–1937), the great-granddaughter of the potter Josiah Wedgwood, to live with her family at Leith Hill Place, the Wedgwood family home in the North Downs. He was also related to the Darwins, Charles Darwin being a great-uncle. Ralph (pronounced "Rayf"[1]) was therefore born into the privileged intellectual upper middle class, but never took it for granted and worked tirelessly all his life for the democratic and egalitarian ideals in which he believed.[2] Down Ampney is located in the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, in England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the eldest Josiah Wedgwood. ... Kutani Crane by Wedgwood Kutani Crane by Wedgwood (back) Wedgwood is a British pottery firm, originally founded in 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal, creating Waterford Wedgwood, the Ireland-based luxury brands group. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Vacations to destinations such as Hawaii, shown above, may be seen as a hallmark of the upper-middle class. ...

The Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree, showing Vaughan Williams's relationships to Charles Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood
The Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree, showing Vaughan Williams's relationships to Charles Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood

As a student he had studied piano, "which I never could play, and the violin, which was my musical salvation." After Charterhouse School he attended the Royal College of Music (RCM) under Charles Villiers Stanford. He read history and music at Trinity College, Cambridge where his friends and contemporaries included the philosophers G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell. He then returned to the RCM and studied composition with Hubert Parry, who became a close friend. One of his fellow pupils at the RCM was Leopold Stokowski and during 1896 they both studied organ under Sir Walter Parratt. Stokowski later went on to perform six of Vaughan Williams's symphonies for American audiences, making the very first recording of the Sixth Symphony in 1949 with the New York Philharmonic, and giving the US Premiere of the Ninth Symphony in Carnegie Hall in 1958. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2352x1002, 153 KB) Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2352x1002, 153 KB) Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about the eldest Josiah Wedgwood. ... Charterhouse (Originally, Suttons Hospital in Charterhouse) is a famous boys English public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... The front facade of the Royal College of Music The Royal College of Music (RCM), located in the South Kensington district of London, is one of the worlds leading musical institutions. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (February 27, 1848 – October 7, 1918) was an English composer, probably best known for his setting of William Blakes poem, Jerusalem. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ...


Vaughan Williams's composing developed slowly and it was not until he was 30 that the song "Linden Lea" became his first publication. He mixed composition with conducting, lecturing and editing other music, notably that of Henry Purcell and the English Hymnal. He had further lessons with Max Bruch in Berlin in 1897 and later a big step forward in his orchestral style occurred when he studied in Paris with Maurice Ravel. This article is about the musical composition. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... The English Hymnal was published in 1906 for the Church of England under the editorship of Percy Dearmer and Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (Cologne, January 6, 1838 – Friedenau, October 20, 1920) was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including a violin concerto which is a staple of the violin repertoire. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Maurice Ravel. ...


In 1904, Vaughan Williams discovered English folk songs, which were fast becoming extinct owing to the increase of literacy and printed music in rural areas. He travelled the countryside, transcribing and preserving many himself. Later he incorporated some songs and melodies into his own music, being fascinated by the beauty of the music and its anonymous history in the working lives of ordinary people. His efforts did much to raise appreciation of traditional English folk song and melody. Later in his life he served as president of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS), which, in recognition of his early and important work in this field, named its Vaughan Williams Memorial Library after him. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... Cecil Sharp House in London is home to the English Folk Dance and Song Society The English Folk Dance and Song Society formed in 1932 when two organisations merged: the Folk-Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society formed by Cecil Sharp in 1911. ... The Vaughan Williams Memorial Library is the library and archive of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS). ...


In 1905, Vaughan Williams conducted the first concert of the newly founded Leith Hill Music Festival at Dorking and thereafter held that conductorship until 1953, when he passed the baton to his successor, William Cole[3]. For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Dorking is a market town at the foot of the North Downs approximately 25 miles south of London, in Surrey in England. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1909, he composed incidental music for the Cambridge Greek Play, a stage production at Cambridge University of Aristophanes' The Wasps. The next year, he had his first big public successes conducting the premieres of the Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (at The Three Choirs Festival in Gloucester Cathedral) and his choral symphony A Sea Symphony (Symphony No. 1). He enjoyed a greater success with A London Symphony (Symphony No. 2) in 1914, conducted by Geoffrey Toye. Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Cambridge Greek Play is a play performed in Ancient Greek by students of the University of Cambridge. ... For other uses, see Aristophanes (disambiguation). ... The Wasps is a comedy by Aristophanes. ... Also known as the The Fantasia was one of the first major successes of British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... The Three Choirs Festival is a British music festival, held each August alternately at the cathedrals of Hereford, Gloucester and Worcester and originally featuring their three choirs, which remain central to the week-long programme. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... A Sea Symphony is a choral symphony by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909. ... A London Symphony is the second symphony composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... Edward Geoffrey Toye (February 17, 1889 - June 11, 1942) was an English conductor, composer, and opera producer. ...


Two World Wars

Vaughan Williams was 41 when World War I erupted. He could have avoided war service entirely. Having been educated in public school, he could have tried for a commission. Instead, he chose to enlist as a private in the Royal Army Medical Corps. After a gruelling time as a stretcher bearer he was commissioned in the Royal Garrison Artillery. On one occasion, though too ill to stand, he continued to direct his battery while lying on the ground. Prolonged exposure to gunfire began a process of hearing loss which eventually caused complete deafness in old age. In 1918, he was appointed Director of Music, First Army and this helped him adjust back into musical life. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in war and in peace. ... RGA redirects here. ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


After the war, he adopted for a while a profoundly mystical style in the Pastoral Symphony (Symphony No. 3), which draws on his experiences as an ambulance volunteer in that war; and Flos Campi, a work for viola solo, small orchestra, and wordless chorus. From 1924 a new phase in his music began, characterised by lively cross-rhythms and clashing harmonies. Key works from this period are Toccata marziale, the ballet Old King Cole, the Piano Concerto, the oratorio Sancta Civitas (his favourite of his choral works) and the ballet Job (described as "A Masque for Dancing") which is drawn not from the Bible but from William Blake's Illustrations to the Book of Job. He also composed a Te Deum in G for the enthronement of Cosmo Lang as Archbishop of Canterbury. This period in his music culminated in the Symphony No. 4 in F minor, first played by the BBC Symphony Orchestra in 1935. This symphony contrasts dramatically with the frequent "pastoral" orchestral works he composed; indeed, its almost unrelieved tension, drama, and dissonance has startled listeners since it was premiered. Acknowledging that the fourth symphony was different, the composer said, "I don't know if I like it, but it's what I mean." Two years later, Vaughan Williams made a historic recording of the work with the same orchestra for HMV (His Master's Voice), one of his very rare commercial recordings. During this period, he lectured in America and England, and conducted the Bach Choir. He was appointed to the Order of Merit in the King's Birthday Honours of 1935,[4] having previously declined a knighthood.[2] The Pastoral Symphony is a symphony written by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1922. ... Flos Campi: suite for solo viola, small chorus and small orchestra is a composition by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, completed in 1925. ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Sancta Civitas (The Holy City) is an oratorio by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1923 and 1925. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Job: A Masque for Dancing is a ballet written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942). ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Symphony No. ... The BBC Symphony Orchestra is the principal orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation and one of the leading orchestras in Britain. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


His music now entered a mature lyrical phase, as in the Five Tudor Portraits; the "morality" The Pilgrim's Progress; the Serenade to Music (a setting of a scene from act five of The Merchant of Venice, for orchestra and sixteen vocal soloists and composed as a tribute to the conductor Sir Henry Wood); and the Symphony No. 5 in D, which he conducted at the Proms in 1943. As he was now 70, many people considered it a swan song, but he renewed himself again and entered yet another period of exploratory harmony and instrumentation. His very successful Symphony No. 6 of 1946 received a hundred performances in the first year. It surprised both admirers and critics, many of whom suggested that this symphony (especially its last movement) was a grim vision of the aftermath of an atomic war: typically, Vaughan Williams himself refused to recognise any program behind this work. Serenade to Music is a setting by Ralph Vaughan Williams for 16 vocal soloists and orchestra. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Sir Henry Wood Kt CH (3 March 1869 – 19 August 1944) was an English conductor, forever associated with the Promenade Concerts which he conducted for half a century. ... The Symphony No. ... A Promenade concert in the Royal Albert Hall, 2004. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ralph Vaughan Williamss Symphony in E minor, published as Symphony No. ...


Late harvest

Before his death in 1958, he completed three more symphonies. His seventh, Sinfonia Antartica, which was based on his 1948 film score for Scott of the Antarctic, exhibits his renewed interest in instrumentation and sonority. The "little eighth symphony", first performed in 1956, was followed by the much weightier Symphony No. 9 in E minor of 1956-57. This last symphony was initially given a luke-warm reception after its first performance in May 1958, just three months before the composer's death. But this dark and enigmatic work is now considered by many[5] to be a fitting conclusion to his sequence of symphonic works. Jan. ... The English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams gave the Italian title Sinfonia Antartica (Antarctic Symphony) to his seventh symphony. ... Scott of the Antarctic was a 1948 film about Robert Falcon Scotts explorations of Antartica. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams Symphony No. ... Symphony No. ...


He also completed a range of instrumental and choral works, including a tuba concerto, An Oxford Elegy on texts of Matthew Arnold, and the Christmas cantata Hodie. At his death he left an unfinished Cello Concerto, an opera Thomas the Rhymer and music for a Christmas play, The First Nowell, which was completed by his amanuensis Roy Douglas (b. 1907). He also wrote an arrangement of The Old One Hundredth Psalm Tune for the Coronation Service of Queen Elizabeth II. Tuba Concerto in F minor is a tuba concerto written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams that premiered in 1954. ... An Oxford Elegy is a work for narrator, mixed chorus and small orchestra, written by Ralph Vaughan Williams between 1947 and 1949. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Roy Douglas (born 12 December 1907), is a British composer and arranger. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The tune Old 100th or Old Hundredth, is a melody from Pseaumes Octante Trois de David (1551), and is one of the best known melodies in all Christian musical traditions. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Despite his substantial involvement in church music, and the religious subject-matter of many of his works, he was described by his second wife as "an atheist … [who] later drifted into a cheerful agnosticism."[6] It is noteworthy that in his opera The Pilgrim's Progress he changed the name of the hero from Bunyan's Christian to Pilgrim. He also set Bunyan's hymn Who would true valour see to music using the traditional Sussex melody "Monk's Gate". For many church-goers, his most familiar composition may be the hymn tune Sine Nomine written for the hymn "For All the Saints" by William Walsham How. The tune he composed for the mediaeval hymn "Come Down, O Love Divine" (Di­scen­di, Amor san­to by Bi­an­co of Si­e­na, ca.1434) is entitled "Down Ampney" in honour of his birthplace. Bunyan can mean: John Bunyan (1628 – 1688), a Christian writer and preacher Paul Bunyan, a mythical lumberjack in tall tales Vashti Bunyan, an English folk singer-songwriter. ... To be a Pilgrim is the only hymn John Bunyan is credited with writing but is indelibly associated with him. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... Monks Gate is a hamlet in West Sussex, just south of Mannings Heath. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hymn. ... For All the Saints was written as a processional hymn by the Anglican Bishop William Walsham How. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... For All the Saints was written as a processional hymn by the Anglican Bishop William Walsham How. ... William Walsham How (December 13, 1823 - August 10, 1897) was an English bishop. ... Down Ampney is located in the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, in England. ...


He also worked as a tutor for Birkbeck College.[7] Birkbeck, University of London, sometimes referred to by its former name Birkbeck College or by the abbreviation BBK, is a College of the University of London. ...

Portrait of Vaughan Williams by Sir Gerald Kelly, painted in 1958–61 (EMI)
Portrait of Vaughan Williams by Sir Gerald Kelly, painted in 1958–61 (EMI)

In the 1950s, the composer supervised recordings of all but his ninth symphony by Sir Adrian Boult and the London Philharmonic Orchestra for Decca.[8] At the end of the sessions for the mysterious sixth symphony, Vaughan Williams gave a short speech, thanking Boult and the orchestra for their performance, "most heartily," and Decca later included this on the LP.[9] He was to supervise the first recording of the ninth symphony (for Everest Records) with Boult; his death the night before the recording sessions were to begin resulted in Boult announcing to the musicians that their performance would be a memorial to the composer.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sir Gerald Festus Kelly (1879 – 1972) was a British painter. ... Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH (April 8, 1889 – February 22, 1983) was an English conductor. ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... An Everest Records reissue of music by Ralph Vaughan Williams and Malcolm Arnold Everest Records was a stereophonic record company in Bayside, Long Island; started by Harry D. Belock and Bert Whyte in May 1958 as a division of the Belock Instrument Corporation. ...


He died in 1958 and is buried in Westminster Abbey. Jan. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Vaughan Williams is a central figure in British music because of his long career as teacher, lecturer and friend to so many younger composers and conductors. His writings on music remain thought-provoking, particularly his oft-repeated call for everyone to make their own music, however simple, as long as it is truly their own.


He was married twice. His first wife, Adeline Fisher (daughter of the historian Herbert William Fisher), died in 1951 after many years of suffering from crippling arthritis. In 1953 he married the poet Ursula Wood (1911-2007), whom he had known since the late 1930s and with whom he collaborated on a number of vocal works. Ursula later wrote Vaughan Williams's biography RVW: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams, which remains the standard work on his life. Herbert William Fisher (1826-1903) was a British historian, best known for his book Considerations on the Origin of the American War (1865). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ursula Vaughan Williams (née Lock, first married name Wood; born 15 March 1911) is an English poet and author. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


Vaughan Williams appears as a character in Robert Holdstock's novel Lavondyss. Robert Holdstock is an English fantasy author and was born in Kent in 1948 - he became a full-time writer in 1975 after studying Medical Zoology as a student. ... Spoiler warning: Lavondyss is the second book of the Mythago Wood series by award winning author Robert Holdstock and was originally published in 1988. ...


Style

Vaughan Williams's music has often been said to be characteristically English, in the same way as that of Gustav Holst, Frederick Delius, George Butterworth, and William Walton.[11] Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... George Sainton Kaye Butterworth (July 12, 1885 - August 5, 1916) was a British composer best known for his settings of A. E. Housmans poems. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ...


In Albion: The Origins of the English Imagination, Peter Ackroyd writes, "If that Englishness in music can be encapsulated in words at all, those words would probably be: ostensibly familiar and commonplace, yet deep and mystical as well as lyrical, melodic, melancholic, and nostalgic yet timeless." Ackroyd quotes music critic John Alexander Fuller Maitland, whose distinctions included editing the second edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians in the years just before 1911, as having observed that in Vaughan Williams's style "one is never quite sure whether one is listening to something very old or very new."


Vaughan Williams's music, although embodying the composer's own unique voice, often reflects the influence of Ravel, his mentor for three months in Paris in 1908. Ravel described Vaughan Williams as "the only one of my pupils who does not write my music."[11] Maurice Ravel. ...


Vaughan Williams's music expresses a deep regard for and fascination with folk tunes, the variations upon which can convey the listener from the down-to-earth (which he always tried to remain in his daily life) to the ethereal. Simultaneously the music shows patriotism toward England in the subtlest form, engendered by a feeling for ancient landscapes and a person's small yet not entirely insignificant place within them.[2]


Works

See also Category:Compositions by Ralph Vaughan Williams.


Operas

Hugh the Drover is an opera in two acts by Ralph Vaughan Williams to an original English libretto by Harold Child. ... For the record label, see Greensleeves Records. ... Riders to the Sea is a short one-act opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams, based on the eponymous play by the Irish author John Millington Synge. ... Edmund John Millington Synge (IPA: ) (April 16, 1871 – March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... The Pilgrims Progress is an opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... John Bunyan. ...

Ballets

Job: A Masque for Dancing is a ballet written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. ...

Orchestral

A Sea Symphony is a choral symphony by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909. ... A London Symphony is the second symphony composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ... Ralph Vaughan Williamss Symphony in E minor, published as Symphony No. ... The English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams gave the Italian title Sinfonia antartica (Antarctic Symphony) to his seventh symphony. ... Scott of the Antarctic was a 1948 film about Robert Falcon Scotts explorations of Antartica. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams Symphony No. ... Symphony No. ... In the Fen Country is an orchestral tone poem written by the English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1904. ... The Wasps is a suite for orchestra composed by the prominent British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1909. ... For other uses, see Aristophanes (disambiguation). ... Also known as the The Fantasia was one of the first major successes of British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... This is a small work for string orchestra by Ralph Vaughan Williams, based on the well-known folk tune Dives and Lazarus, also known as the tune for Star of the County Down and first performed at the 1939 Worlds Fair in New York City. ...

Concerti

Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra is a piano concerto written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... The Lark Ascending is a musical piece written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1914. ... Flos Campi: suite for solo viola, small chorus and small orchestra is a composition by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, completed in 1925. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote his Concerto in A Minor for Oboe and Strings for soloist Leon Goosens in 1944. ... Lawrence Larry Cecil Adler, (February 10, 1914 – August 7, 2001), was an accomplished musician, widely acknowledged as one of the worlds most skilled harmonica players. ... Tuba Concerto in F minor is a tuba concerto written by the famous British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams that premiered in 1954. ...

Choral

  • Toward the Unknown Region, song for chorus and orchestra, setting of Walt Whitman (1906)
  • Five Mystical Songs for baritone, chorus and orchestra, settings of George Herbert (1911)
  • Fantasia on Christmas Carols for baritone, chorus, and orchestra (1912; arranged also for reduced orchestra of organ, strings, percussion)
  • Mass in G Minor for unaccompanied choir (1922)
  • Sancta Civitas (The Holy City) oratorio, text mainly from the Book of Revelation (1923-25)
  • Te Deum in G (1928)
  • Benedicite for soprano, chorus, and orchestra (1929)
  • In Windsor Forest, adapted from the opera Sir John in Love (1929)
  • Three Choral Hymns (1929)
  • Magnificat for contralto, women's chorus, and orchestra (1932)
  • Five Tudor Portraits for contralto, baritone, chorus, and orchestra (1935)
  • Dona nobis pacem, text by Walt Whitman and other sources (1936)
  • Festival Te Deum for chorus and orchestra or organ (1937)
  • Serenade to Music for sixteen solo voices and orchestra, a setting of Shakespeare (1938)
  • A Song for Thanksgiving (originally Thanksgiving for Victory) for narrator, soprano solo, children's chorus, mixed chorus, and orchestra (1944)
  • An Oxford Elegy for narrator, mixed chorus and small orchestra (1949)
  • Three Shakespeare Songs for SATB unaccompanied composed for The British Federation of Music Festivals National Competitive Festival (1951)
  • Hodie, a Christmas oratorio (1954)
  • Folk songs of the Four Seasons for unaccompanied SSA chorus.
  • Epithalamion for baritone solo, chorus, flute, piano, and strings (1957)
  • Numerous hymns, some of which were first published in the English Hymnal of 1906, of which Vaughan Williams was the musical editor, collaborating with Percy Dearmer.

Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... The Five Mystical Songs, composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1911, are settings of four poems by George Herbert, from his 1633 collection The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations. ... For other persons named George Herbert, see George Herbert (disambiguation). ... The Mass in G Minor is a choral work by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written in 1921. ... Sancta Civitas (The Holy City) is an oratorio by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1923 and 1925. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Dona nobis pacem is a cantata written by Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1936 and first performed the following year. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Serenade to Music is a setting by Ralph Vaughan Williams for 16 vocal soloists and orchestra. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... An Oxford Elegy is a work for narrator, mixed chorus and small orchestra, written by Ralph Vaughan Williams between 1947 and 1949. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hodie (This Day) is a cantata by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... The English Hymnal was published in 1906 for the Church of England under the editorship of Percy Dearmer and Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Revd Dr Percy Dearmer MA (Oxon), DD, in 1911. ...

Vocal

  • "Linden Lea", song (1901)
  • The House of Life (1904)
  • Songs of Travel (1904)
  • "The Sky Above The Roof" (1908)
  • On Wenlock Edge, song cycle for tenor, piano and string quartet (1909)
  • Along the Field, for tenor and violin
  • Three Poems by Walt Whitman for baritone and piano (1920)
  • Four Poems by Fredegond Shove: for baritone and piano (1922)
  • Four Hymns for Tenor, Viola and Strings (1914)
  • Merciless Beauty for tenor, two violins, and cello
  • Four Last Songs to poems of Ursula Vaughan Williams
  • Ten Blake songs, song cycle for high voice and oboe (1957)

Songs of Travel is a song cycle of nine songs for baritone voice composed by Ralph Vaughn Williams, with words by Robert Louis Stevenson. ... Fredegond Shove (1889 - 1949) was an English poet. ... Four Hymns for Tenor, Viola and Strings, (sometimes shortened to Four Hymns or Four Hymns for Tenor) is a liturgical song cycle composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ...

Chamber and Instrumental

  • String Quintet in C minor for violin, viola, cello, double bass and piano (1903)
  • String Quartet No. 1 in G minor (1908)
  • Phantasy Quintet for 2 violins, 2 violas and cello (1912)
  • Six Studies in English Folk-Song, for violoncello and piano (1926)
  • Three Preludes on Welsh Hymn Tunes, for organ (1956)
  • String Quartet No. 2 in A minor ("For Jean, on her birthday," 1942-44)
  • Romance for Viola and Piano (undated)

Organ

  • Three Preludes on Welsh Hymntunes (Bryn Calfaria, Rhosymedre, Hyfrydol) (1920)
  • A Wedding Tune for Ann (1943)
  • Two Organ Preludes (The White Rock, St. David's Day) (1956)
  • The Old Hundredth Psalm-Tune (?)

Film, radio, and TV scores

The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... Muir Mathieson was born in Stirling, Scotland on 24 January 1911 and died in London on 1 January 1975). ... Coastal Command, 73 minute long 1942 British film made by the Crown Film Unit for the Ministry of Information, dramatising the work of Coastal Command. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published, February, 1678) is a Christian allegory. ... Scott of the Antarctic was a 1948 film about Robert Falcon Scotts explorations of Antartica. ...

Band

  • English Folk Song Suite for military band (1923)
  • Toccata Marziale for military band (1924)
  • Flourish for Wind Band (1939)
  • Sea Songs
  • Overture: Henry V for brass band
  • Variations for brass band (1957)

Written in 1923, the English Folk Song Suite is one of English composer Ralph Vaughan Williamss most famous works for military band. ...

A note on recordings


Vaughan Williams enjoys an extensive recorded legacy. Early recordings of the symphonies by Henry Wood(London), John Barbirolli(5th), Sir Adrian Boult(6th) and a live recording of the Fourth by the composer, preceded several complete cycles. Boult(twice in all) was the first, recording for Decca in the 1950s. Others have followed from Sir André Previn, Bernard Haitink, Bryden Thomson, Vernon Handley and Richard Hickox.
Sir David Wilcocks recorded much of the choral output for EMI in the 1960s and 1970's. Award winning performances of the string quartets have followed on Naxos, who along with the Hyperion and Chandos labels have recorded much neglected material including works for brass band, and the rarely performed Operas. There have been several notable individuals with the name Henry Wood The best known are: Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, soldier Sir Henry Wood, orchestral conductor Mrs Henry Wood was a British novelist. ... Sir John (Giovanni Battista) Barbirolli (December 2, 1899 - July 29, 1970), was a British conductor and cellist who led the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra, among many others. ... Sir Adrian Cedric Boult (April 8, 1889 - February 22, 1983) was an English conductor. ... Decca may refer to: Decca Records, a 1929 British record label, also known as Decca Music Group Decca Radar (later Racal-Decca Marine), a British marine electronics manufacturer, a spin-off from the gramophone and records company Decca tree, a microphone recording system London Decca, a maker of turntable tonearms... ... Bryden Thomson (Born 16 July 1928 in Ayr, Scotland, died 14 November 1991, Dublin, Ireland) was a Scottish conductor. ... Vernon Handley (November 11, 1930 –) is a Welsh conductor. ... Richard Hickox CBE (born March 5, 1948) is an English conductor of choral, orchestral and operatic music. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... The primary use of “Naxos” is as the name of a Greek island in the Cyclades. ... Hyperion Records is an independent British classical record label, named after Hyperion, one of the Titans of Greek mythology. ... Chandos Records is an independent classical music label based in the UK. They have high standards of sound engineering quality. ...


References

  1. ^ Vaughan Williams, Ursula. (1964) R.V.W. A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams, Oxford University Press. The preface, Notes on Names, says "Ralph's name was pronounced Rayf, any other pronunciation used to infuriate him."
  2. ^ a b c Frogley, Alain (September 2004 — online edition May 2006). ‘Williams, Ralph Vaughan (1872–1958)’ (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/36636. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
  3. ^ Leith Hill Music Festival website. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  4. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34166, page 3596, 31 May 1935. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
  5. ^ Journal of the Vaughan Williams Society, No.39, June 2007
  6. ^ Hugh Ottaway/Alain Frogley, "Ralph Vaughan-Williams": Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (subscription required). Retrieved 2008-01-16
  7. ^ (2002) Birkbeck, University of London Continuing Education Courses 2002 Entry. Birkbeck External Relations Department, 5. 
  8. ^ The Gramophone
  9. ^ Decca Records/Eclipse reissue
  10. ^ Everest Records' release of the 1958 recording.
  11. ^ a b [1] Roger S. Gordon, Ralph Vaughan Williams' Film Music, review, Positive Feedback on Line Issue 29, accessed May 12, 2008
  12. ^ Answers.com

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Everest Records reissue of music by Ralph Vaughan Williams and Malcolm Arnold Everest Records was a stereophonic record company in Bayside, Long Island; started by Harry D. Belock and Bert Whyte in May 1958 as a division of the Belock Instrument Corporation. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... Tony Palmer is an award-winning British film director and author. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Classical Net - Vaughan Williams - Notes on the Symphonies (1446 words)
Vaughan Williams did not number his first three symphonies, except by implication when he produced the Symphony No. 4.
Vaughan Williams was indeed inspired by landscape, but not English landscape; rather, the landscape of wartime France.
It sums up, to a certain extent, Vaughan Williams's musical idiom of the previous twenty years: the pastoral mode and polytonalism of the third symphony, the expanded dissonance and contrapuntal virtuosity of the fourth (although softened, by dynamics and orchestration), the "moonlight" music of the Serenade.
The National Archives | DocumentsOnline | Famous Names - Ralph Vaughan Williams (897 words)
In 1919 Vaughan Williams became Director of Music of the 1st Army British Expeditionary Force in France and subsequently was appointed Professor of Composition at the Royal College of Music.
Vaughan Williams accepted the Order of Merit in 1938 and in 1955 he became the first musician to receive The Albert Medal of The Royal Society of Arts.
Ralph Vaughan Williams is one of the 32 million names you can search on the 1901 Census for England and Wales which is ideal for researching your family tree.
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