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Encyclopedia > Rajendra Chola III
Rajendra Chola III


Chola territories c. 1246 CE
Reign 1246 C.E. - 1279 C.E.
Title Parakesari
Capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Queen Cholakulamadeviyar
Children Unknown
Predecessor Rajaraja Chola III
Successor Unknown
Father Rajaraja Chola III
Born Unknown
Died  ?1279 C.E.
List of Chola kings
Early Cholas
Ilamcetcenni Karikala Chola
Nedunkilli Nalankilli
Killivalavan Kopperuncholan
Kocengannan Perunarkilli
Interregnum - c 200-848 CE
Medieval Cholas
Vijayalaya Chola 848-871(?) CE
Aditya I 871-907 CE
Parantaka Chola I 907-950 CE
Gandaraditya 950-957 CE
Arinjaya Chola 956-957 CE
Sundara Chola 957-970 CE
Uttama Chola 970-985 CE
Rajaraja Chola I 985-1014 CE
Rajendra Chola I 1012-1044 CE
Rajadhiraja Chola 1018-1054 CE
Rajendra Chola II 1051-1063 CE
Virarajendra Chola 1063-1070 CE
Athirajendra Chola 1067-1070 CE
Chalukya Cholas
Kulothunga Chola I 1070-1120 CE
Vikrama Chola 1118-1135 CE
Kulothunga Chola II 1133-1150 CE
Rajaraja Chola II 1146-1163 CE
Rajadhiraja Chola II 1163-1178 CE
Kulothunga Chola III 1178-1218 CE
Rajaraja Chola III 1216-1256 CE
Rajendra Chola III 1246-1279 CE
Chola Society
Chola Government Chola Military
Chola Art Chola Literature
Poompuhar Urayur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram Thanjavur
Telugu Cholas
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Rajendra Chola III was the son of Rajaraja Chola III who came to the Chola throne in 1246 CE. Although his father Rajaraja III was still alive, Rajendra began to take effective control over the administration. Rajendra was a much abler king than his father and tried to stop the rapid decline the Chola kingdom was experiencing due to the incompetence of Rajaraja III. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: சோழர் குலம்; IPA pronunciation: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Ilamcetcenni was a Chola king during the Sangam age in South India. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... Kopperuncholan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Perunarkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Gandaraditya Chola succeeded his father Parantaka I and became the Chola king c. ... Arinjaya Chola succeeded Gandaraditya Chola c. ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Rajaraja Chola I ascended the Chola throne in July 985 C.E. Raja Raja the Great, as he is known in history reigned for 29 years, and conquered the whole of southern India and the Chola empire expanded as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-1054) was the king of the Cholas empire in southern India and the eldest son of king Rajendra Chola I. Although not supreme king untill his fathers death in 1044 he was associated in kingship since 1018 He maintained Cholas authority over most of Lanka, despite... Rajendra Chola II (1054 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajadhiraja Chola. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C.E. He was made his heir apparent and coregent in 1146 C.E and so the inscriptions of Rajaraja II count his reign from 1146 C.E. Rajarajas reign began to show signs... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ... Kulothunga Chola III ruled the Chola empire after Rajadhiraja Chola II. His long reign was marked by Kulothungas abilities to bring order in the besieged kingdom and by his successes in reversing the growing weakness. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... The Chola Government during the imperial period (850 – 1200) CE was marked for its uniqueness and innovativeness. ... Chola Military was one of the most well organised and effective fighting machines of the medieval times. ... Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... Chola Literature denotes the literature, mainly in the Tamil language created during the period of Chola reign in south India between the ninth and the thirteenth centuries CE. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most create epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Thanjavur, formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Many Telugu Chola kingdoms held sway over regions to the south of the Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century C.E. Some of them claimed descent from the legendary Karikala Chola (c 100 C.E.). It is not known much about these families or... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ...


In the end these efforts were in vain, mainly due to the cunning shift in policy of the Hoysalas, and the struggling kingdom could not withstand the vigour of the Pandyas and was eventually absorbed within the Pandyan kingdom. Rajendra III is thus the last Chola king of the once great Empire. The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...

Contents


Attempts at recovery

As the capable prince, Rajendra could not standby and watch the influence and prestige of the empire go down the drain and began to take active part in the official duties as soon as he was installed the heir apparent in 1246. Although Rajaraja III continued to rule in name for a few more years, he was effectively sidelined by Rajendra. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ...


By 1250 Rajendra began his attempts at regaining some of the lost prestige and started his programme of recovery. He attacked the Pandya country and gained some success against them. He had his opportunity when the great Pandya king Maravarman Sundara Pandya died and before Jatavarman Sundara Pandya became the Pandya king, the Pandya country was led by weak rulers. Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve...


Change in Hoysala attitude

As was in the reign of his father, Rajendra III's reign was also marked by the increasing influence of the Hoysalas in the Chola administration. The Cholas needed the protection of the Hoysalas against the aggression of the Pandya. However soon there was a marked change in the Hoysala attitude towards the Cholas. The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ...


When the Hoysala ruler Vira Somesvara noticed the growing leadership of Rajendra III and the apparent weakening of the Pandyas, the Hoysals lent their support to the Pandyas. The object of Hoysala diplomacy was plain. They wanted to keep the power balance even between the Pandyas and the Cholas and wanted to encourage both to look towards the Hoysalas for support ans security.


There were repeated incursions into the Chola territories by the armies of the Hoysala Vira Somesvara whenever there was signs of Chola revival. After repeated wars for a period of three years, Rajendra III gave up all claims in the Pandya country.


Telugu Chola alliance

The differences between Somesvara and Rajendra forced the latter to look for other allies. The Telugu Cholas of Nellore had attained considerable power. During Rajendra's reign they had even expanded their territories up to Kanchipuram. They were still friendly with the Cholas and were hostile towards the Hoysalas. Between 1238 and 1250 CE, the Cholas were able to hold themselves against the enemies who surrounded their country with the help of the Telugu Cholas. Many Telugu Chola kingdoms held sway over regions to the south of the Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century C.E. Some of them claimed descent from the legendary Karikala Chola (c 100 C.E.). It is not known much about these families or... Nellore District Map Nellore city is the headquarters of Nellore District, the southernmost coastal district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve...


Pandyan expansion

Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I ascended the Pandya throne in 1251 CE and in him the Pandyan kingdom found a leader with unmatched ability and valour. By 1258, he had the Cholas under his control once again and forced the Hoysalas to retreat to the Mysore plateau. When Hoysala Somesvara renewed the battle, he was defeated and killed in 1264 CE. Very soon he carried his arms up north to the Telugu Cholas. Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ...


End of the Chola dynasty

This sudden rising tide of Pandya power once more brought the Cholas and the Hoysalas together. They gave battle to the Cholas and in 1279 CE, they were both defeated by Pandya Maravarman Kulasekara, the successor of Sundra Pandya. For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


We here nothing regarding Rajendra's heirs or other Chola princes on the Chola throne after this date. The Chola kingdom had been completely enveloped by the Pandyan Empire. The Pandyan empire was at its height of power and prosperity and had taken the place once held by the Chola Empire.


References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1935). The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras (Reprinted 1984).
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).
  • South Indian Inscriptions - http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/

 
 

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