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Encyclopedia > Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi


In office
31 October 1984 – 2 December 1989
President Giani Zail Singh
Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Preceded by Indira Gandhi
Succeeded by V. P. Singh

Born 20 August 1944
Mumbai, Bombay Presidency, British India
Died May 21, 1991 (aged 46)
Sriperumbudur, TN, India
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse Sonia Gandhi
Profession Airline pilot

Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: [raːdʒiːv gaːnd̪ʰiː]), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mother's death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2, 1989 following a general election defeat. Becoming the Prime Minister of India at the age of 40, he is the youngest person to date to hold that office. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:DR Wikipedia is a community, which means that we have to work together in writing the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links Rajiv_Gandhi. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Ramaswamy Venkataraman (born 4th December 1910) is an Indian political figure. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Feroze Gandhi (born 12 August 1912; died 8 September 1960) was an Indian politician and journalist of Parsi-Zoroastrian descent [1] He was the husband of Indira Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of India and daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian Prime Minister. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Rajiv Gandhi worked as a professional pilot for Indian Airlines before coming into politics. While at Cambridge, he met and subsequently married Italian-born Sonia Maino. He remained aloof from politics despite his mother being the Indian Prime Minister, and it was only following the death of his younger brother Sanjay Gandhi in 1980 that Rajiv was convinced to enter politics. Upon the assassination of his mother in 1984 after Operation Blue Star, Indian National Congress party leaders convinced him to become the new Prime Minister. It is a tradition in Congress that they always want a person from Nehru Gandhi family to lead them. Having the advantage of sympathy wave, Rajiv Gandhi led the Congress to a major election victory in 1984 soon after, amassing the largest majority in Parliament. He began dismantling the License Raj - government quotas, tariffs and permit regulations on economic activity - modernized the telecommunications industry, the education system, expanded science and technology initiatives and improved relations with the United States. He also was responsible for sending Indian troops for peace efforts in Sri Lanka, which soon ended in open conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The Bofors scandal broke his honest, corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 elections. Executive class cabin of an Indian Airbus A320 Indian Airlines Limited or Indian (Hindi: ) was Indias state owned primarily domestic airline, under the federal Union Ministry of Civil Aviation and based in New Delhi. ... Sonia Gandhi (Hindi: , IPA: ), born Sonia Antonia Maino on December 9, 1946, is an Italian-born Indian politician, the President of the Indian National Congress and the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. ... Sanjay Gandhi (December 14, 1946 –- June 23, 1980) was an Indian politician, the younger son of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and politician Feroze Gandhi. ... Operation Blue Star (June 3 to June 6, 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi at the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikhs. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... License raj refers to Indias planned economy where all aspects of the economy are controlled by the state and licenses were given to a select few. ... The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, is a militant Tamil nationalist organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan government since the 1970s in order to create a separate Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka... The Bofors Scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s; the then Prime Minister Indhira Gandhi and several others were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply Indias 155 mm field howitzer. ...


Rajiv Gandhi remained Congress President till the elections in 1991. He was assassinated while campaigning, by a female LTTE suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam. His Italian-born widow Sonia Gandhi became the leader of the Congress party in 1998, and led the party to victory in the 2004 elections. His son Rahul Gandhi is a member of parliament. The President of the All India Congress Committee, and therefore of the Congress Party as a whole, is known as the Congress President. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (?? - 1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Chennai. ... Rahul Gandhi (born June 19, 1970) is an Indian politician and member of the Parliament of India, representing the Amethi constituency. ...


He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1991. Bharat Ratna is Indias highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. ...

Contents

Early life

Rajiv Gandhi was born in India's most famous political family. His grandfather was the Indian independence leader Jawaharlal Nehru, who would become India's first Prime Minister after independence. He is not related to Mahatma Gandhi despite his name. The Gandhi surname was acquired by Indira Gandhi after marrying Feroze Gandhi. Rajiv and his younger brother Sanjay were raised in Allahabad and Delhi, but suffered from the separation of their mother, who lived with Nehru to care for him. His parents were reconciled in 1958 in Kashmir but his father, Feroze died from a heart attack in 1960. Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Education

Rajiv was educated at two highly exclusive private boarding schools for boys: at the Welham Boys' School and The Doon School, and he later attended university in the United Kingdom, at Imperial College London, part of the University of London, and at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, but he did not receive a degree.[citation needed] At Cambridge, he met and fell in love with an Italian student Sonia Maino, who was there to learn English. Maino's family opposed the match, but Maino came to India with Rajiv and they were married in 1968. Welham Boys School is a school in Dehradun, India. ... The Doon School is one of the most prestigious public schools and boarding schools in India. ... Affiliations Russell Group Association of MBAs IDEA League Association of Commonwealth Universities Golden Triangle Oak Ridge Associated Universities Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...


Gandhi began working for Indian Airlines as a professional pilot while his mother became Prime Minister in 1966. He exhibited no interest in politics and did not live regularly with his mother in Delhi at the Prime Minister's residence. In 1970, his wife, Sonia gave birth to Rahul, his first child, and in 1972, Priyanka, his second child and daughter. Even as Gandhi remained aloof in politics, his younger brother Sanjay became a close advisor to their mother. Executive class cabin of an Indian Airbus A320 Indian Airlines Limited or Indian (Hindi: ) was Indias state owned primarily domestic airline, under the federal Union Ministry of Civil Aviation and based in New Delhi. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Rahul Gandhi (born June 19, 1970) is an Indian politician and member of the Parliament of India, representing the Amethi constituency. ... Priyanka Gandhi-Vadra (born January 12, 1972), a member of the Nehru-Gandhi political family, is the daughter, granddaughter, and great-granddaughter of Indian Prime Ministers. ...


Entry into politics

It was following his younger brother's death in 1980 that Rajiv was pressured by Indian National Congress party politicians and his mother to enter politics. Rajiv and his wife were both opposed to the idea, and Rajiv even publicly stated that he would not contest for his brother's seat, but he finally accepted his mother's urging and announced his candidacy for Parliament [citation needed]. His entry was criticized by many in the press, public and opposition political parties, who saw the role of Nehru's dynasty intensifying in Indian politics [citation needed]. Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Elected for Sanjay's Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituency of Amethi in Uttar Pradesh state in February 1981, Rajiv became an important political advisor to his mother. It was widely perceived that Indira Gandhi was grooming Rajiv for the prime minister's job, and Rajiv soon became the president of the Youth Congress - the Congress party's youth wing. The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Amethi is a place in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, in the south-western part of Sultanpur. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Prime Minister

Rajiv was in West Bengal when Indira Gandhi was assassinated on October 31, 1984. Top Congress leaders, as well as President Zail Singh pressed Rajiv to become India's Prime Minister, within hours of his mother's assassination by two of her Sikh bodyguards. Some accuse him of not doing enough to stop the anti-Sikh riots which ensued, killing more than 3,000 Sikhs [1]. Commenting on the violence in national capital Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi said, "' When a giant tree falls, the earth below shakes" [2]; a statement for which he was widely criticised. Many Congress politicians were accused of orchestrating the violence [3]. Soon after assuming office, Rajiv asked President Zail Singh to dissolve Parliament and hold fresh elections, as Lokh Sabha completed its five year term. Rajiv Gandhi also officially became the President of the Congress party. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Giani Zail Singh (Punjabi: , May 5, 1916 - December 25, 1994) was the President of India (1982-1987), and the first Sikh to hold Indias highest public office and honour. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... When Big Tree Falls is n short story by acclaimed Malayalam author N. S. Madhavan, adapted into an award winning feature film Kaya Taran by director Sashi Kumar. ... Giani Zail Singh (Punjabi: , May 5, 1916 - December 25, 1994) was the President of India (1982-1987), and the first Sikh to hold Indias highest public office and honour. ...


Owing largely to the feelings of sympathy in wake of Indira's murder, the Congress party won a landslide victory - with largest majority in history of Indian Parliament[4], giving Rajiv absolute control of government. Rajiv Gandhi also benefited from his youth and a general perception of being Mr. Clean, or free of a background in corrupt politics [5]. Rajiv thus revived hopes and enthusiasm amongst the Indian public for the Congress. The Parliament of India is bicameral. ...


Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi began leading in a direction significantly different from Indira Gandhi's socialism. He improved bilateral relations with the United States - long strained owing to Indira's socialism and close friendship with the USSR - and expanded economic and scientific cooperation [citation needed]. He increased government support for science and technology and associated industries, and reduced import quotas, taxes and tariffs on technology-based industries, especially computers, airlines, defence and telecommunications. He introduced measures significantly reducing the License Raj - allowing businesses and individuals to purchase capital, consumer goods and import without red-tape and bureaucratic restrictions. In 1986, Rajiv announced a national education policy to modernize and expand higher education programs across India. Rajiv Gandhi was the founder of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya System in the year 1986. Rajiv Gandhi can be called the father of telecom revolution. His efforts created MTNL in 1986 and the public call offices, better known as PCOs, helped spread telephones in the rural areas. The work that he did then laid the foundation for a telecom boom in 1990s. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... License raj refers to Indias planned economy where all aspects of the economy are controlled by the state and licenses were given to a select few. ...


Rajiv authorized an extensive police and Army campaign to contain terrorism in Punjab. A state of martial law existed in the Punjab state, and civil liberties, commerce and tourism were greatly disrupted [citation needed]. There are many accusations of human rights violations by police officials as well as by the militants during this period. It is alleged that even as the situation in Punjab came under control, the Indian government was offering arms and training to the LTTE rebels fighting the Government of Sri Lanka. The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed by Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri Lankan President J.R.Jayewardene, in Colombo on July 29, 1987. The very next day, on July 30, 1987, Rajiv Gandhi was assaulted by a Sinhalese naval cadet named Vijayamunige Rohana de Silva, while receiving honor guard. Though the embarrassed Sri Lankan President J.R. Jayewardene initially attempted to pass off the bizarre assault as "Rajiv tripped a little and slightly lost his balance", Rajiv Gandhi while enroute to New Delhi asserted to J.N. Dixit who was in charge of arranging that disastrous visit, "What is all this nonsensical speculation. Of course, I was hit." Rajiv's government suffered a major setback when its efforts to arbitrate between the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE rebels backfired [citation needed]. , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan politician. ... Jyotindra Nath Dixit (January 8, 1936 – January 3, 2005) was an Indian diplomat and politician. ...


Bofors scandal

Rajiv with President R. Venkataraman and Tamil Nadu Chief minister M. G. Ramachandran at the unvieling of a statue of Tamil poet Subramania Barathi
Main article: Bofors scandal

Rajiv's finance minister, Vishwanath Pratap Singh uncovered compromising details about government and political corruption, to the consternation of Congress leaders. Transferred to the Defence ministry, Singh uncovered what became known as the Bofors scandal, involving tens of millions of dollars - concerned alleged payoffs by the Swedish Bofors arms company through an Italian businessman and Gandhi family associate, Ottavio Quattrocchi, in return for Indian contracts. Upon the uncovering of the scandal, Singh was conspicuously dismissed from office, and later from Congress membership. Rajiv Gandhi himself was later personally implicated in the scandal, when the investigation was continued by Narasimhan Ram and Chitra Subramaniam of The Hindu newspaper, shattering his image as an honest politician, however, he was cleared over this allegation in 2004 [6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1533x2237, 235 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1533x2237, 235 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ramaswamy Venkataraman (born 4 December 1910) was the President of India between 1987 and 1992. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran (Tamil: மருதூர் கோபால இராமச்சந்திரன், Malayalam:മരത്തൂര്‍ ഗോപാലന്‍ രാമചന്ദ്രന്‍) (January 17, 1917–December 24, 1987), popularly known as MGR எம்.ஜி.ஆர்., Puracthi Nadigar, Ponmana Chemmal, Makkal Thilakam and Puratchi Thalaivar (Tamil: Revolutionary Leader), was a longtime leading Tamil film actor and Chief Minister of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu from 1977 until his death. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Subramanya Bharathi 1882 - 1921 Subramanya Bharathi (Tamil: ) (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) was a Tamil poet from Tamil Nadu, India, freedom fighter and reformer. ... The Bofors Scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s; the then Prime Minister Indhira Gandhi and several others were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply Indias 155 mm field howitzer. ... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (Hindi: , born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... Bofors is an iron works, cannon maker, and defence industry located in Karlskoga, Sweden. ... Ottavio Quattrocchi is an Italian businessman accused of involvement in the Bofors Scandal, the 1980s bribery scandal involving the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors and prominent Indian politicians, which led to the defeat of the Congress Party in the elections 1989. ... Narasimhan Ram (born May 4, 1945), is an Indian journalist, who is Editor-in-chief of The Hindu since June 27, 2003. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ...


V. P. Singh's image as an exposer of government corruption made him very popular with the public [citation needed], and opposition parties united under his name to form the Janata Dal coalition. In the 1989 elections, the Congress suffered a major setback. With the support of Indian communists and the Bharatiya Janata Party, V. P. Singh and his Janata Dal formed a government. Rajiv Gandhi became the Leader of the Opposition, while remaining Congress president. While some believe that Rajiv and Congress leaders influenced the collapse of V. P. Singh's government in 1990 by promising support to Chandra Shekhar, a high-ranking leader in the Janata Dal, sufficient internal contradictions existed, within the ruling coalition, especially over the controversial reservation issue, to cause a fall of government. Rajiv's Congress offered outside support briefly to Chandra Sekhar, who became Prime Minister. But this support was withdrawn in 1991 and fresh elections were announced. Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger one of the major Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen led by V.P. Singh. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... Chandra Shekhar Singh (Hindi: ) (July 1, 1927 - July 8, 2007) was the eleventh Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


Sri Lanka policy

The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord signed was opposed by the then Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa and was forced to accept it due to pressure from then President Junius Richard Jayewardene. In January 1989 Premadasa was elected President and on a platform that promised that the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) leave within three months.[7]In the 1989 elections both the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and United National Party wanted the IPKF to withdraw and they got 95% of the vote. Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of the northern... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan politician. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. ... The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. ...


The police action was unpopular in India as well, especially in Tamil Nadu as India was fighting the LTTE Tamil separatists. It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Rajiv Gandhi refused to withdraw the IPKF, believing that the only way he could succeed in ending the civil war was to politically force Premadasa and militarily force the LTTE to accept the accord. Meanwhile in December 1989 Indian elections V.P.Singh became the Prime Minister and completed the pullout. The IPKF operation cost over 1100 Indian soldiers lives and cost over 2000 crores. Vishwanath Pratap Singh (Hindi: , born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


Shah Bano case

For more details, refer to Shah Bano case In 1985, Supreme court of India gave a judgement in favour of a Muslim divorcee Shah Banu that her husband should give alimony to her. Muslim fundamentalists in India treated it as an encroachment in Muslim Personal Law and protested against it. Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, agreed to their demands and cited the gesture as an example of "secularism". In 1986, the Congress (I) party, which had an absolute majority in Parliament at the time, passed an act that nullified the Supreme Court's judgment in the Shah Bano case. The Shah Bano case generated tremendous heat in India. It proved that fundamentalist minorities can exert pressure on government and judicial decisions. The mainstream media disapproved of the decision. The opposition reacted strongly against the Congress party's policies (which, according to BJP, reflect "Pseudo-secularism".) The Shah Bano case is infamous in India and has generated political controversy in the country; it is sometimes described as an example of appeasement of the vote bank for political gains. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The case has led to Muslim women receiving a large, one-time payment from their husbands during the period of iddat, instead of a maximum monthly payment of 500 Rs (around 10 US dollars per month) - an upper limit which has since been removed. Cases of women getting lump sum payments for lifetime maintenance are becoming common.


Assassination

The stone mosaic that stands at the exact location where Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur
The stone mosaic that stands at the exact location where Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur
Main article: Rajiv Gandhi assassination

Rajiv Gandhi's last public meeting was at Sriperumbudur on May 21, 1991, in a village approximately 30-miles from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where he was assassinated while campaigning for the Sriperumbudur Lok Sabha Congress candidate.[8] The assassination was carried out by the LTTE suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam also known as Gayatri and Dhanu. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2534 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1680 × 2534 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... The stone mosaic that stands at the exact location where Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, the ninth Prime Minister of India, took place in Sriperumbudur in Tamil Nadu, India on the 21st of May, 1991. ... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Thenmuli Rajaratnam (?? - 1991) was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Chennai. ...


At 10:10 p.m., the assassin Dhanu approached him in a public meeting and greeted the former Prime Minister. She then bent down to touch his feet (an expression of respect among Hindus) and detonated an 700 grams of RDX explosive laden belt tucked below her dress.[9] The former Prime Minister along with many others were killed in the explosion that followed. The assassination was caught on film through the lens of a local photographer, whose camera and film was found from the site. The cameraman himself also died in the blast but the camera remained intact. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... RDX redirects here. ...


The Rajiv Gandhi Memorial was built at the site recently and is one of the major tourist attractions to the small industrial town. The entrance A stone sculpture depicting Indias progress at the memorial The memorial has a huge lawn with tree lined pathways The blast site is surrounded by seven pilliars The path of Light traces Rajiv Gandhis final steps A stone mural marks the spot of his death A...

As per the Indian Supreme Court judgement, by Judge Thomas, the killing was carried out due to personal animosity of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) chief Prabhakaran towards Mr Rajiv Gandhi arising out of his sending the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka and the alleged IPKF atrocities against Tamils. The judgement further cites the death of Thileepan in a hunger strike and the suicide by 12 LTTE cadres in a vessel in Oct 1987. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 704 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 704 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The entrance A stone sculpture depicting Indias progress at the memorial The memorial has a huge lawn with tree lined pathways The blast site is surrounded by seven pilliars The path of Light traces Rajiv Gandhis final steps A stone mural marks the spot of his death A... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, is a militant Tamil nationalist organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan government since the 1970s in order to create a separate Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Thileepan also known as Lt. ...


In the Jain Commission report, various people and agencies are named as suspected of having been involved in the murder of Rajiv Gandhi. Among them, the cleric Chandraswami was suspected of involvement, including financing the assassination.[10][11] [12] The interim report of the Jain Commission created a storm when it accused Karunanidhi and the Tamils of a role in the assassination, leading to Congress withdrawing its support for the I. K. Gujral government and fresh elections in 1998. LTTE spokesman Anton Balasingham told the Indian television channel NDTV that the killing was a "great tragedy, a monumental historical tragedy which we deeply regret." [13][14] A memorial christened Veer Bhumi was constructed at his cremation spot. Nemi Chand Jain (born 1950), also known as Chandraswami, is an Indian tantrik. ... Inder Kumar Gujral (born 4 December 1919) was the twelfth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... NDTV (New Delhi Television Limited), founded in 1988, is Indias largest private television production house. ... Raj Ghat, Delhi Raj Ghat, a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi is a simple black marble platform that marks the spot of his cremation on 31 January 1948. ...


References

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4139802.stm
  2. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1504/15040190.htm
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4130962.stm
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/29/newsid_3314000/3314987.stm
  5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/29/newsid_3314000/3314987.stm
  6. ^ Rajiv Gandhi cleared over bribery
  7. ^ http://www.srilankatruth.com/PeaceTalks/LTTE-SLGTalks.php
  8. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/jan/11soni1.htm
  9. ^ http://www.india-today.com/itoday/01021999/rdx.html
  10. ^ http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_print.asp?id=266715
  11. ^ http://www.expressindia.com/ie/daily/19980711/19250694.html
  12. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/dec112004/i2.asp.
  13. ^ http://www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=70062
  14. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5122032.stm?

External links

  • http://www.pressbrief.in

Further reading

  • Sachi Sri Kantha; Pirabhakaran Phenomenon, Lively Comet Imprint,2005;641 pp (chapters 24 to 35, pp.207-352, cover in detail the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi)
  • "Working with Rajiv Gandhi" by R.D. Pradhan
Preceded by
Indira Gandhi
Prime Minister of India
1984–1989
Succeeded by
V P Singh
Preceded by
Narayan Dutt Tiwari
Minister for External Affairs of India
1987–1988
Succeeded by
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Persondata
NAME Gandhi, Rajiv Ratna
ALTERNATIVE NAMES गान्धी, राजीव
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime Minister of India
DATE OF BIRTH August 20, 1944
PLACE OF BIRTH Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
DATE OF DEATH May 21, 1991
PLACE OF DEATH Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rajiv Gandhi - MSN Encarta (518 words)
Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1991), sixth prime minister (1984-1989) of India, the third member of his family to attain that post.
Rajiv had only a few years of political apprenticeship before Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two Sikh members of her bodyguard in October 1984.
Gandhi ordered troops into northern Sri Lanka in 1987 to support that country's efforts to suppress Tamil separatists, and he stepped up army actions against Muslim separatists in Jammu and Kashmīr State.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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