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Encyclopedia > Rainbow trout
Rainbow Trout

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Genus: Oncorhynchus
Species: O. mykiss
Binomial name
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Walbaum, 1792
Subspecies

See text. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rainbow trout. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (2600 × 1800 pixel, file size: 5. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Julius Walbaum Johann Julius Walbaum (1724 – 1799), a native of Lübeck, Germany was a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. ...

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), also called the redband trout, is a species of salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America as well as much of the central, western, eastern, and especially the northern portions of the United States. The ocean going (anadromous) form (including those returning for spawning) are known as steelhead, or ocean trout (Australia). The species has been introduced for food or sport to at least 45 countries, and every continent except Antarctica. In some of these locations, such as Australia and South America, they have had very serious negative impacts on upland native fish species, either by eating them, outcompeting them or transmitting contagious diseases. In some cases, they have been responsible for the extinction of native fish populations.[citation needed] Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Small Text For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Cascadilla Creek, near Ithaca, New York in the United States, an example of an upland river habitat. ...


The species was originally named by Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792. In 1855, W. P. Gibbons found a population and named it Salmo iridia, however this name became deprecated once it was determined that this was a population of the already named species. More recently, DNA studies showed Rainbow Trout are genetically closer to Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus species) than Brown trout (Salmo trutta) or Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), so the genus was changed. Johann Julius Walbaum Johann Julius Walbaum (1724 – 1799), a native of Lübeck, Germany was a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. ... Onchorhynchus is the genus of all pacific coast salmonids. ... Binomial name Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 Morphs Salmo trutta morpha trutta Salmo trutta morpha fario Salmo trutta morpha lacustris The brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario and morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( morpha trutta) are fish of the same species distinguished chiefly by the fact that the brown trout... Binomial name Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic salmon, known scientifically as Salmo salar, is a species of fish in the family Salmonidae, which is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the Atlantic. ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

The Rainbow trout are unusual in that there are two forms which sometimes share the same habitat. The anadromous form called "Steelhead" migrate to the ocean, though they must return to fresh water to reproduce. Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ...


The freshwater form is called "Rainbow Trout", based on the broad red band along their sides. Steelhead are exactly the same species as Rainbow Trout. However, the difference is anadromy. After going to sea, their color changes, including loss of the red band. They stay at sea for 1-4 years, and return to fresh water to spawn. Rainbows stay in fresh water their whole lives. Many species of Salmon are anadromous and migrate long distances up rivers and streams to spawn. ...


It is a common misconception that "redband trout" and "rainbow trout" are the same fish. While closely related, Redbands are a different subspecies, somewhat intermediate between Rainbow and Cutthroat trout(Oncorhynchus clarki). Redbands have larger spots and darker colors than Rainbows and sometimes have Cutthroat-like slash marks, but not the Cutthroat's longer maxilla or hyoid (basibranchial) teeth. Redbands include anadromous Steelhead forms such as the "redsides" of the Columbia River system above the Columbia River Gorge and similar fish from the Fraser River system above Fraser Canyon and the most inland parts of the Sacramento River, Klamath River and others flowing into the Pacific. Binomial name Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836) Subspecies See text. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... The Columbia River Gorge is a spectacular canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Fraser River watershed The Fraser River is the longest river in British Columbia, Canada, rising near Mount Robson in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for 1400 km (870 mi), into the Pacific Ocean at the city of Vancouver. ... View of Fraser Canyon near Fountain, BC View of Fraser Canyon looking upstream from Fountain, B.C. The Fraser Canyon is a stretch of the Fraser River where it descends rapidly through narrow rock gorges in the Coast Mountains enroute from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia to the Fraser... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ... The Klamath River, approximately 250 mi (400 km) long, is a major river of the Pacific coast in southern Oregon and northern California in the United States. ...


Redbands are also found in Endorheic basins partly or wholly isolated since the Pleistocene including Goose Lake (Oregon-California) which only intermittently overflows into the Pit River; the Kern River which has lost its connection to the San Joaquin River; and other basins that have lost connections to the Columbia-Snake, Sacramento or Klamath systems since the Pleistocene. However basins isolated much longer tend to have endemic varieties of Cutthroat trout. The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Goose Lake is a large alkaline lake on the California-Oregon border. ... The Pit River is a tributary of the Sacramento River, approximately 110 mi (176 km) long, in northeastern California in the United States. ... The Kern River north of Kernville The Kern River going through the Kern Canyon, just northeast of Bakersfield A Kern River hydroelectric power plant in the Kern River, at the entrance to part of Sequoia National Forest. ... The San Joaquin River, 330 miles (530 km) long, is the second-longest river in California, United States. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ...


Steelheads also tend to be more silvery than the freshwater Rainbow form. Lake and stream dwellers tend to be lighter as well. River dwelling Rainbow Trout are generally darker and more brilliant. In all habitats, Rainbow's backs varies from blue or green to a yellow-green or brown. They always have dark spots on their heads, backs, bellies and across their dorsal fins and cadula fins, a famed attribute of true trout. (Rainbow Trout are considered to be the best example of true trout known at this time) Rainbows also have a red or pink streak that runs from the gill cover to the caudal fin, inspiring their name. Steelhead usually lack the pink stripe and have chrome-colored sides. Dorsal Fin of the Orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than air does. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Unlike other Pacific Salmon, Rainbow Trout and Steelhead do not necessarily die after spawning (they may spawn as many as four times). All Pacific Salmon, including male Steelhead, undergo changes when spawning or migrating to spawn. They change color, head and mouth shape. Steelhead populations and rainbow trout populations can and do interbreed at different levels. It is possible for the offspring of rainbow trout to become anadromous and for the offspring of steelhead to develop a resident life history. This article is about the fish. ...

Rainbow trout
Rainbow trout

Rainbows and Steelheads occur in well-oxygenated lakes and streams where the temperature normally doesn't rise above 12°C in summer. Behind the dorsal fin, rainbows have an adipose fin that is commonly clipped from fish raised in a hatchery. Clipping the adipose fin helps distinguish hatchery fish from wild fish when they are taken by anglers. This allows enforcement of regulations to protect wild rainbows. (*Mark Selective Fishing information from Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). ... Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ...


Rainbows range from 12 to 36 inches in length. Steelhead grow longer, ranging from 50 to 122 cm (20 to 48 inches) in length.[1] Steelhead range in weight from 2.5 kg to 10 kg (5.5 - 22 pounds). The world record Rainbow was a 43.6 pound caught from the shore at Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan in June 2007.[citation needed] Lake Diefenbaker is a man-made lake located in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked...


Most steelhead populations in Oregon, Washington, and California have been listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as either threatened or endangered species. This decision has been controversial, however, particularly among the community of anglers who fish for them, since the freshwater form is typically not considered to be endangered, while being technically the same species. However, Steelhead face different mortality pressures not faced by resident Rainbows. These mortality sources often involve their migration, ocean survival, and harvest.


Steelhead that spawn in Southern California streams (south of Point Conception) have been particularly decimated by habitat loss due to dams, confinement of streams in concrete channels, water pollution, groundwater pumping, Urban heat island effects, and other byproducts of urbanization. This sub-population is believed to have adapted to higher water temperatures and to natal streams not being suitable for spawning every year, depending on weather variability and other factors. It has been named "Southern Steelhead" and is the focus of major restoration efforts. For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ... Point Conception extends into the Pacific Ocean in southwestern Santa Barbara County, California. ... An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. ...


Lifecycle

Illustration of a rainbow trout
Illustration of a rainbow trout

Like salmon, steelhead are anadromous: they return to their original hatching ground to spawn. Different populations of steelheads migrate upriver at different times of the year. "Summer-run steelhead" migrate between May and October, before their reproductive organs are fully mature. They mature in freshwater before spawning in the spring. "Winter-run steelhead" mature fully in the ocean before migrating, between November and April, and spawn shortly after returning. Similar to Atlantic salmon, but unlike their Pacific Oncorhynchus kin, steelhead are iteroparous and may make several spawning trips between fresh and salt water. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2157x1350, 1484 KB) This image is a work of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2157x1350, 1484 KB) This image is a work of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ... Iteroparous Iteroparous organisms produce offspring in successive, eg. ...


Diet

Rainbow Trout have a varied diet. They are predators, eating any smaller fish from nearly the time they are born. Insects make up a large portion of the diet, along with crayfish and other crustaceans, some lake dwelling species may become planktonic feeders. Trout of all ages will eat nearly anything they can grab, in contrast with the legendary, selective nature the fish often gets. They are near the top of the food chain in most freshwater environments. However they are lower on the rung of other freshwater predators such as pike, muskie, lake trout, and chinook salmon. Rainbows will take fish up to and over 1/3 of their length and larger. However they are not quite as piscivorous or aggressive as the Brown Trout or Lake Trout, which is actually a char. The rule of thumb is that Rainbows consume more fish and fewer insects as they grow, but insects continue to be a part of the diet in most all populations.


As food

Rainbow trout and steelhead are popular in Western cuisine and are both wild caught and farmed for food. It has tender flesh and a mild, somewhat nutty flavor. However, farmed trout and those taken from certain lakes have a pronounced earthy flavor which many people find unappealing; many shoppers therefore make it a point to ascertain the source of the fish before buying. Buhl, Idaho, United States is the world's largest producer of farmed rainbow trout.[citation needed] Rainbow trout are raised in many countries throughout the world. Rainbow trout that are wild and have a diet of scuds (freshwater shrimp) and crawdads are the most appealing, with orange pink flesh. A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... The city of Buhl is located on the old Oregon Trail in the western half of Twin Falls County, Idaho. ...


Steelhead are farmed, primarily in British Columbia and in Chile. Steelheads' meat is pink that of a salmon, and is more flavorful than the light-colored meat of a Rainbow Trout..[2]


Fisheries

Rainbow Trout and the anadromous form, steelhead, are both highly desired sport fish. There are some tribal commercial fisheries for steelhead in the Puget Sound, the Washington Coast and in the Columbia River. Most rainbow trout and steelhead harvest in the United States is supported by hatchery production. A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ...


The rainbow trout is also especially susceptible to enteric redmouth disease caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. There has been considerable research conducted on redmouth disease, as its implications for rainbow trout farmers are significant. The disease does not affect humans.[3] Enteric redmouth disease, or simply redmouth disease is a bacterial infection of freshwater and marine fish caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. ...


Subspecies

A few populations are recognized as subspecies:

Trinomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Synonyms Oncorhynchus clarki irideus Salmo gairdneri beardsleei Beardslee trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus, formerly Salmo gairdneri beardsleei) are a subspecies of Rainbow trout endemic to Lake Crescent in Washington. ... Lake Crescent is a lake located in Clallam County, Washington. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Trinomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836) Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii (Girard, 1859) Redband trout is a synonym for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but is also used more narrowly for two subspecies with well-defined geographical distributions in the United States: the Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii, found... Trinomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836) Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii (Girard, 1859) Redband trout is a synonym for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but is also used more narrowly for two subspecies with well-defined geographical distributions in the United States: the Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii, found... Sir John Richardson (1787 - 1865) was a Scottish naval surgeon, naturalist and arctic explorer. ... Johann Julius Walbaum Johann Julius Walbaum (1724 – 1799), a native of Lübeck, Germany was a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. ... Trinomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836) Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii (Girard, 1859) Redband trout is a synonym for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but is also used more narrowly for two subspecies with well-defined geographical distributions in the United States: the Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii, found... Trinomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836) Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii (Girard, 1859) Redband trout is a synonym for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but is also used more narrowly for two subspecies with well-defined geographical distributions in the United States: the Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii, found...

pictures

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Angling. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus aguabonita (Jordan, 1892) The pink trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita), is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae) of order Salmoniformes. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Trout worms are plastic fishing baits, made with many colors such as orange, red, chartreuse and many others. ...

References

Scott and Crossman. 1985. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Page 189. ISBN 0-660-10239-0 FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Rainbow trout

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The presence of trout is, and has been for many years, used as a measure of water and habitat quality by DEC when making decisions regarding permitted land or water use.
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