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Encyclopedia > Rakhine State
ရခုိင္‌ပ္ရည္‌နယ္‌
Rakhine State

(MLCTS: rahkuing pranynai) This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ...

Capital Sittwe (Akyab)
Region West coastal
Area 36,780 km²
Population 2,698,000
Ethnicities Rakhine, Bamar, Rohingya, Chin
Religions Islam, Buddhism, Christianity

Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. Situated the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State in the north, Magway Division, Bago Division and Ayeyarwady Division in the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest. It is located approximately between latitudes 17°30' north and 21°30' north and east longitudes 92°10' east and 94°50' east. Image File history File links Rakhinestateflag. ... Sittwe (1983 population estimate: 107,607), formerly known as Akyab, is a city and district in the RakhineState, Myanmar. ... The Rakhine people (Burmese: ; formerly Arakanese) are a sub-ethnic group of the Bamar. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... The Rohingya are a minority Muslim ethnic group in Northern Rakhine State, Western Myanmar. ... Chin (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is one of the ethnic groups in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of psychology. ... This article is becoming very long. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Rakhine State Categories: GFDL images ... Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions Categories: Myanmar ... Chin State is a state of Myanmar. ... Magway Division (also spelt Magwe) is a division located in central Myanmar between north latitude 18° 50 and 22° 47 and east longitude between 93° 47 and 95° 55. It is bordered by Sagaing Division is to its north, Mandalay Division to its east, Bago Division to its south and... Bago Division is an administrative division of Myanmar, located in the southern portion of the country. ... Ayeyarwady Division is a division of Myanmar, occupying the delta region of the Ayeyarwady or Irrawaddy River. ... A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. ...


The Arakan Yoma mountain range, which rises to 3,063 m at Victoria Peak, separates Rakhine State from Myanmar proper. Its area is 36,762 km² and its capital is Sittwe (formerly Akyab). The estimated population in 1985 was 2,698,000 and it is inhabited primary by two groups of people the Rakhine ethnic group and Rohingyas ethnic group. The remaining ethnic groups are Mro, Khami (Khumi), Kaman Muslim, Dienet, Marmagri and a few others. The majority of people are Buddhists, and second being Muslims. The Chin Hills is a range of hills in northwestern Myanmar that cross over into Assam, India. ... Sittwe (1983 population estimate: 107,607), formerly known as Akyab, is a city and district in the RakhineState, Myanmar. ... Akyab is a city and district in the Arakan division of Burma. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Rohingya are a minority Muslim ethnic group in Northern Rakhine State, Western Myanmar. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

Contents

Name

The term Rakhine (or Arakan) derives from the Pali word Rakkhapura or Sanskrit Raksapura, meaning “Land of Ogres”, possibly a pejorative referring to the original Negrito inhabitants. The Pali word Rakkhapura (Rakkhita) means "land of the people of Rakhasa" (also Rakkha, Rakhaing). Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Negritos include the Ati, the Aeta and at least 4 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ...


The name "Arakan" has historically been used by Bengali, Arabic, Portuguese, and English as an alternative to "Rakhine", and continues to be widely used. The Burmese government refers to Arakan as "Rakhine". Arakan was vaguely known to the Romans as Argyre (Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy) or Khruse (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea), but was a vaguely defined area adjacent to India. Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei ) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ...


Demographics

Ethnographers classify up to 11 ethnic groups (not including ethnic sub-groups) as native to Rakhine State. The Rakhine and Bamar live in valleys and on Yambye and Manaung islands. The Chin inhabit the mountain regions of the north. The Mro, Thet, Khami, Dainet, Maramagri, Khumi, and Kaman live on mountain ranges in the west and north. Each group is also known by more than one name, and data on the smaller ethnic groups is insufficient. Ethnicity in Rahkine State is a complex issue, made more complex by the current political situation. Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... Look up Chin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Khami was a city in southern Africa, in what is now Zimbabwe. ...


One such complication to the Rahkine ethnic issue is that of the Rohingya, who are not recognised as a legitimate native ethnic group, but who currently form perhaps 25% of the Rakhine State's population. The Rohingya are a minority Muslim ethnic group in Northern Rakhine State, Western Myanmar. ...


Organization

Arakan State consists of five districts: Sittwe, Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Kyaukpru and Thandwe. Combined, these districts have a total of 17 townships and 1,164 village-tracts. Thandwe, called Sandoway by the British, is a city and major seaport in southern Myanmar. ...


Economy

Rakhine State receives much rain, so rice is the main crop, occupying around 85% of the total agricultural land. Coconut and nipa palm plantations are also important. Fishing is a major industry, with most of the catch transported to Yangon, but some is also exported. Wood products such as timber, bamboo and fuel wood are extracted from the mountains. Small amounts of inferior-grade crude oil are produced from primitive, shallow, hand-dug wells, but there is yet unexplored potential for petroleum and natural gas production. Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species of grass (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and in Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans in their global diets[1]. (The term wild rice can... Binomial name Cocos nucifera L. The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). ... Binomial name Nypa fruticans Wurmb Nypa fruticans , known as the Attap Palm (Singapore) and Mangrove Palm or Nipah palm (Malaysia), is the only palm considered a mangrove. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ... Yangon (Burmese: , population 4,082,000 (2005 census), formerly Rangoon, and still known by that name in many circles, see below under History), is the largest city of Myanmar (formerly Burma) and its former capital. ... This article is about the plant. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ...


Tourism is slowly being developed. The ruins of the ancient royal town Mrauk U and the beach resorts of Ngapali are the major attractions for foreign visitors, but facilities are still primitive, and transportation infrastructure is still rudimentary. Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ... Mrauk U is an ancient town in Rakhine State, Myanmar. ... Ngapali Beach is a beach located 7 kilometres (4 mi) from the town of Thandwe (Sandoway), in Rakhine State, Myanmar. ...


History

This article is part of
the History of Myanmar series

Early history of Burma
Pyu City-states (100 BC-840 AD)
Mon Kingdoms (9th-11th, 13th-16th, 18th c.)
Pagan Kingdom (849-1287) first Burmese empire
Ava (c. 1364-1555)
Pegu (to 1752)
Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1752) second Burmese empire
Konbaung Dynasty (1753-1885) third Burmese empire
War with Britain (1824-1852)
British Arakan (after 1783)
British Tenasserim (1824-1852)
British Lower Burma (1852-1886)
British Upper Burma (1885-1886)
British rule in Burma (1886-1948)
Japanese occupation of Burma (1939-1945)
Aung San
Post-Independence Burma, 1947-1962 (1947-1962)
Military era (1962-1989)
8888 Uprising (1988)
Military era II (1989-present)
[edit this box]
Rakhine's ancient kingdoms are divided into four separate periods.
Rakhine's ancient kingdoms are divided into four separate periods.

The natives of Arakan trace their history as far back as 2666 B.C., and give a lineal succession of 227 native princes down to modern times. According to them, their empire had at one period far wider limits, and extended over. Ava, part of China, and a portion of Bengal. This extension of their empire is not, however, corroborated by known facts in history. According to recorded history, a kingdom called Dhanyawady arose in the Arakan region in the 1st century AD. The famous Mahamuni Buddha (located in Mandalay) was cast in Dhanyawady in around 150 AD. The kingdom of Wethali (Rakhine: Wai-tha-li) was the successor to Dhanyawady from the 3rd century AD. The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ... Image File history File links Burmapeacockforhistory. ... Pyu (also written Pyuu, or Pyus) refers to an ancient kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Burma. ... Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. ... To the north another group of people, the Burmese began infiltrating the area as well. ... Innwa (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; formerly Ava) is a city in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, situated just to the south of Amarapura on the Ayeyarwady River. ... The 54-m Shwethalyaung Buddha, constructed in 994 A.D. by King Migadepa Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Myanmar. ... The Toungoo dynasty (1486-1752) was one of the most powerful post-Bagan Burmese kingdoms, over which seven kings reigned for a period of 155 years. ... The Konbaung Dynasty (1752-1885) was the last Burmese dynasty. ... There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ... Tanintharyi Division, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma Province as a colony of British India to the establisment of the Crown Colony of Burma and finally independence. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1943 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... Aung San General Aung San (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win. ... 8888 Uprising (Shih lei long; lit. ... State Peace and Development Council is the official name of the government of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ... Image File history File links Rakhinecivilisationperiods. ... Image File history File links Rakhinecivilisationperiods. ... The Mahamuni Buddha, also known as the Maha Myat Muni Buddha, is a major Buddhist pilgrimage site in Mandalay, Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ...


Arakan reached the zenith of its power in the Bay of Bengal during the Waithali and Lemro periods, but the country steadily declined from the fifteenth century onwards. Chittagong, which was part of Arakan was invaded and occupied by the Mughal Empire in 1666. Internal instability and dethroning of kings was very common. The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan; but in 1782 the province was finally conquered by the Burmese. The Burmese King U Wine soon invaded and occupied the entire Arakan region in 1784. A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The famous Mahamuni Buddha image was taken as a war trophy to his capital of Mandalay (where it is still located). Burmese attacks on Arakanese refugees in neighboring British Bengal was one of the instigating causes of the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824 to 26). Under the Treaty of Yandabo (1826), Burma ceded Arakan and Tenasserim to British India. Arakan was thus one of the first Burmese territories to be ceded to the British. The British made Akyab capital of Arakan, and retained the traditional divisions of the country into the districts of Akyab, Kyaukpyu and Sandoway (Ramree) with a district officer in charge of each. Akyab district originally included the Arakan Hill Tracts, which were detached 1865 and made into a separate district (and which is now Chin State). Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Tanintharyi, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... Akyab is a city and district in the Arakan division of Burma. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Chin State is a state of Myanmar. ...


With independence and the formation of the Union of Burma in 1948, the three Arakan districts became Arakan Division, on equal footing with the majority Burmese administrative divisions.


From the 1950s, there was a growing movement for secession and restoration of Rakhine independence. In part to appease this sentiment, in 1974, the Burmese government of Ne Win constituted Rakhine State from Arakan Division giving at least nominal acknowledgement of the majority Rakhine ethnic group. Pro-independence movements have been highly fragmented, and the Burmese military has capitalised on the existing tension between the majority Buddhists and minority Muslims. As with other areas of Myanmar, massive human rights violations by the Myanmar military have been reported. It has been alleged that villagers live under the constant threat of rape, beatings, arbitrary arrest or execution, conscription as slave labor for the Tatmadaw, and having their food and possessions taken without compensation. Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... When a government violates national or international law related to the protection of human rights, this is termed a human rights violation. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... A high-ranking generals villa overlooking the golf course in Kalaw. ...


References

    This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


    External links

    • Buddhist Missionary Society
    • Arakan Social Association Japan
    • Arakan Literature
    • [1]


    Rakhine independence-affiliated

    • Rakhapura
    • Arakan Internet Journal
    • [2]
    Subdivisions of Myanmar Flag of Myanmar
    States: Chin | Kachin | Kayah | Kayin | Mon | Rakhine | Shan
    Divisions: Ayeyarwady | Bago | Magway | Mandalay | Sagaing | Tanintharyi | Yangon

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Rakhine State - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (946 words)
    Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar.
    Situated the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State in the north, Magway Division, Bago Division and Ayeyarwady Division in the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest.
    Rakhine State receives much rain, so rice is the main crop, occupying around 85% of the total agricultural land.
    Rakhine people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (499 words)
    One major reason for the cultural differences between the dominant Bamar and the Rakhine is their geographical isolation due to the Arakan Yoma.
    The Rakhine have been influenced by Bengali (Bangla) culture, and traces of Bengali influence remain in many aspects of Rakhine culture, including its literature, music, and cuisine.
    In 1974, the Ne Win government's new constitution granted Rakhine Division "state" status but the gesture was largely seen as meaningless since the military junta held all power in the country and in Rakhine.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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