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Encyclopedia > Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
Prince Rainier III
Sovereign Prince of Monaco
Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
Reign 9 May 1949 - 6 April 2005
Born 31 May 1923
Monaco
Died 6 April 2005
Monaco
Buried Saint Nicholas Cathedral
Predecessor Louis II of Monaco
Successor Albert II of Monaco
Consort Grace Kelly
Issue Caroline, Princess of Hanover
Albert II of Monaco
Princess Stéphanie
Royal House Grimaldi
Father Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois
Mother Princess Charlotte of Monaco, Duchess of Valentinois

Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 19236 April 2005), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost fifty-six years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs of the 20th century. Though he was best known outside of Europe for having married American actress Grace Kelly, he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco's constitution and for expanding the principality's economy beyond its traditional gambling base. Gambling accounts for approximately three percent of the nation's annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent. Before his death, he was the second-longest reigning monarch with his 56 years of reign. Prince(ss) of Monaco is a title given to certain members of the princely family of Monaco. ... Image File history File links Rainier_3. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Nicholas Cathedral Saint Nicholas Cathedral, known also as Monaco Cathedral (French: Cathédrale de Monaco), is the cathedral in Monaco-Ville, Monaco, where many of the Grimaldis were buried, including the most beloved Princess, Grace Kelly and more recently, Rainier III. The cathedral was consecrated in 1875, and is... Louis II of Monaco (July 12, 1870 – May 9, 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from June 26, 1922 until May 9, 1949. ... Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ... Grace, Princess of Monaco, née Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. ... Caroline Louise Marguerite, The Princess of Hanover, Hereditary Princess of Monaco (Caroline Louise Marguerite Prinzessin von Hannover, Erbprinzessin von Monaco), formally styled Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover [1], (born 23 January 1957) is the eldest child of Prince Rainier III of Monaco and his wife, the former American... Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ... Princess Stéphanie of Monaco. ... The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa and of the Principality of Monaco. ... Prince Pierre Grimaldi, duc de Valentinois, comte de Polignac (born Count Pierre Marie Xavier Raphael Antoine Melchior de Polignac) (24 October 1895 – 10 November 1964), was son of Count Maxence de Polignac (1857-1936) and his Mexican-born Spanish wife, Susana de la Torre y Mier (1858-1913). ... Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois (Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, née Louvet) (30 September 1898 – 15 November 1977), styled HSH The Princess Charlotte, was the illegitimate daughter of Louis II, Prince of Monaco, and the mother of Prince Rainier III. From 1922 until 1944, she was the Hereditary Princess of... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sovereign Prince of Monaco is the sovereign monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Grace, Princess of Monaco, née Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. ... The Constitution of Monaco, first adopted in 1911 and heavily revised by Prince Rainier III on December 17, 1962, outlines three branches of government, including several administrative offices and a number of councils, who share advisory and legislative power with the Prince. ... Gambling or Gaming [1] has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...

Contents

Ancestry

Rainer III was of French, German, Scottish, English, Spanish, and Italian ancestry. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


Through his great-grandmother Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton, who was briefly Princess of Monaco, he was a direct descendent of two kings of Scotland, James II and James IV. His great great great-grandmother was Stéphanie de Beauharnais, the adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte and later the Margravine of Baden. Among his direct ancestors was William Beckford, the scandalous 18th century English collector, tastemaker, writer, and eccentric. Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton1 (December 11, 1850 – May 14, 1922) was the Lanarkshire-born, Scottish-German-French great-grandmother of Prince Rainier III of Monaco, the fashion designer Egon von Fürstenberg, and the socialite and actress Ira von Fürstenberg. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) - King of Scots from 1488 to 1513. ... Painting of Stéphanie de Beauharnais by François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (1806) Stéphanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais (August 28, 1789 – January 29, 1860) was the consort of Karl, Grand Duke of Baden. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Baden was a state in the southwest of Germany, primarily consisting of territory along the right bank of the Rhine opposite Alsace and the Palatinate. ... William Beckford William Thomas Beckford (October 1, 1760 – May 2, 1844) was an English novelist, art critic, travel writer and politician. ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Rainer was also a direct descendent of Prince William "the Silent" of Orange-Nassau, the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Empire and ancestor to the current Dutch Royal Family, Joan of Kent, the first Princess of Wales, King Charles IX of Sweden, King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway, and Claude, Duke of Guise. William I (William the Silent) William I of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent [Dutch: Willem de Zwijger], was born in the House of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1566[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385) is known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, and was the wife and cousin of Edward, the Black Prince. ... Camilla Mountbatten-Windsor, the current Princess of Wales. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Claude, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Claude of Lorraine (October 20, 1496, Château de Condé-sur-Moselle, – April 12, 1550, Château de Joinville) was the first Duke of Guise, from 1528 to his death. ...


Early life

Rainier was born in Monaco, the only son of Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois (né Count Pierre de Polignac) and his wife, Hereditary Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois. Born in Algeria, his mother was the only child of Prince Louis II and Marie Juliette Louvet; she was later legitimized through formal adoption and subsequently named heiress to the throne of Monaco. His father was a half-French, half-Spanish nobleman from Brittany who adopted his wife's surname, Grimaldi, upon marriage and was made a prince of Monaco by his father-in-law. Prince Pierre Grimaldi, duc de Valentinois, comte de Polignac (born Count Pierre Marie Xavier Raphael Antoine Melchior de Polignac) (24 October 1895 – 10 November 1964), was son of Count Maxence de Polignac (1857-1936) and his Mexican-born Spanish wife, Susana de la Torre y Mier (1858-1913). ... Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois (Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, née Louvet) (30 September 1898 – 15 November 1977), styled HSH The Princess Charlotte, was the illegitimate daughter of Louis II, Prince of Monaco, and the mother of Prince Rainier III. From 1922 until 1944, she was the Hereditary Princess of... Louis II of Monaco (July 12, 1870 – May 9, 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from June 26, 1922 until May 9, 1949. ... Marie Juliette Louvet (May 9, 1867 – September 24, 1930) was partner of Prince Louis II of Monaco and was the mother of his only child, Princess Charlotte of Monaco. ... Brittany has an expansive coastline Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) Historical province of Brittany région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ...


Rainier had one sibling, HSH Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy, an unpopular figure generally believed to be meddlesome enough regarding her children's place in the line of succession to have forced Princess Grace to demand that she leave the country. Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy (born Antoinette Louise Alberte Suzanne Grimaldi) (born 28 December 1920) is a member of the princely family of Monaco and the elder sister of the late Prince Rainier III. Her parents were Count Pierre de Polignac and Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois. ...


Rainier was first sent to study at Summerfield College in St Leonards-on-Sea, England, and later at Stowe, a prestigious English public school in Buckinghamshire. From there, he went to the Institut Le Rosey in Rolle and Gstaad, Switzerland, before continuing to the University of Montpellier in France, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree, and finally to the Institut d'études politiques de Paris in Paris. Although part of the Borough of Hastings, and an ancient parish in its own right, the area that became known as St Leonards-on-Sea was only laid out in the 19th Century in its present form by James Burton as a place of elegant houses designed for the well... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The south or garden front of Stowe from Jones Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen (1819). ... A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... Institut Le Rosey, established in 1880, is the oldest private boarding school in Switzerland and one of the most exclusive private education institutions in the world. ... Rolle is a small town in the Vaud canton of Switzerland, situated near Geneva, Switzerland. ... Gstaad Gstaad (pronounced ) (Population: 2500) is a village located () 1050 m above sea level, in the German-speaking section of the Bern canton in western Switzerland. ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... The Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut détudes politiques de Paris), often referred to as Sciences-Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Rainier's maternal grandfather, Prince Louis II, had been a general in the French army during World War I. During World War II, Rainier served as an artillery officer in the army. As a second lieutenant, he fought so courageously during the German counter-offensive in Alsace that he won the Croix de Guerre and Bronze Star and was given the rank of Chevalier in the Legion of Honor. Louis II of Monaco (July 12, 1870 – May 9, 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from June 26, 1922 until May 9, 1949. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


On 9 May 1949, Rainier became the Sovereign Prince of Monaco on the death of Prince Louis II, his mother having renounced her rights to the throne in his favor in 1944. May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Early romance

In the 1940s and 1950s, the prince openly lived with the French film star Gisèle Pascal (née Gisèle Tallone, 1923–2007). The couple reportedly separated when a doctor declared the actress to be infertile; in fact, she later married and had a child. This article is about motion pictures. ... Gisèle Pascal (17 September 1923 - 2 February 2007) was a French actress and a former lover of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ...


Marriage and family

After a year-long courtship described as containing "a good deal of rational appraisal on both sides" (Times of London, 7 April 2005, page 59), on 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married Oscar-winning American actress Grace Kelly (19291982). [1] Their children are: The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Grace, Princess of Monaco, née Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Prince Rainier has nine grandchildren: Caroline Louise Marguerite, The Princess of Hanover, Hereditary Princess of Monaco (Caroline Louise Marguerite Prinzessin von Hannover, Erbprinzessin von Monaco), formally styled Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover [1], (born 23 January 1957) is the eldest child of Prince Rainier III of Monaco and his wife, the former American... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An heir presumptive is one who is first in line to inherit a title or property, such as a monarchy, because there is not yet an heir apparent. ... Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princess Stéphanie of Monaco. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...

After his wife's death, he was romantically involved with his first cousin once removed, Princess Ira of Fürstenberg, a former movie actress turned jewelery designer who is also a Fiat heiress and the former sister-in-law of fashion designer Diane von Furstenberg. Like him, she is a great-grandchild of Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton, the ScottishGerman wife of Prince Albert I of Monaco, though by Lady Mary's second marriage. Andrea Albert Pierre Casiraghi (born June 8, 1984) is the eldest child of HSH Princess Caroline of Monaco and Hanover and her second husband, Stefano Casiraghi, an heir to an Italian oil fortune. ... Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi (born August 3, 1986, at the Princess Grace Clinic in Monte Carlo, Monaco) is the daughter of HSH Princess Caroline of Monaco (now HRH Princess of Hanover) and her father, Stefano Casiraghi, an Italian industrialist. ... Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi is the youngest child of HSH Princess Caroline of Monaco (now Princess of Hanover) and her second husband, Stefano Casiraghi. ... Stefano Casiraghi pictured with Princess Caroline in 1990 Stefano Casiraghi (August 9, 1960 – October 3, 1990) was a sportsman and Italian businessman. ... Princess Alexandra Charlotte Ulrike Maryam Virginia of Hanover (born July 20, 1999 in Vöcklabruck, Austria) styled Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Hanover, is the only child of Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover and his second wife Princess Caroline of Monaco. ... HRH The Prince of Hanover Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (German: Prinz von Hannover, in English also known as Ernest Augustus of Hanover), styled His Royal Highness The Prince of Hanover; born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the eldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of... Louis Robert Paul Ducruet was born in Monaco on 26 November 1992, the son of Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet, a former Palace bodyguard. ... Pauline Grace Maguy Ducruet is the daughter of HSH Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet and was born on 4 May 1994. ... Daniel Ducruet (born November 27, 1964) was the husband of Princess Stéphanie from 1995 until 1996. ... Jazmin Grace on cover of Paris Match Jazmin Grace Rotolo was born March 4, 1992 in Palm Springs, California, United States). ... Alexandre Eric Stéphane Coste (born 24 August 2003 in Paris) is the son of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, and his former lover, Nicole Coste, a native of Togo in west Africa. ... Nicole Valérie Coste, (born December 6, 1971) is a former Air France flight attendant from Togo. ... Camille Marie Kelly Gottlieb (born July 15, 1998) is the third child of HSH Princess Stéphanie of Monaco. ... Princess Ira zu Fürstenberg (born April 18, 1940) is a European socialite, actress, jewelry designer, and a former public relations manager for the fashion designer Valentino Garavani. ... Fiat Grande Punto Fiat Group, or Fiat S.p. ... Diane Prinzessin von Furstenberg also Princess Diane of Furstenberg (Prinzessin Diane von Furstenberg) , born Diane Simone Michelle Halfin on December 31, 1945 in Brussels, Belgium, is a fashion designer, businesswoman, and New York City socialite. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Albert I, Prince of Monaco (13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was the reigning Prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 – 26 June 1922). ...


Rainer III was also a football fan, having followed AS Monaco FC to the 2004 Champions League final. Monaco has for years hosted the European Super Cup. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Association Sportive de Monaco Football Club is a Monegasque football club, founded in 1919. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UEFA Champions League (which used to be named and is often called the European Cup) is an annual club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... The European Super Cup (UEFA Super Cup) is at stake in an annual football game between the reigning champions of the UEFA Cup(formally UEFA Cup Winners Cup) and the Champions League. ...


Actions as Prince

After ascending the throne, Prince Rainier III worked assiduously to recoup Monaco's lustre, which had become tarnished through neglect (especially financial) and scandal (his mother, Princess Charlotte, took a noted jewel thief known as René the Walking Stick as her lover). According to numerous obituaries, the prince was faced upon his ascension with a treasury that was practically empty. The holder of 55 percent of the nation's reserves, the Societé Monégasque de Banques et de Métaux Précieux, was bankrupt. The small nation's traditional gambling clientele, largely European aristocrats, found themselves with reduced funds after World War II. Other gambling centers had opened to compete with Monaco, many of them successfully. To compensate for this loss of income, Prince Rainier decided to promote Monaco as a tax haven, commercial center, real-estate development opportunity, and international tourist attraction. The early years of his reign saw the overweening involvement of the Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis, who took control of the Société des Bains de Mer and envisioned Monaco as solely a gambling resort. Prince Rainier regained control of the Société in 1964, effectively ensuring that his vision of Monaco would be implemented. Aristotelis Sokratis Onassis (in Greek, Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης) (January 15, 1900 – March 15, 1975) was the most famous Greek shipping magnate of the 20th century. ...


As Prince of Monaco, Rainier III also was responsible for the principality's new constitution in 1962 which significantly reduced the power of the sovereign. (He suspended the previous Constitution in 1959, saying that it "has hindered the administrative and political life of the country.") The changes ended autocratic rule, placing power with the prince and a National Council of eighteen elected members. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


At the time of his death, he was the world's second longest-serving Head of State, ranking just below King Rama IX of Thailand. During the last two or three years of his life, Rainier was in the custom of asking his valet each morning, "Has Rama survived the night? Or did I just move up in the ranks?" Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ; IPA: ; Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;  ) (born December 5, 1927), officially styled the Great (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX, is the current King of Thailand. ...


Illness and death

In the last three years of his life, Prince Rainier's health progressively declined. In early 2004 he was hospitalized for coronary problems. In October he was again in hospital with a lung infection. In November of that year, Prince Albert appeared on CNN's Larry King Live and told Larry King that his father was fine, though he was suffering from bronchitis. [2] On March 7, 2005, he was again hospitalized with a lung infection. Rainier was moved to the hospital's intensive care unit on 22 March. One day later, on 23 March, it was announced he was on a ventilator, suffering from renal and heart failure. On 26 March the palace reported that despite intensive ongoing efforts to improve the prince's health, he was continuing to deteriorate; however, the following day, he was reported to be conscious, his heart and kidney conditions having stabilized. His prognosis remained "very reserved". [3] Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Larry King Live is a nightly CNN interview program hosted by broadcaster and writer Larry King. ... Larry King hosts a nightly television program on CNN. Larry King (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger on November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American broadcaster. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ...


On 31 March 2005, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, Marquis des Baux, would take over the duties of his father as Regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. [4] March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Princes Palace (French: Palais Princier) is the official residence of the Sovereign Prince of Monaco and his family. ... Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ... Les Baux de Provence Les Baux de Provence is a small village in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in southern France, in the former province of Provence. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


On 1 April 2005, the Palace announced that Rainier's chances of recovery were "slim"; on 6 April it announced that Prince Rainier had died at 6:35 am local time at the age of 81. He was succeeded by his only son, who became Prince Albert II. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born March 14, 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. ...


He was buried on 15 April 2005, beside his wife, Princess Grace, at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Monaco. Built in the 19th century and also known as Monaco Cathedral, the neo-Romanesque structure is the resting place of 17 previous sovereign princes of Monaco and several of their wives; it is also where Prince Rainier and Princess Grace were married in 1956. April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grace, Princess of Monaco, née Grace Patricia Kelly (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. ... Saint Nicholas Cathedral Saint Nicholas Cathedral, known also as Monaco Cathedral (French: Cathédrale de Monaco), is the cathedral in Monaco-Ville, Monaco, where many of the Grimaldis were buried, including the most beloved Princess, Grace Kelly and more recently, Rainier III. The cathedral was consecrated in 1875, and is... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bexar County Courthouse, San Antonio, Texas. ...


Because his death occurred shortly after the death of Pope John Paul II, Rainier's passing was overshadowed in the media. Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Titles

Rainier's official shortened title was His Serene Highness Rainier III, Sovereign Prince of Monaco; this does not include the many other hereditary titles acquired by the Grimaldi family (see Prince of Monaco for a complete list). HSH is an acronym for His Serene Highness or Her Serene Highness. ... The Sovereign Prince of Monaco is the sovereign monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. ...


His other non-hereditary titles and awards included:

The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... The French Army (French: Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ... The Order of the Crown is a decoration issued by several countries. ... The Order of Grimaldi is an order established in Monaco on 18 November 1954. ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (in Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... The Order of the Redeemer (Greek Τάγμα του Σωτήρος) is the highest military award of Greece. ... Order of Léopold The Order of Léopold is the highest Order military order of Belgium and is named in honour of King Léopold I. The decoration was established in 1832. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The American Legion is an organization of veterans of the United States armed forces who served in wartime. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established on June 20, 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... The Orden de Manuel Amador Guerrero (Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero in English) is the highest honor Panama awards to civilians. ...

Philately

Rainier III created a postal museum in 1950 by using the collections of Albert I and Louis II. Since 1996 this museum has been called Musée des timbres et monnaies. Albert I, Prince of Monaco (13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was the reigning Prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 – 26 June 1922). ... Louis II of Monaco (July 12, 1870 – May 9, 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from June 26, 1922 until May 9, 1949. ...


Creator of the philatelic Club de Monte-Carlo in 1997, he organized with its members some exhibitions of rare and exceptional postage stamps and letters. This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ...


Throughout his reign, Rainier III surveyed all the process of creation of Monaco stamps. He liked stamps printed in intaglio and the art of engraver Czesław Słania. Intaglio (pronounced in-TAL-yo, IPA: ) is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. ... CzesÅ‚aw SÅ‚ania (pronounced CHESS-wav SWAN-ya) (22 October 1921–17 March 2005) was an accomplished postage stamp and banknote engraver. ...


External links

  • Official website of the funerals
  • Rainier's biography, from the Palace's official website
  • Cardinal Ratzinger sends condolences to Monaco on Prince Rainier's death
  • The Monte Carlo Royal Palace - 360 degree QTVR
  • fr:Rainier III de Monaco (timbre) : article of the French Wikipedia about Rainier III on stamps and as a philatelist.
  • Prominent People - Rainier III
House of Grimaldi
Born: 31 May 1923
Died: 6 April 2005
Preceded by
Louis II
Prince of Monaco
1949-2005
Succeeded by
Albert II
Preceded by
Charlotte
Duke of Valentinois
1977-2005
Hereditary Prince of Monaco
1944-1949
Vacant
Title next held by
Caroline
Marquis of Baux
1944-1949
Vacant
Title last held by
Albert II

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Europe's longest reigning monarch , Monaco's Prince Rainier, dies (448 words)
MONACOPrince Rainier III, whose marriage to American film star Grace Kelly brought elegance and glamour to one of Europe's oldest dynasties, died today at the hospital that was treating him for heart, kidney and breathing problems.
Prince Rainier, who assumed the throne on May 9, 1949, also endured the tragedy of his famous wife's death and relentless scandals —; including international criticism of the principality's tax laws — that plagued the final two decades of his rule.
Rainier was known as the "builder prince" for his many infrastructure projects, and he increased the size of his territory by 20 percent with land reclamation.
Monaco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1747 words)
Monaco is the most densely populated country in the world and the world's second-smallest independent country with a population of just 32,409 and an area of 1.95 square kilometers.
Monaco was re-founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa.
Prince Albert II of Monaco formally became the ruler of Monaco on July 12, 2005 in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at the cathedral where his father was buried three months before, after a reign of 56 years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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