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Encyclopedia > Rain gauge
Standard Rain Gauge
Standard Rain Gauge
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder
Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart
Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart

A rain gauge (also known as an udometer or a pluviometer[fluviograph] or a cup) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed to solid precipitation that is measured by a snow gauge) over a set period of time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 674 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 674 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 709 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 709 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 656 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 656 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Hydrology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water on, in, and above the earth. ... Snow Gauge A snow gauge is a meteorological instrument used to record the depth of snowfall at a specific location. ...


Most rain gauges generally measure the precipitation in millimeters. The level of rainfall is sometimes reported as inches or centimeters. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders, weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauges, and simple buried pit collectors. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages for collecting rain data. right|thumb|100px|Graduated cylinder. ...


Rain gauges have their limitations. Attempting to collect rain data in a hurricane can be nearly impossible and unreliable (even if the equipment survives) due to wind extremes. Also, rain gauges only indicate rainfall in a localized area. One example of this is in Seattle: the official weather station for the city is at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, the driest part of the city, which means that actual annual rainfall for downtown Seattle is around 254 mm (10 in) greater than official records indicate.[citation needed] For virtually any gauge, drops will stick to the sides or funnel of the collecting device, such that amounts are very slightly underestimated, and those of .01 inches or .02 mm may be recorded as a trace. This article is about weather phenomena. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (IATA: SEA, ICAO: KSEA, FAA LID: SEA), also known as Sea-Tac Airport, is located in SeaTac, Washington, United States at the intersections of Washington State Route 518, Washington State Route 99 and Washington State Route 509. ...


Another problem encountered is when the temperature is close to or below freezing. Rain may fall on the funnel and freeze or snow may collect in the gauge and not permit any subsequent rain to pass through.


Rain gauge amounts are read either manually or by AWS (Automatic Weather Station). The frequency of readings will depend on the requirements of the collection agency. Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data (and other types of weather) for sparsely populated areas. An AWS in Antarctica An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. ...


In most cases the precipitation is not retained, however some stations do submit rainfall (and snowfall) for testing, which is done to obtain levels of pollutants.


Rain gauges, like most meteorological instruments, should be placed far enough away from structures and trees to ensure that any effects caused are minimised.

Contents

History

The first known records of rainfalls were kept by the Ancient Greeks about 500 B.C. This was followed 100 years later by people in India using bowls to record the rainfall. The readings from these were correlated against expected growth, and used as a basis for land taxes. In the Arthashastra, used for example in Magadha, precise standards were set as to grain production. Each of the state storehouses were equipped with a standardised rain gauge to classify land for taxation purposes.[1] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...


Some sources state that the Cheugugi of Korea was the world's first gauge, while other sources say that Jang Yeong Sil developed or refined an existing gauge.[2][3][4][5][6][7] This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


In 1662 AD, Christopher Wren created the first tipping-bucket rain gauge in Britain.[6] Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ...


Standard rain gauge

The standard rain gauge, developed around the start of the 20th century, consists of a funnel attached to a graduated cylinder that fits into a larger container. If the water overflows from the graduated cylinder the outside container will catch it. So when it is measured, the cylinder will be measured and then the excess will be put in another cylinder and measured. In most cases the cylinder is marked in mm and in the picture above will measure up to 25 mm (0.98 in) of rainfall. Each horizontal line on the cylinder is 0.2 mm (0.007 in). The larger container collects any rainfall amounts over 25 mm that flows from a small hole near the top of the cylinder. A metal pipe is attached to the container and can be adjusted to ensure the rain gauge is level. This pipe then fits over a metal rod that has been placed in the ground.


Weighing precipitation gauge

A weighing-type precipitation gauge consists of a storage bin, which is weighed to record the mass. Certain models measure the mass using a pen on a rotating drum, or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantages of this type of gauge over tipping buckets are that it does not underestimate intense rain, and it can measure other forms of precipitation, including rain, hail and snow. These gauges are, however, more expensive and require more maintenance than tipping bucket gauges. A data logger (sometimes spelt Datalogger) is an electronic instrument (or specialised computing device in some cases) that records digital, analogue, frequency or smart protocol based measurements over time. ...


The weighing-type recording gauge also contains a device to measure the quantity of chemicals contained in the location's atmosphere. This is extremely helpful for scientists studying the effects of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere and their effects on the levels of the acid rain.


Tipping bucket rain gauge

The interior of a tipping bucket rain gauge
The interior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a large copper cylinder set into the ground. At the top of the cylinder is a funnel that collects and channels the precipitation. The precipitation falls onto one of two small buckets or levers which are balanced in same manner as a scale (or child's seesaw). After an amount of precipitation equal to 0.2 mm (0.007 in) falls the lever tips and an electrical signal is sent to the recorder. The recorder consists of a pen mounted on an arm attached to a geared wheel that moves once with each signal sent from the collector. When the wheel turns the pen arm moves either up or down leaving a trace on the graph and at the same time making a loud click. Each jump of the arm is sometimes referred to as a 'click' in reference to the noise. The chart is measured in 10 minute periods (vertical lines) and 0.4 mm (0.015 in) (horizontal lines) and rotates once every 24 hours and is powered by a clockwork motor that must be manually wound. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 700 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 700 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Modern seesaws have springs for safer play. ...

The exterior of a tipping bucket rain gauge
The exterior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge is not as accurate as the standard rain gauge because the rainfall may stop before the lever has tipped. When the next period of rain begins it may take no more than one or two drops to tip the lever. This would then indicate that 0.2 mm (0.007 in) has fallen when in fact only a minute amount has. The advantage of the tipping bucket rain gauge is that the character of the rain (light, medium or heavy) may be easily obtained. Rainfall character is decided by the total amount of rain that has fallen in a set period (usually 1 hour) and by counting the number of 'clicks' in a 10 minute period the observer can decide the character of the rain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 728 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 728 KB)Author: CambridgeBayWeather. ...


Modern tipping rain gauges consist of a plastic collector balanced over a pivot. When it tips, it actuates a switch (such as a reed switch) which is then electronically recorded or transmitted to a remote collection station. It has been suggested that Reed relay be merged into this article or section. ...


Note that tipping gauges can incorporate weighing gauges for the best of both. In these, a strain gauge is fixed to the collection bucket so that the exact rainfall can be read at any moment. Each time the collector tips, the strain gauge (weight sensor) is re-zeroed to null out any drift.


Optical rain gauge

These have a row of collection funnels. In an enclosed space below each is a laser diode and a phototransistor detector. When enough water is collected to make a single drop, it drips from the bottom, falling into the laser beam path. The sensor is set at right angles to the laser so that enough light is scattered to be detected as a sudden flash of light. The flashes from these photodetectors are then read and transmitted or recorded. A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Snow Gauge A snow gauge is a meteorological instrument used to record the depth of snowfall at a specific location. ... A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling precipitation. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

References

  1. ^ The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India in Historical Outline; Kosambi, 1982 ISBN 978-0706913996
  2. ^ http://bueb125.com.ne.kr/san311.htm
  3. ^ p. 97 Baek Seokgi. (1987). Woongjin Wi-in Jeon-gi #11 Jang Yeong-sil. Woongjin Publishing.
  4. ^ Education About Asia, Vol. 6, #2, Fall, 2001.
  5. ^ Friendly Korea brief on Korean history
  6. ^ a b Weathershack history on rain gauge
  7. ^ About.com Inventors

External links

A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 2000 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A ceiling balloon cabinet A fully inflated ceiling balloon Diagram of a filler stand Regulator valve and pressure guages attached to helium cylinder A ceiling balloon is used by meteorologists to determine the height of the base of clouds above ground level during daylight hours. ... Ceiling projector exterior Interior of a ceiling projector Alidade for use with a ceiling projector The ceiling projector or cloud searchlight is used to measure the height of the base of clouds (called the ceiling) above the ground. ... Laser Ceilometer A ceilometer is a device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. ... Dark adaptor goggles The Dark adaptor goggles are one of the lesser known tools in the field of meteorology. ... A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling precipitation. ... Field mill is a specialized instrument used for measuring the strength of electrical fields in the atmosphere near thunderstrom clouds. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ... Standard Ice Accretion Indicator (upside down) The Ice Accretion Indicator is an L-shaped piece of aluminium 38 cm (14. ... A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere. ... Lightning detector at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. ... A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid. ... Nephoscope is instrument for measuring the altitude, direction, and velocity of movement of clouds. ... A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used to measure broadband solar irradiance on a planar surface. ... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Snow Gauge A snow gauge is a meteorological instrument used to record the depth of snowfall at a specific location. ... SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) - meteorological instrument which priciple of operation is based on sound waves scattering by atmosheric turbulence. ... A solarimeter is a pyranometer used to measure combined direct and diffuse solar radiation. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Exterior of a Stevenson screen Interior of a Stevenson screen A Stevenson screen or Instrument shelter is a meteorological screen to shield instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them. ... Sunshine Recorders are used to indicate the amount of sunshine at a given location. ... A thermograph is a recording thermometer. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA) Environment Canada King City (CWKR) weather radar station. ... Weather vane Weather cock Aerovane A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... A windsock is a large, conical, open-ended tube designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed. ... A wind profiler is a piece of weather observing equipment that uses sound waves to detect the wind speed and direction at various elevations above the ground. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rain Gauge (1044 words)
The rain gauge measures the amount of liquid precipitation that falls.
Time: 45 minutes before a rain event is predicted and 45 minutes after the end of a rain event where the gauge has been used to collect the entire rainfall.
The rain gauge measures the amount of rain (or snow as liquid) that falls to the earth as part of the water cycle.
TVA: Rain Gauge Data (228 words)
TVA uses self-emptying rain gauges that funnel precipitation into a bucket that tips when a certain amount of rainfall is collected.
The gauge records the number of tips and transmits information to TVA by satellite hourly or every three hours, depending on the gauge.
TVA also receives rainfall data from 58 gauges on the Cumberland River system that are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and 11 gauges in watersheds throughout the Valley that are operated by the U.S. Geological Survey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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