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Encyclopedia > Rail transport
French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways.
French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways.
Magic lantern image of Lahore Railway Station, Lahore circa 1895

Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroads. Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates the international trading and economic growth in most countries. Sid Meiers Railroads! is a personal computer game developed by Sid Meier that was released in October 2006 and is the sequel to Railroad Tycoon 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 522 pixels Full resolution (1055 × 689 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rail transport ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 522 pixels Full resolution (1055 × 689 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rail transport ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1015 KB) Railway Lines in the UK I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1015 KB) Railway Lines in the UK I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Rail tracks. ... Image:Stanhope, County Durham dot. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... Image File history File links Railwayyard. ... Image File history File links Railwayyard. ... Chicago and North Western Railways Proviso Yard in Chicago, Illinois, December 1942. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... Image File history File links Lahore_1895. ... Image File history File links Lahore_1895. ... The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by the British colonists. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... In commerce, a product is a good economics and accounting good or service which can be bought and sold. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Trade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Trade centers on the exchange of goods and/or services. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


A typical railway/railroad track consists of two parallel rails, normally made of steel, secured to cross-beams, termed sleepers (U.K.) or 'ties' (U.S.). The sleepers maintain a constant distance between the two rails; a measurement known as the 'gauge' of the track. To maintain the alignment of the track it is either laid on a bed of ballast or else secured to a solid concrete foundation. The whole is referred to as permanent way (UK usage) or right-of-way (North American usage). Rail tracks. ... It has been suggested that Vignoles rail be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... Concrete sleepers laid on Ballast Track ballast, consisting of gravel, cinders or other aggregate, forms the trackbed upon which railway sleepers are laid. ... This article is about the construction material. ... The permanent way refers to the rails and sleepers of a railway line. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Railway rolling stock, which is fitted with metal wheels, moves with low frictional resistance when compared to road vehicles. On the other hand, locomotives and powered cars normally rely on the point of contact of the wheel with the rail for traction and adhesion (the part of the transmitted axle load that makes the wheel "adhere" to the smooth rail). While this is usually sufficient under normal dry rail conditions, adhesion can be reduced or even lost through the presence of unwanted material on the rail surface, such as moisture, grease, ice or dead leaves. Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ... Great Western Railway No. ... A power car is a railroad vehicle that is closely related to the locomotive. ...

Contents

General

A railway ticket issued in the United Kingdom.
A railway ticket issued in the United Kingdom.

Rail transport is an energy-efficient and capital-intensive means of mechanised land transport and is a component of logistics. Along with various engineered components, rails constitute a large part of the permanent way. They provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction. As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 125 tons of freight on two four-wheel bogies/trucks (100 tons in UK). The contact area between each wheel and the rail is tiny, a strip no more than a few millimetres wide, which minimizes friction. In addition, the track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle / wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way. This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tyres and the road. Trains also have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which cuts down on forward air resistance and thus energy usage, although this does not necessarily reduce the effects of side winds. In all, under the right circumstances, a train needs 50-70 percent less energy to transport a given tonnage of freight (or given number of passengers) than does road transport. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ... Capital intensity is the term in economics for the amount of fixed or real capital present in relation to other factors of production, especially labor. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ...


Due to these various benefits, rail transport is a major form of public transport in many countries. In Asia, for example, many millions use trains as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan. It is also widespread in European countries. By comparison, intercity rail transport in the United States is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor, although a number of major U.S. cities have heavily-used, local rail-based passenger transport systems or light rail or commuter rail operations.[1] Mass transit redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ...


The vehicles travelling on the rails are arranged in a linked series of individually-powered or unpowered vehicles called a train, which can include a locomotive if the cars are not powered. A locomotive (or 'engine') is a powered vehicle used to haul a train of unpowered vehicles; calling a locomotive a "train" is a common popular misnomer. A string of unpowered vehicles without the locomotive is also termed a train; in the U.S.A., individual unpowered vehicles are known as cars (a generic term), and are divided according to their function: for a passenger-carrying vehicle, the term carriage (or coach) is used, while a freight-carrying vehicle is known as a freight car; in Britain, a freight car is called a wagon (or a truck). An individually-powered passenger vehicle is known as a railcar or a power car; when one or more as these are coupled to one or more unpowered trailer cars as an inseparable unit, this is called a railcar set; several coupled sets make up a multiple unit. Collectively, rail vehicles of all types are known as rolling stock. For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... An interior view of a modern Finnish bilevel intercity coach. ... This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ...

An intercity passenger train (left) and freight train (right) in Great Britain.
An intercity passenger train (left) and freight train (right) in Great Britain.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1100x622, 268 KB)A Virgin Trains Pendolino and an EWS freight train pass each other on the West Coast Main Line near Shilton in Warwickshire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1100x622, 268 KB)A Virgin Trains Pendolino and an EWS freight train pass each other on the West Coast Main Line near Shilton in Warwickshire, England. ...

History

Main articles: History of rail transport and Heritage railway
See also Timeline of railway history

The earliest evidence of a railway found thus far was the 6 kilometers (4 mi) Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece during the 6th century BC. Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD. The first horse-drawn wagonways also appeared in ancient Greece, with others to be found on Malta and various parts of the Roman Empire, using cut-stone tracks. Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... This is a timeline of rail transport history. ... The Diolkos – from the Greek dia (across) and olkos(train) – was an artificial trackway, resembling a modern portage railway, constructed in ancient times to enable boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth, a neck of land 4 miles wide at its narrowest, which separated the Gulf of... // Wagonways are the horses, equipment, and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Railways began reappearing in Europe after a hiatus following the collapse of the Roman Empire from around 1550, usually operating with wooden tracks.[2] The first railways in Great Britain (also known as wagonways) were constructed in the early 17th century, mainly for transporting coal from mines to canal wharfs where it could be transferred to a boat for onward shipment. The earliest recorded examples are the Wollaton Wagonway in Nottinghamshire and the Bourtreehill - Broomlands Wagonway in Irvine, Ayrshire. Other examples can be found in Broseley in Shropshire, where wooden rails and flanged wheels were utilised, as on a modern railway. However, the rails were prone to wear out under the pressure, and had to be replaced regularly. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Wollaton Wagonway (or Waggonway), built between October 1603 and 1604 in the East Midlands of England by Huntingdon Beaumont in partnership with Sir Percival Willoughby, is currently credited as the worlds first overland wagonway and is therefore regarded as a significant step in the development of railways. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... The Bourtreehill housing scheme forms part of the Irvine New Town in North Ayrshire, Scotland. ... There is sadly little to be known of this odd little district in North Ayrshire. ... Irvine is a coastal new town in Ayrshire, Scotland, administered by North Ayrshire council. ... , Broseley is a small town in Shropshire, England with a population of 4,912 (2001 census). ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ...


In 1768, the Coalbrookdale Iron Works laid cast iron plates on top of the wooden rails, providing a more durable load-bearing surface. From the late 18th century, iron rails began to appear, with the British civil engineer William Jessop designing smooth iron edge rails, which were to be used in conjunction with flanged iron wheels. Jessop used this innovation on a route between Loughborough and Nanpantan, Leicestershire in 1789. In 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London, arguably the world's first horse-drawn public railway.[3] Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... William Jessop (23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English civil engineer, particularly famed for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... // Wagonways are the horses, equipment, and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways. ... Loughboroughs carillon Loughborough parish church The Brush engineering works Loughborough University Loughborough (pronounced locally as either , LUFF-burra or , LUFF-bruh, and more widely as [ˈlʌfˌb(ə)ɹə]) is a town in Leicestershire, central England with a population of 57,600 as of 2004. ... Nanpantan is a settlement in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, England. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... The Surrey Iron Railway (SIR) linked Wandsworth in south London and Croydon in Surrey via Mitcham. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The first locomotive to haul a train of wagons on rails was designed by Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and was demonstrated in 1804 on a plateway at Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales.[4] Although the locomotive successfully hauled the train, the rail design was not a success, partly because its weight broke a number of the brittle cast-iron plates. Despite this setback, another area of South Wales pioneered rail operations, when, in 1806, a horse-drawn railway was built between Swansea and Mumbles: the Swansea-Mumbles railway started carrying fare-paying passengers in 1807 – the first in the world to do so.[5] One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick (April 13, 1771 – April 22, 1833) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... A reconstructed section of flangeway track A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or wagonway that started to appear in the century prior to 1830. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Mumbles village, Wales Mumbles (otherwise The Mumbles – Welsh Y Mwmbwls) is an extremely large village and adjacent headland stretching into Swansea Bay. ...

Density of the railway net in Europe 1896.
Density of the railway net in Europe 1896.

In 1811, John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical railway locomotive.[6] He patented a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive (patent no. 3431), and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds. The locomotive (The Salamanca) was built by Matthew Murray of Fenton, Murray and Wood.[7] The Middleton Railway was the first railway to successfully use steam locomotives on a commercial basis. It was also the first railway in Great Britain to be built under the terms laid out in an Act of Parliament. Blenkinsop's engine had double-acting cylinders and, unlike the Trevithick pattern, no flywheel. Due to previous experience with broken rails, the locomotive was made very light and this brought concerns about insufficient adhesion, so instead of driving the wheels directly, the cylinders drove a cogwheel through spur gears, the cogwheel providing traction by engaging with a rack cast into the side of the rail. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1244x1032, 348 KB) The density of the railway net in Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1244x1032, 348 KB) The density of the railway net in Europe. ... John Blenkinsop (1783-1831) was a British mining engineer and an inventor in the area of steam locomotives, who designed the first practical railway locomotive. ... Rack railway track using Von Roll system rack. ... The Salamanca was the first commercially successful steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge railed Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds. ... The Middleton Steam Railway is the worlds oldest working railway. ...


In Scotland, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway was the first railway constructed, and was authorised by Act of Parliament in 1808.[8][9][10] The civil engineer leading the project was William Jessop, and its 1811 construction meant that it was the first railway in Scotland to utilise a steam locomotive, while it was the only line in Scotland for 14 years.[11] Its representation appeared in the Coat of Arms of the Burgh of Troon.[11] The line was intended to carry coal for the Duke of Portland; and ran services between Kilmarnock and Troon Harbour.[8][9][10] The line began life as a 9.5 mile (16 km), double track 4 ft 0 in (1,219 mm) gauge, horse-drawn waggonway. It was built using cast iron plate rails with an inner flange. A George Stephenson-built locomotive, his second one from Killingworth colliery, was tried on the main line in 1817, but the weight of the engine broke the cast iron plate rails. It worked better when wooden rails were used, and the locomotive remained in use until 1848. This article is about the country. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... William Jessop (23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English civil engineer, particularly famed for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... , Troon is a town in South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland (6 June 1768–27 March 1854). ... For the town in Virginia, USA, see Kilmarnock, Virginia. ... Troon (Harbour) railway station was a railway station serving the town of Troon, South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ...

Blücher, an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George Stephenson.
Blücher, an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George Stephenson.

The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in northern England in 1825[12] to be followed five years later by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway,[13] considered to be the world's first "Inter City" line. The rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) was used for the early wagonways, and had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway. The 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) width became known as the international "standard gauge", used by about 60 percent of the world's railways. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, on the other hand, proved the viability of rail transport when, after organising the Rainhill Trials of 1829, Stephenson's Rocket successfully hauled a load of 13 tons at an average speed of 12 miles per hour. The company took the step of working its trains from its opening entirely by steam traction. Railways then soon spread throughout the United Kingdom and the world, and became the dominant means of land transport for nearly a century, until the invention of aircraft and automobiles, which prompted a gradual decline in railways. Image File history File links Blucher_engine. ... Image File history File links Blucher_engine. ... A 19th Century engraving of the Blucher This article is about the locomotive Blücher. See also Blücher Blücher was an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George Stephenson for Killingworth Colliery. ... Great Western Railway No. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway by John Dobbin, circa 1825. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). ... A contemporary drawing of Rocket Rocket as preserved in the Science Museum, London. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...


The first railroad in the United States may have been a gravity railroad in Lewiston, New York in 1764. The 1810 Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was intended as the first permanent railroad,[14] and the 1826 Granite Railway in Massachusetts was the first commercial railroad to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier. The Baltimore and Ohio, opened in 1830, was the first to evolve into a major system. In 1867, the first elevated railroad was built in New York. In 1869, the symbolically important transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States with the driving of a golden spike at Promontory, Utah.[15] The development of the railroad in the United States helped reduce transportation time and cost, which allowed migration towards the west. Railroads increased the accessibility of goods to consumers, thus allowing individuals and capital to flow westward. A gravity railroad is a railroad on a steep slope, usually serving a mine at the top. ... Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, USA. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. ... A horse drawn railroad that operated between 1810 and 1828 in what is now Nether Providence Township, Pennsylvania -- it was replaced by a canal, remnants of which are still visible. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The incline section of the Granite Railway, 1934. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A common carrier is an organization that transports persons or goods, and offers its services to the general public. ... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad or B&O was a 19th century railroad which operated in the east coast of the United States and was the first railroad to offer commercial transportation of both people and freight. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... Promontory is a location in Box Elder County, Utah, centered approximately at 41°3707N, 112°3251W, with an elevation of 1494 meters (4902 feet) above sea level. ...

Further information: Oldest railroads in North America

The South American experience regarding railways was first achieved in 1854, when a line was laid between the Chilean towns of Caldera and Copiapo. However, the first concerted trans-Andine attempt between Argentina and Chile did not occur until the 1870s, due to the financial risks involved in such a project. It was not until 1887 that the Argentinians began to construct their part of the enterprise, with the Chileans beginning construction in 1889, though by 1893, work had ceased due to financial constraints. In 1896, the Transandine Railway Company was created in London to purchase the existing railways and construct a continuous line between Argentina and Chile that would improve transport and communication links in South America. This was finally completed in 1908, when the Argentine and Chilean stretches of track were joined. Several railroads have been called the oldest in the United States or North America. ...


Dieselisation

Electrification

A historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888. The intersection shown is at 8th & Broad Streets.
A historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888. The intersection shown is at 8th & Broad Streets.

Robert Davidson started to experiment with an electrical railway car in Scotland in 1838. By 1839 he had completed and presented a 4.8m long carriage that weighed six tons, including batteries. It reached a maximum speed of 6.4 kilometres per hour. 8th & Broad Streets, Richmond, Virginia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... 8th & Broad Streets, Richmond, Virginia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ... Robert Davidson of Aberdeen was a Scottish inventor who built the first known electric locomotive in 1837. ... This article is about the country. ...


Magnus Volk opened his electric railway in Brighton in 1883. Magnus Volk (1851-1937 in Brighton) was a British electrical engineer who built Volks Electric Railway. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ...


The use of overhead wires conducting electricity, invented by Granville T. Woods in 1888, among several other improvements, led to the development of electrified railways, the first of which in the United States was operated at Coney Island in 1892. Richmond, Virginia had the first successful electrically-powered trolley system in the United States. Designed by electric power pioneer Frank J. Sprague, the trolley system opened its first line in January, 1888. Richmond's hills, long a transportation obstacle, were considered an ideal proving ground. The new technology soon replaced horse-powered streetcars. // Granville T. Woods (April 23, 1856 - January 30, 1910), born in Columbus, Ohio, was an African-American inventor. ... For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


Diesel and electric trains and locomotives replaced steam in many countries in the decades after World War II. This article is about the fuel. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Two SD70M diesel locomotives of the Union Pacific refuelling at Dunsmuir, California.
Two SD70M diesel locomotives of the Union Pacific refuelling at Dunsmuir, California.

In the USSR the phenomenon of children's railways was developed in the 1930s (the world's first one was opened on July 24, 1935). Fully operated by children, they were extracurricular educational institutions, where teenagers learned railway professions. A lot of them are functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries. Union Pacific (UP) Railroad diesels refueling at Dunsmuir, California photographed on April 29, 2004 by Eric Guinther. ... Union Pacific (UP) Railroad diesels refueling at Dunsmuir, California photographed on April 29, 2004 by Eric Guinther. ... Categories: Rail stubs | EMD locomotives ... Dunsmuir is a city located in Siskiyou County, California. ... Maltańska Kolej Dziecięca (Maltan Childrens Railway) in Poznań, Poland (600mm gauge) Steam Locomotive on Kyiv Childrens Railway, Ukraine (750mm gauge) A childrens railway is an extracurricular educational institution, where teenagers learn railway professions. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Many countries since the 1960s have adopted high-speed railways. On April 3, 2007, the French TGV set a new train speed record. The train, with a modified engine and wheels, reached 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph). The record attempt took place on the new LGV Est line between Paris and Strasbourg using a specially equipped TGV Duplex train. The overhead lines had also been modified for the attempt to carry 31,000 V rather than the line's normal 25,000 V.[16][17] On 24 August 2005, the Qingzang railway became the highest railway line in the world, when track was laid through the Tanggula Mountain Pass at 5,072 meters (16,640 ft) above sea level in the Tanggula Mountains, Tibet.[18] French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... JR-Maglev MLX01 at Yamanashi. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as TGV Est, or occasionally as TGV East in English) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network, connecting Paris and Strasbourg. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... The overhead lines of a Swiss Federal Railways track. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the railway The worlds highest railway, which traverses the vast terrain of Tibet. ... The Tanggula Mountain Pass in Tibet is a mountain pass which rises as high as 5,072 m (16,640 ft) above sea level. ... Tanggula Mountains (also called Dangla Mountains) are a mountain range in southwestern China in an area known as the Tibet Autonomous Region. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Operations

A railway can be broken down into two major components. Firstly, there are the items which "move", also referred to as the rolling stock, which include locomotives, passenger carrying vehicles (coaches), freight carrying vehicles (goods wagons/freight cars). Secondly are the "fixed" components, usually referred to as the railway's infrastructure, including the permanent way and ancillary buildings that are necessary for a railway to function. A rail transport or railroad system is a complex synergy of components which may be classified into two groups: extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car), also known as an item of rolling stock in British parlance, is a vehicle on a railroad or railway that is not a locomotive - one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... The permanent way refers to the rails and sleepers of a railway line. ...


Signalling

Main article: Railway signalling
GWR semaphore-type signal.
GWR semaphore-type signal.

Railway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely to prevent trains from colliding. Being guided by fixed rails, trains are uniquely susceptible to collision since they frequently operate at speeds that do not enable them to stop within sighting distance of the driver and cannot stop quickly. It has been suggested that safeworking be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 1837 KB)Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 1837 KB)Source: http://www. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... Rail tracks. ...


Most forms of train control involve movement authority being passed from those responsible for each section of a rail network (e.g., a signalman or stationmaster) to the train crew. The set of rules and the physical equipment used to accomplish this control determine what is known as the method of working (UK), method of operation (US) or safeworking (Aus.). Not all methods require the use of signals, and some systems are specific to single track railways. The signalling process is traditionally carried out in a signal box or interlocking tower, a small building that houses the lever frames required for the signalman to operate switches and signal equipment. These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track. More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms. This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location. A signalman is an employee of a railway transport network who operates the points and signals in a signal box. ... The station master was the person in charge of railway stations, in the United Kingdom and some other countries, before the modern age. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into railway signalling. ... A single track railway A single track railway is one where traffic in both directions shares the same track. ... For Signal Tower (former light house) in Arbroath, Scotland, see Signal Tower Museum. ... The tower and tracks at Deval interlocking, Des Plaines, Illinois, in 1993 An interlocking tower is an often towerlike structure or building housing the levers for working railroad switches and trackside signals. ... Mechanical railway signalling installations rely on lever frames for their operation to interlock the signals and points to allow the safe operation of trains in the area the signals control. ...


Right of way

Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway. Owing to the requirements for large radius turns and modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes. Public carrier railways are typically granted limited rights of eminent domain (UK:compulsory purchase). In many cases in the 19th century, railways were given additional incentives in the form of grants of public land. Route length and grade requirements can be reduced by the use of alternating earthen cut and fill, bridges, and tunnels, all of which can greatly increase the capital expenditures required to develop a right of way, while significantly reducing operating costs and allowing higher speeds on longer radius curves. In densely urbanized areas such as Manhattan, railways are sometimes laid out in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties (see condemnation). Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... In property law, condemnation is identical to eminent domain. ...


Safety and railway disasters

Train wreck, 1907, in Canaan, New Hampshire.
Train wreck, 1907, in Canaan, New Hampshire.

Trains can travel at very high speed; however, they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop. Although rail transport is considered one of the safest forms of travel, there are many possibilities for accidents to take place. These can vary from the minor derailment (jumping the track), a head-on collision with another train and collision with an automobile or other vehicle at a level crossing/grade crossing. Level crossing collisions are relatively common in the United States where there are several thousand each year killing about 500 people - although the comparable figures in the United Kingdom are 30 and 12 (collisions and casualties, respectively). For information regarding major accidents, see List of rail accidents. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 518 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 607 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Quebec to Boston Express (No. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 518 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 607 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Quebec to Boston Express (No. ... The only derailment of a Shinkansen in normal operations occurred as a result of the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake; no injuries were reported from this accident. ... Standard wrong-way sign package used on all freeway off-ramps in California (and since copied by other states such as Georgia and Virginia). ... The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing) is a crossing on one level (at-grade intersection) — without recourse to a bridge or tunnel — of a railway line by a road, path, or another railroad. ... List of rail accidents from 2000 to the present. ...


The most important safety measures are railway signalling and gates at level/grade crossings. Train whistles warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains. In the United Kingdom, vandalism or negligence is thought responsible for about half of rail accidents.[citation needed] Railway lines are zoned or divided into blocks guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that one train, at most, may be in a block at any time. It has been suggested that safeworking be merged into this article or section. ... Train whistle, (originally referred to as a steam trumpet), is an audible signaling device on a steam locomotive used to warn that the train is approaching, and to communicate with rail workers. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for injuries (not accidents). ...


Compared with road travel, railways remain relatively safe. Annual death rates on roads are over 40,000 in the United States and about 3,000 in the United Kingdom, compared with 1,000 rail-related fatalities in the United States and under 20 in the UK.[19][20] (These figures do not account for differences in passenger-miles traveled by mode; see e.g. Transportation safety in the United States.) Transportation safety has steadily improved in the United States for many decades. ...


Trackage

Main article: Rail tracks
Bolted rail connection and tie-down. Also known as a fishplate.
Bolted rail connection and tie-down. Also known as a fishplate.

A typical railway/railroad track consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams, termed sleepers or ties, of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered linked vehicles, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than do vehicles riding on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result. [citation needed] Rail tracks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2775 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rail transport Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2775 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rail transport Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Rail tracks. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Rail tracks. ... Fig. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... SOiL was originally a five piece rock band from Chicago, Illinois, United States, founded by Shaun Glass, Tim King, Tom Schofield, and Adam Zadel. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Concrete sleepers laid on Ballast Track ballast, consisting of gravel, cinders or other aggregate, forms the trackbed upon which railway sleepers are laid. ... This article is about engineering. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Great Western Railway No. ...


Trackage, consisting of sleepers/ties and rails, may be prefabricated or assembled in place. Rails may be composed of segments welded or bolted, and may be of a length comparable to that of a railcar or two or may be many hundreds of feet long. Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ...


The surface of the ballast is sloped around curves to reduce lateral forces. This reduces the forces tending to displace the track, reduces the tendency to overturn at high speed, and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing cattle and standing or seated passengers. This will be optimal at only one particular speed, however.


Track components

Railways are highly complex feats of engineering, with many hours of planning and forethought required for a successful outcome. The first component of a railway is the route, which is planned to provide the least resistance in terms of gradient and engineering works. As such, the track bed is heavily engineered to provide, where possible, a level surface. As such, embankments are constructed to support the track and to provide a compromise in terms of the route's average elevation. With this in mind, sundry structures such as bridges and viaducts are constructed in an attempt to maintain the railway's elevation, and gradients are kept within manageable constraints. Where such structures are not always justified, such as in hilly terrain where routes may require long detours to avoid such features, a cutting or tunnel is dug or bored through the obstacle. Once the sundry engineering works are completed, a bed of stone (ballast) is laid over the compacted track bed to enhance drainage around the ties and evenly distribute pressure over a wider area, locking the track-work in place. Crushed stone is firmly tamped to prevent further settling and to lock the stones. Minor water courses are channeled through pipes (culverts) before the grade is raised In order to keep a road or rail line straight and/or flat, and where the comparative cost or practicality of alternate solutions (such as diversion) is too prohibitive, the land over which the road or rail line will travel is built up to form an embankment. ... Look up cutting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Concrete sleepers laid on Ballast Track ballast, consisting of gravel, cinders or other aggregate, forms the trackbed upon which railway sleepers are laid. ... A culvert is a flowing body of water which passes underneath a road, railway, or embankment, or the part thereof that does so. ...


The base of the trackage consists of treated wood or concrete "ties", also known as "sleepers". These ensure the proper distance between the rails (known as "gauge") and anchor the rail structure to the road bed through the use of Plates. These are attached to the top of the ties to provide a secure housing for the rails. After placement of the rail atop the plate, spikes are driven through holes in the plate and into the tie where they are held by friction. The top of the spike has a head that clamps the rail. As an alternative, lag bolts can be used to retain the clamps, which is preferred since screws are less likely to loosen. The space between and surrounding the ties is filled with additional ballast to stabilize the rail assembly. Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ... In rail terminology, a fishplate is a metal bar that is bolted to the ends of two rails to join them together in a track. ... Two unused and one heavily corroded spike. ... Screws come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different purposes. ... Concrete sleepers laid on Ballast Track ballast, consisting of gravel, cinders or other aggregate, forms the trackbed upon which railway sleepers are laid. ...


Points (Turnouts or Switches)

Main article: Railroad switch

Points (UK) or switches (US), technically known as turnouts, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track, for example, a siding, a branch line, or a parallel running line. Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog (common crossing), check rails and two switch rails. The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow. A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ... A branch line is a relatively minor railway line which branches off a more important through route. ... A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ...


Maintenance

Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, while split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with a concrete substitute. Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped down to form a level bed. Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage, especially if wooden ties are used. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips. Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent erosion during times of high water, while Bridges are another important item requiring inspection and maintenance. This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ...


See also: Track maintenance and Maintenance of way Rail tracks. ... Maintenance of way (often abbreviated as M of Way, MOW or MW) refers to the maintenance of railroad rights of way. ...


Terminology

Main article: Rail terminology

In the United Kingdom and most other Commonwealth of Nations countries, the term railway is used in preference to the United States term, railroad. In Canadian speech, railway and railroad are interchangeable, although in law railway is the usual term. Railroad was used in the United Kingdom concurrently with railway until the 1850s when railway became the established term. Several American companies have railway in their names instead of railroad, the BNSF Railway being the pre-eminent modern example. Railway tracks. ... Railway tracks. ... Rail tracks. ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The BNSF Railway (AAR reporting marks BNSF), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in North America (only one competitor, the Union Pacific Railroad, is larger in size). ...

Further information: Usage of the terms railroad and railway

In the United Kingdom, the term railway often refers to the whole organization of tracks, trains, stations, signalling, timetables and the operating companies that collectively make up a coordinated railway system, while permanent way or p/way refers to the tracks alone; however this terminology is generally not commonplace outside of the railway industry or those who take a keen interest in it. The terms railroad and railway generally describe the same thing, a guided means of land transport, designed to be used by trains, for transporting both passengers and freight. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... It has been suggested that safeworking be merged into this article or section. ... A timetable is an organized list or schedule, usually set out in tabular form, providing information about a series of arranged events: in particular, the time at which it is planned these events will take place. ... The permanent way refers to the rails and sleepers of a railway line. ...

See also: Rail transport in the United Kingdom

Subways, metros, elevated lines, trolley lines, and undergrounds are all specialized railways. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and previously consisted of Great Britain and the whole of Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Subway redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ...

Further information: International railroad terminology

Rail transport by country

Of 236 countries and dependencies, 143 have rail transport (including several with very little), of which about 90 have passenger services. This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. ...


Gallery

See also

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Modelling This is a list of transport related topics. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Railway tracks. ... A rail transport or railroad system is a complex synergy of components which may be classified into two groups: extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ... // Asia History of rail transport in India Europe Denmark France Germany Great Britain Ireland Spain Sweden North America Canada United States Oceania Australia See also History of rail transport Categories: History of rail transport ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. ... HO scale model railroad. ...

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See also: Rail usage statistics by country and List of countries by rail transport network size

Map of countries rail network length Rail network divided by area of country This article gives rail usage statistics by country according to the International Union of Railways. ... List of countries by rail transport network size These figures include routes which are not used for passenger services. ... The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... While railways have a great ability to haul very heavy loads, this advantage only really applies when the tracks are fairly level. ... Rack railway track using Von Roll system rack. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... A gravity railroad is a railroad on a steep slope, usually serving a mine at the top. ... A schematic of a simple spiral A spiral (sometimes called a spiral loop) is a technique employed by railways to ascend steep hills. ... A railway zig zag is a way of climbing hills in difficult country with a minimal need for tunnels and heavy earthworks. ... A display of a narrow gauge industrial sand train An industrial railway is a type of private railway used exclusively to serve a particular industry inside a mine or factory compound. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ... One of the challenges of intermodal transport is changing between modes. ... JR-Maglev MLX01 at Yamanashi. ... List of heritage railways is a comprehensive listing of heritage railways. ... The following is a list of named passenger trains and some summary information about them. ... This is a list of the worlds railway operating companies listed alphabetically by continent and country. ... List der Swiss railway companies: // Standard gauge The following is a complete list of all standard gauge railway companies which operate routes on Swiss territory. ... This is an alphabetical listing of countries and cities that have commuter or suburban railways. ... Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ... A reconstructed section of flangeway track A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or wagonway that started to appear in the century prior to 1830. ... A private railroad is a railroad run by a private corporation. ... Private transport, as opposed to public transport, is transport in ones own vehicle (e. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... The term adhesion railway or adhesion traction describes the most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the train and thus it relies on the friction between a steel wheel and a steel rail. ... A railcar (not to be confused with a railway car) is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... Rail inspection is the practice of examining rail tracks for flaws that could lead to catastrophic failures. ... Rail tracks. ... Examples of railways in fiction include: Back to the Future Part III The improvised method of propelling the time machine to 88MPH in 1885 was by using a steam locomotive, also Emmett Brown refitted a similar train as the basis of his new time machine. ... HO scale model railroad. ... Railroad ecology is a term used to refer to the study of the ecological community growing along railroad tracks. ... Railroad-related periodicals include: Australia Australian Railway History ARHS Digest Motive Power Queensland Sunshine Express New Zealand Rails United Kingdom Modern Railways Rail Railways Illustrated - started in about 2002. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ... A railway ferry is a kind of ship which carries a train. ... The United States Postal Services Railway Mail Service was a significant mail transportation service in the US during the from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th century. ... A signal is a mechanical or electrical device that indicates to train drivers or engineers information about the state of the line ahead, and therefore whether he or she must stop or may proceed, or instructions on what speed the train may go. ... It has been suggested that safeworking be merged into this article or section. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Famous Railroaders Casey Jones – Illinois Central engineer whose death in a 1900 train wreck was made famous in song and legend Railroad Tycoons & Businessmen Erastus Corning – Formed the nucleus of what would become the great New York Central Railroad Charles Crocker – One of the Big Four co-founders of the...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Public Transportation Ridership Statistics. American Public Transportation Association (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  2. ^ Georgius Agricola (trans Hoover), De re metallica (1913)
  3. ^ Surrey Iron Railway 200th - 26th July 2003. Early Railways. Stephenson Locomotive Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  4. ^ Chartres, Professor J.: 'Richard Trevithick' in: Cannon, John (Ed.): Oxford Companion to British History, p. 932
  5. ^ Early Days of Mumbles Railway. BBC (2007-02-15). Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  6. ^ John Blenkinsop. Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  7. ^ Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group, pp.20. 
  8. ^ a b Lewin, Page 5
  9. ^ a b Awdry, Page 84
  10. ^ a b Robertson
  11. ^ a b Thomas
  12. ^ September 27th 1825 - Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway. The Stockton and Darlington Railway. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  13. ^ Liverpool and Manchester. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  14. ^ Morlok, Edward K. (2005-01-11). First permanent railroad in the U.S. and its connection to the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  15. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (2000). Nothing Like It In The World; The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84609-8. 
  16. ^ Associated Press. "French train breaks speed record", CNN, 2007-04-04. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
  17. ^ Fouquet, Helene and Viscousi, Gregory. "French TGV Sets Record, Reaching 357 Miles an Hour (Update2)", Bloomberg, 2007-04-03. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
  18. ^ "New height of world's railway born in Tibet", Xinhua, 2005-08-24. Retrieved on 2007-09-11. 
  19. ^ Office of Hazardous Materials Safety. A Comparison of Risk: Accidental Deaths - United States - 1999-2003. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  20. ^ Office of Rail Regulation. U.K. Health & Safety Executive. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Agricola the father of mineralogy De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals)) is a book cataloging the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published in 1556. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 - October 13, 2002) was a popular historian and biographer of Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Cannon, John (Ed.): Oxford Companion to British History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) ISBN 0198608721

Further reading

End of the single track, unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, near the Slovenian border.
  • John H. Armstrong. Railroad: What It Is, What It Does 4th Edition (1998)
  • Rainer Fremdling, "Railways and German Economic Growth: A Leading Sector Analysis with a Comparison to the United States and Great Britain," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 37, No. 3. (Sep., 1977), pp. 583-604.
  • Leland H. Jenks, "Railroads as an Economic Force in American Development," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1944), 1-20.
  • O . S. Nock, ed. Encyclopedia of Railways (London, 1977), worldwide coverage, heavily illustrated
  • Frederick Smeeton Williams, Our Iron Roads: Their History, Construction and Social Influences (1852) (available through google books).
  • Patrick O’Brien. Railways and the Economic Development of Western Europe, 1830-1914 (1983)
  • Jack Simmons and Gordon Biddle, (editors). The Oxford Companion to British Railway History: From 1603 to the 1990s (2nd ed 1999)
  • Skelton, Oscar D. (1916). The Railway Builders. Glasgow, Brook, & Company, Toronto. 
  • John Stover, American Railroads (2nd ed 1997)
  • James W. Ely Jr "Railroads & American Law" (2001) University Press of Kansas

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rail transport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2760 words)
Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads.
Rail transport is an energy-efficient means of mechanised land transport.
Rail lines that carry little traffic are often built with a single track used by trains in both directions; on rail lines like these, "crossovers", "passing loops" or "passing sidings", which consist of short stretches of double track, are provided along the line to allow trains to pass each other, and travel in opposite directions.
Rail transport - definition of Rail transport in Encyclopedia (1538 words)
Rail transport is one of the most energy efficient means of mechanised land transport known.
Rail transport is also one of the safest modes of transport, and also makes a highly efficient use of space: a double tracked rail line can carry more passengers or freight in a given amount of time than a four-laned road.
In the late 18th century iron rails began to appear: British civil engineer William Jessop designed edge rails to be used with flanged wheels for use on a scheme in Loughborough, Leicestershire (in 1789 and subsequently opened an iron-works to produce more rails).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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