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Encyclopedia > Rail gauge
Rail gauge
Standard gauge
Scotch gauge
Narrow gauge
Minimum gauge
List of rail gauges
Dual gauge
Gauge conversion
Break-of-gauge
Rail tracks
Tramway track

Comparison of different gauges common in India with the standard one.

Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm), which is known as the standard or international gauge. Gauges wider than standard gauge are called broad gauge, those smaller are called narrow gauge. Some stretches of track are dual gauge, with three (or sometimes four) parallel rails in place of the usual two, to allow trains of two different gauges to share the same path. The term break-of-gauge refers to the situation at a place where different gauges meet. For other uses, see Gauge. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... Scotch gauge was the name given to a 4 ft 6 in (1371 mm) rail gauge, the distance between the inner sides of the rails, that was adopted by early 19th century railways in the Lanarkshire area of Scotland. ... A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8Â½ in) of standard gauge railways. ... Minimum Gauge Railways are narrow gauge railways that run on extremely narrow gauged rail tracks, below 2 ft (610 mm). ... // This is the Standard or international gauge Medium gauge railways are narrow gauge railways of approximately 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge and above. ... Sunlight reflects off dual-gauge tracks near Chur, Switzerland Mixed-gauge track and pointwork (4 ft 8Â½ in (1435 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm)) at Odawara in Japan Dual-gauge tram tracks in Katwijk, The Netherlands Dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway is a special configuration of... Gauge conversion is the process of converting a railway from one gauge to another. ... With railways, a break-of-gauge is where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. ... Rail tracks. ... Light rail tracks with concrete railroad ties. ... Parallel is a term in geometry and in everyday life that refers to a property in Euclidean space of two or more lines or planes, or a combination of these. ... It has been suggested that Vignoles rail be merged into this article or section. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... For other uses, see Gauge. ... A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8Â½ in) of standard gauge railways. ... Sunlight reflects off dual-gauge tracks near Chur, Switzerland Mixed-gauge track and pointwork (4 ft 8Â½ in (1435 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm)) at Odawara in Japan Dual-gauge tram tracks in Katwijk, The Netherlands Dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway is a special configuration of... With railways, a break-of-gauge is where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. ...

New railways are usually built to standard gauge unless there is a compelling reason (e.g. compatibility with existing railways) to adopt another gauge. The advantages of using standard gauge are:

• it facilitates inter-running with neighbouring railways
• locomotives and rolling stock can be ordered from manufacturers' standard designs and do not need to be custom built. However, some adaptation to local conditions may still be necessary, e.g. in respect of loading gauge.

Great Western Railway No. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ... The size of tunnels dictates the maximum size of the trains. ...

## History

Historically, the choice of gauge has been partly arbitrary and partly a response to local conditions. Narrow-gauge railways are cheaper to build and can negotiate sharper curves but broad-gauge railways give greater stability and permit higher speeds. The standard gauge is a compromise between the narrow and broad gauges.

The dominant rail gauge in each country shown

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 406 pixel Image in higher resolution (3000 Ã— 1522 pixel, file size: 529 KB, MIME type: image/png) feet and inches on the left, millimetres on the right. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 406 pixel Image in higher resolution (3000 Ã— 1522 pixel, file size: 529 KB, MIME type: image/png) feet and inches on the left, millimetres on the right. ...

### Broad and Standard gauge

#### Britain

The standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) was chosen for the first main-line railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), by the British engineer George Stephenson; however, the de facto standard for the colliery railways where Stephenson had worked was 4 ft 8 in. Whatever the origin of the gauge it seemed to be a satisfactory choice: not too narrow and not too wide. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...

Brunel on the Great Western Railway chose the broader gauge of 7 ft 0¼ in (2,140 mm) partly because it offered greater stability and capacity at high speed, but also because the Stephenson gauge was not scientifically selected. The Eastern Counties Railway chose five-foot gauge, but soon realised that lack of compatibility was a mistake and changed to Stephenson's gauge. The conflict between Brunel and Stephenson is often referred to as the Gauge Wars. Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 â€“ 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... The Eastern Counties Railway (ECR) began operating on June 20 1839 with a train service from a temporary terminus at Mile End to Romford, and working to a gauge of five feet. ...

In 1845 a British Royal Commission recommended adoption of 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) as standard gauge, and in the following year Parliament passed the Gauge Act, which required that new railways use standard gauge. Except for the Great Western Railway's broad gauge, few main-line British railways used a different gauge, and the last Great Western line was finally converted to standard gauge in 1892. In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords HÃ©lÃ¨ne Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist...

#### Russia

See also Russian Broad Gauge For other uses, see Gauge. ...

In the 19th century, Russia chose a broader gauge. It is widely believed that the choice was made for military reasons, to prevent potential invaders from using the Russian rail system. Others point out that no clear standard had emerged by 1842. Engineer Pavel Melnikov hired George Washington Whistler, a prominent American railroad engineer (and father of the artist James McNeill Whistler), to be a consultant on the building of Russia's first major railroad, the MoscowSaint Petersburg line. The selection of 1,500 mm (4 ft 11116 in) gauge was recommended by German and Austrian engineers but not adopted: it was not the same as the 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge in common use in the southern United States at the time. Now Russia and most of the former Russian Empire, including the Baltic states, Ukraine, Belarus, the Caucasian and Central Asian republics, and Mongolia, have the Russian gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11⅞ in), 4 mm (532in) narrower than 5 ft (1,524 mm), though rolling stock of both gauges is interchangeable in practice. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Pavel Melnikov could refer to some Russian figures: Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov, a writer Pavel Petrovich Melnikov, an engineer Category: ... George Washington Whistler was a prominent American railroad engineer in the first half of the 19th century. ... Self portrait (1872) James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 â€“ July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ...

#### Finland

Finland, which was a Grand Duchy under Russia in the 19th century, uses 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge. Upon gaining independence in 1917, much thought was given[citation needed] to converting to standard gauge, but nothing came of it. The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809â€“1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...

Most of Finland's rail-freight cargo trade has remained with Russia. This trade remains because the Russian 1,520 mm (4 ft 11⅞ in) gauge is close enough to allow through-running.

#### Iberian peninsula

The main railway networks of Spain and Portugal were constructed to gauges of six Castilian feet (1,672 mm) and five Portuguese feet (1,664 mm). The two gauges were sufficiently close to allow inter-operation of trains, and in recent years they have both been adjusted to a common "Iberian gauge" (ancho ibérico or trocha ibérica in Spanish, bitola ibérica in Portuguese) of 1,668 mm. Although it has been said that the main reason for the adoption of this non-standard gauge was to obstruct any French invasion attempts, it was in fact a technical decision, to allow for the running of larger, more powerful locomotives in a mountainous country.[1]

Since the beginning of the 1990s new high-speed passenger lines in Spain have been built to the international standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in), to allow these lines to link to the European high-speed network. Although the 22 km from Tardienta to Huesca (part of a branch from the Madrid to Barcelona high-speed line) has been reconstructed as mixed Iberic and standard gauge, in general the interface between the two gauges in Spain is dealt with by means of gauge-changing installations, which can adjust the gauge of appropriately designed wheelsets on the move. [2] [3] TGV R seau class, Marseille St-Charles station This page is about high speed rail in general. ... Huesca (Aragonese Uesca, Catalan Osca) is a city in Aragon, Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001â€“08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Sunlight reflects off dual-gauge tracks near Chur, Switzerland Mixed-gauge track and pointwork (4 ft 8Â½ in (1435 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm)) at Odawara in Japan Dual-gauge tram tracks in Katwijk, The Netherlands Dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway is a special configuration of... Variable gauge axles are used to allow railway vehicles to pass from one train operators rail gauge to another different gauge. ... A Bettendorf-style boogie displayed at the Illinois Railway Museum. ...

There are plans to convert the whole broad gauge network to standard gauge, but so far the only visible indication is the use of dual gauge concrete sleepers (with two positions of bolt holes) on stretches of relaid broad-gauge track.

#### United States

Originally, various gauges were used in the United States and Canada. Some railways, primarily in the northeast, used standard gauge; others used gauges ranging from 4 ft (1,219 mm) to 6 ft (1,829 mm). Given the nation's recent independence from the United Kingdom, arguments based on British standards had little weight. Problems began as soon as lines began to meet and in much of the north-eastern United States, standard gauge was adopted. Most Southern states used 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge. Following the American Civil War, trade between the South and North grew and the break of gauge became a major economic nuisance. Competitive pressures had forced all the Canadian railways to convert to standard gauge by 1880, and Illinois Central converted its south line to New Orleans to standard gauge in 1881, putting pressure on the southern railways. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... With railways, a break-of-gauge is where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. ...

After considerable debate and planning, most of the southern rail network was converted from 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge to 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) gauge, then the standard of the Pennsylvania Railroad, over two remarkable days beginning on Monday, May 31, 1886. Over a period of 36 hours, tens of thousands of workers pulled the spikes from the west rail of all the broad gauge lines in the South, moved them 3 inches (76 mm) east and spiked them back in place. The new gauge was close enough that standard gauge equipment could run on it without problem. By June, 1886, all major railroads in North America were using approximately the same gauge. The final conversion to true standard gauge took place gradually as track was maintained. [4] 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

In modern uses certain isolated occurrences of non-standard gauges can still be found, such as the 5 ft 2¼ in (1,581 mm) and 5 ft 2½ in (1,588 mm) gauge tracks of the Philadelphia streetcars, the Philadelphia subway cars and the New Orleans streetcars. The Bay Area Rapid Transit system in the San Francisco Bay Area, chose 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge. The San Francisco cable cars use a gauge of 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm). SEPTA redirects here. ... SEPTA redirects here. ... Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the citys public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century. ... A westbound BART train with aerodynamic design A car in downtown San Francisco. ... San Francisco Cable Car No. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ...

#### Commonwealth of Nations (former British Empire)

##### Australia

In the 19th century, Australia's three mainland states adopted standard gauge, but due to political differences, a break of gauge 30 years in the future was created. After instigating a change to 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) agreed to by all, New South Wales reverted to standard gauge while Victoria and South Australia stayed with broad gauge. Three different gauges are currently in wide use in Australia, and there is little prospect of full standardisation, though the main interstate routes are now standard gauge. With railways, a break-of-gauge is where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. ... NSW redirects here. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... VIC redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... For other uses, see Gauge. ... This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series Following the British model, Australians generally assumed in the 1850s that railways would be built by the private sector. ...

See also: History of rail transport in Australia This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series Following the British model, Australians generally assumed in the 1850s that railways would be built by the private sector. ...

The rise in standardization with the US came about because of increasing trade across the border after the American Civil War. Some railways had installed dual gauge track, which was expensive, and others used variable gauge wheels, which proved unreliable. The Grand Trunk system started converting its border lines in 1872 and finished converting its lines east of Montreal in 1874. The Canadian government-owned Intercolonial Railway converted from broad to standard gauge in 1875 while still under construction. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Variable gauge axles are used to allow railway vehicles to pass from one train operators rail gauge to another different gauge. ... Intercolonial Railway of Canada logo or herald The Intercolonial Railway of Canada (IRC), also referred to as the Intercolonial Railway, was a historic Canadian railway. ...

After the 1870s, the Canadian Pacific Railway (1880) and most major new lines were built to the standard gauge, including all the railways built through the Canadian Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast. In addition to the CPR these included the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, the Canadian Northern Railway and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The latter three were eventually acquired by Canadian National Railway, which is now the largest railway in Canada. All remaining Canadian freight railways use standard gauge. // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Grand Trunk Pacific Railway logo or herald The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR) was a historical Canadian railway. ... The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) is a historic Canadian railway. ... The British Columbia Railway (BCR; AAR reporting marks BCOL, BCIT), known as BC Rail since 1984, was a railway that operated in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ...

In Toronto the Toronto Transit Commission subways and streetcars use 4 ft 10⅞ in (1,495 mm) gauge, making their equipment incompatible with standard gauge rail systems, including Toronto's own Scarborough RT system. Ten years before standard gauge was established in Canada, but after it had been established in England, this unusual gauge was chosen to accommodate horse-drawn wagons on the streetcar tracks. The Articles of Agreement signed in 1861 between the City of Toronto and the Toronto Street Railways required "That the gauge of the said railways shall be such that the ordinary vehicles now in use may travel on the said tracks". There was no mention of a specific track gauge, but because ordinary wagon wheels did not have a flange, they could not travel on the same rails as conventional streetcars. To meet the requirement, the streetcar tracks were placed wide enough apart so that ordinary wagon wheels could run on the inside step of the tracks. (In practice, the five miles of T rail had no such step.[1]) This resulted in Toronto streetcar tracks being slightly broader gauge than standard-gauge tracks. Later, when the Toronto subway was built, it was designed to use the same track gauge as the streetcars. This provided for sharing of rail equipment and maintenance facilities, and provided for future use of 'subway-surface' cars that could pass between systems. However, only a few streetcars have ever been used on the subway system. The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport authority that operates buses, streetcars, subways, and rapid transit lines in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Toronto subway and RT is the main rapid transit (RT) railway system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). ... The Scarborough RT or SRT is an ICTS (Intermediate Capacity Transit System) light rail public transit system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that uses linear induction technology. ... After the Williams Omnibus Bus Line had become heavily loaded in 1861, the city of Toronto issued a transit franchise (Resolution 14, By-law 353) for a street railway. ... The Toronto Transit Commission operates the subway and RT system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...

##### Hong Kong, China

(See The People's Republic of China) Comparison of different gauges common in India with the standard one. ...

##### Asia

Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka inherited a diversity of rail gauges, of which 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) was predominant. Indian Railways has adopted Project Unigauge, which seeks to systematically convert most of its narrower gauge railways to 1,676 mm. Indian Railways (Hindi à¤­à¤¾à¤°à¤¤à¥€à¤¯ à¤°à¥‡à¤²), abbreviated as (Hindi à¤­à¤¾à¤°à¥‡ ) IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ...

#### Ireland

The track gauge adopted by the mainline railways in Ireland is 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm). This unusual gauge is otherwise found only in the Australian states of Victoria, southern New South Wales (as part of the Victorian rail network) and South Australia (where it was introduced by the Irish railway engineer F. W. Shields), and in Brazil. Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... NSW redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...

The first three railways all had different gauges: the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm); the Ulster Railway, 6 ft 2 in (1,880 mm); and the Dublin and Drogheda Railway, 5 ft 2 in (1,575 mm). The Board of Trade, recognising the chaos that would ensue, asked one of their officers to advise. After consulting widely he eliminated both the widest and narrowest gauges (Brunel's 7 ft 0¼ in (2,140 mm) and Stephenson's 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm)), leaving gauges between 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) and 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm). By splitting the difference, a compromise Irish gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) in was adopted. The Dublin and Kingstown Railway (D&KR), opened in 1834, was the first railway in Ireland. ... 1906 reference Rail Map Northern Ireland Railways (NIR or NI Railways) â€“ formerly, and very briefly, known as Ulster Transport Railways (UTR) â€“ is the railway operator in Northern Ireland. ... The Dublin-Belfast main line is a major railway route in Ireland that connects Dublin Connolly station in the Republic of Ireland and Belfast Central station in Northern Ireland. ...

(See history of rail transport in Ireland) 1906 Viceregal Commission rail map of Ireland Irelands extensive rail network was largely dismantled during the 20th Century Map of Irish rail network between 1925 and 1930 This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series The history of rail transport in Ireland began only...

#### Asia

##### Afghanistan

Afghanistan is in an interesting position, because it is at the cross-roads of Asia and is almost completely without railways.[2] Should it decide to build anything more than the two current short lines from the former USSR, the choice of gauge will be complicated by its being surrounded by three different gauges. Iran to the west uses standard gauge, as does China to the east; to the south, Pakistan uses 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge, while to the north, the central Asian republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan use 1,520 mm gauge. The Afghan gauge issue is discussed in more detail at Transport in Afghanistan. Transportation in Afghanistan: Landlocked Afghanistan has no functioning railways, but the Amu Darya (Oxus) River, which forms part of Afghanistans border with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, has barge traffic. ...

##### The People's Republic of China

Most of the railway network of the People's Republic of China is standard gauge.

##### Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC), which currently running East Rail, West Rail and Light Rail uses 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in).

The Mass Transit Railway uses 1,432 mm (4 ft 8⅜ in) gauge, 3 mm (⅛in) narrower than standard gauge. A new railway line across the Tsing Ma Bridge, an extension to the 1,432 mm gauge Tung Chung Line. This 3 mm difference should cause no more problems than the 4 mm (532in) difference causes between Russia and Finland or the former 8 mm (516in) difference between Spain and Portugal. This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ... Tsing Ma Bridge (é’é¦¬å¤§æ©‹) by night Tsing Ma Bridge (Chinese: é’é¦¬å¤§æ©‹; Cantonese: cing1 maa5 daai6 kiu4; Mandarin: QÄ«ngmÇŽ dÃ qiÃ¡o) (named after two islands of Tsing Yi (é’è¡£å³¶) and Ma Wan (é¦¬ç£) in Cantonese), of Hong Kong is the worlds sixth largest suspension bridge (22Â° 21N, 114Â° 04 E). ... The Tung Chung Terminus The Tung Chung Line (東涌線) is one of the six lines of the MTR system in Hong Kong. ...

Hong Kong Tramways, which has been operating tram service on Hong Kong Island since 1904, uses 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge.

#### Caribbean

##### Cuba

Mostly standard gauge.

Standard gauge.

#### South America

Argentina and Chile use 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge. Brazil uses 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) (known as "broad gauge", most common for passenger services and a few corridors in the Southeast) and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) (known as "narrow gauge" or "metre gauge", most common for cargo services). Exceptions are the Estrada de Ferro do Amapá North of the River Amazon, which has 1,440 mm gauge and the new Line 5 of São Paulo Metro, which uses standard gauge. Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru use standard gauge. In the past a few lines in Northern Chile also had standard gauge, as the only international railway between Arica (Chile) and Tacna (Peru) a bit more than 60 km has standard gauge. The El Cerrejón Coal Railway and Venezuelan Railways are also 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm). The interior of a metro station in SÃ£o Paulo The SÃ£o Paulo Metro (Portuguese: Metropolitano de SÃ£o Paulo, commonly called MetrÃ´) is the city of SÃ£o Paulos rapid transit system. ... The interior of a metro station in SÃ£o Paulo Outside the ConsolaÃ§Ã£o Metro station in the Avenida Paulista (Line 2 - Green) Train of SÃ£o Paulo Metro Liberdade Station. ...

### Narrow gauge

In many areas, a much narrower gauge was chosen. While narrow gauge generally cannot handle as much tonnage, it is less costly to construct, particularly in mountainous regions. Sugar cane and bananas plantations are appropriately served by narrow gauges such as 2 ft (610 mm), as there is little through traffic to other systems. A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8Â½ in) of standard gauge railways. ... A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8Â½ in) of standard gauge railways. ...

#### Britain

There were also many narrow gauge lines, as the 1904 Railway Clearing House Railway Atlas shows:

Railway gauge
Southwold Railway 3 ft (914 mm)
Ffestiniog Railway 1 ft 11½ in (597 mm)
Croesor Tramway 2 ft (610 mm)
Welsh Highland Railway 1 ft 11½ in (597 mm)
Talyllyn Railway 2 ft 3 in (686 mm)
Corris Railway
Welshpool & Llanfair Railway 2 ft 6 in (762 mm)
Vale of Rheidol Railway 1 ft 11½ in (597 mm)
Lynton and Barnstaple Railway
East Cornwall Mineral Railway 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
later converted to
4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Pentewan Railway 2 ft 6 in (762 mm)

See the main article British narrow gauge railways The Southwold Railway was a narrow gauge railway line between Halesworth and Southwold in the English county of Suffolk, England. ... The Ffestiniog Railway (in Welsh Rheilffordd Ffestiniog) is a narrow-gauge heritage railway, located in North West Wales. ... The Croesor Tramway was a Welsh narrow gauge railway line built to carry slate from the Croesor slate mines to Porthmadog. ... The route of the WHR. The Welsh Highland Railway (WHR) is a narrow gauge railway in Wales, which originally ran from Dinas near Caernarfon to Porthmadog, with a branch line to Bryngwyn and the slate quarries at Moel Tryfan. ... The Talyllyn Railway (Welsh: Rheilffordd Talyllyn) is a 2 ft 3 in (686 mm) narrow gauge preserved railway line running for 7 miles (11. ... Maespoeth Junction locomotive shed in the early 1980s, members of the Corris Railway Society at work restoring the line The Corris Railway (Welsh: Rheilffordd Corris) is a narrow gauge 23 (686mm) preserved railway line along the Dulas Valley on the border between Merionethshire (now Gwynedd) and Montgomeryshire (now Powys... The Welshpool & Llanfair Light Railway (W&LLR) is a narrow gauge heritage railway in Wales. ... Train taking on water, Vale of Rheidol Railway The Vale of Rheidol Railway is a narrow-gauge (1 foot 11¾ inches) heritage railway that runs for 11¾ miles between Aberystwyth and Devils Bridge (Pont yr Fynach (Welsh) - Bridge over the Mynach) - in Wales, UK. It was the last steam line... The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway (L&B) opened as an independent railway in May 1898. ... The East Cornwall Mineral Railway was a narrow gauge industrial railway built in 1872 to serve the iron ore and stone quarries around Callington in Cornwall. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... The Pentewan Railway was a British narrow gauge railway in Cornwall. ... Locomotive Taliesin on the revived Ffestiniog Railway The history of British narrow gauge railways is long and complex. ...

#### United States

The United States has almost entirely converted to Standard Gauge. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ...

See Narrow gauge railroads in the United States

#### Commonwealth of Nations (former British Empire)

##### Australia

Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia and parts of South Australia adopted 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge to cover greater distances at lower costs. Most industrial railways are built to 2 ft (610 mm) gauge. Three different rail gauges are currently in wide use in Australia, and there is little prospect of full standardisation. For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product (\$m)  \$107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  \$53,134/person... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...

The Prince Edward Island Railway used 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge from its opening in 1874 until it merged with the Canadian National Railways in 1918, the same time as a new ferry permitted interchange with North America's rail network. From 1918-1930 there was a mix of standard, dual and narrow gauge in the province until CNR's standardization was completed; standard gauge being maintained until abandonment in 1989. The Prince Edward Island Railway (PEIR) was a historic Canadian railway. ... CN redirects here, as its the most common usage of the abbreviation in Canada; for more uses, see CN (disambiguation). ...

The Newfoundland Railway was constructed to Cape gauge as well, beginning in the 1880s, and this gauge was maintained under CNR ownership post-1949 until abandonment in 1988, except for some dual Cape/standard gauge track used at the ferry terminal to North America's rail network; standard gauge rolling stock was hauled in Newfoundland by changing out standard gauge wheelsets (or trucks) for Cape gauge wheelsets/trucks in Port aux Basques. Newfoundland Railway logo or herald (used 1926-1949) The Newfoundland Railway was a historic railway that operated on the island of Newfoundland and was the longest narrow gauge railway system in North America. ... A loaded train ferry approaching the dock in Detroit, Michigan, April 1943. ... A Bettendorf-style boogie displayed at the Illinois Railway Museum. ... A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. ... Port aux Basques and the other Marine Atlantic ferry ports Channel-Port aux Basques (also Port aux Basques) is a town at the extreme southwestern tip of the island of Newfoundland fronting on the eastern end of the Cabot Strait. ...

The New Brunswick Railway used Cape gauge until the 1880s when it was acquired by the Canadian Pacific Railway, after which time standard gauge prevailed. The New Brunswick Railway (NBR) was a historic Canadian railway operating throughout the western half of the province of New Brunswick. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ...

A number of 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge mining and logging railways were built in the mountains and islands of British Columbia in the late 19th century, including the Kaslo and Slocan Railway, but all have since been either converted to standard gauge or abandoned. The Kaslo and Slocan Railway was a narrow gauge railway between Kaslo and the mining community of Sandon in the Kootenay region of British Columbia between 1895 and 1955 totalling about 53 km of track. ...

The 3 ft (914 mm) White Pass and Yukon Railroad which was completed in 1900 at the end of the Klondike gold rush is Canada's last remaining narrow gauge carrier. It no longer carries freight, but is the busiest tourist railroad in North America. Its tracks connect to no other railroad but do connect to the cruise ship docks at Skagway, Alaska, which provide it with most of its passengers. The White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&Y, WP&YR) (AAR reporting mark WPY) is a narrow gauge railroad linking the port of Skagway, Alaska with Whitehorse, the capital of Canadas Yukon Territory. ... Routes to the Klondike. ... Broadway Avenue, Skagway, May 2007. ...

• List of historic BC Narrow Gauge railways
• "Narrow Gauge Through the Bush - Ontario's Toronto Grey & Bruce and Toronto & Nipissing Railways"; Rod Clarke; pub. Beaumont and Clarke, with the Credit Valley Railway Company, Streetsville, Ontario, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9784406-0-2

Anyox Mines Blakeburn mines Britannia Beach mines Kaslo and Slocan Railway Hernando logging Seaton Tramway Nanaimo tramway White Pass and Yukon Railway Leonora and Mt. ...

##### New Zealand

New Zealand adopted narrow gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) due to the need to cross mountainous terrain in the country's interior. This terrain has necessitated a number of complicated engineering feats, notably the Raurimu Spiral. There are 1787 bridges and 150 tunnels in less than 4,000 km of track. Around 500 km of this track is electrified, on the North Island Main Trunk, between Palmerston North and Hamilton. // National Rail Network The national rail network (currently owned by a State-Owned Enterprise, the New Zealand Railways Corporation) was constructed largely by government entities from 1863 onwards. ... The Raurimu Spiral is a notable feat of engineering in the central North Island of New Zealand. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ...

##### Asia

Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka inherited a diversity of rail gauges, some of which was 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in). Indian Railways has adopted Project unigauge, which seeks to systematically convert most of its narrower gauge railways to 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm). Indian Railways (Hindi à¤­à¤¾à¤°à¤¤à¥€à¤¯ à¤°à¥‡à¤²), abbreviated as (Hindi à¤­à¤¾à¤°à¥‡ ) IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ...

#### Asia

##### The People's Republic of China

Some of the railway network of the People's Republic of China is 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) gauge.

##### Southeast Asia

The railways of Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar and Malaysia are predominantly 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) gauge. The proposed ASEAN Railway would be a standard-gauge or dual-gauge, using both metre and standard gauge regional railway networks, linking Singapore at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations region Malaysia, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam to the standard-gauge railway network of the People's Republic of China. Indonesia's railways are predominantly 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm). Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 kmÂ²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ...

##### Japan

Except for the high-speed Shinkansen lines (which uses standard gauge), all of Japan Railways Group's network is narrow gauge, built to a gauge of 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm). The Shinjuku Line applies exceptional rail gauge, 1372 mm, to allow through operations to Keiō network, the tramway lines in Tokyo and Hakodate use the same gauge. For the record label, see Shinkansen Records. ... Map showing the approximate areas covered by each company in the JR Group. ... The Toei Shinjuku Line ) is a subway line in Tokyo, Japan operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. ... A Tram or Light rail system Historically, a railway, particularly one used for the carriage of minerals. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ...

##### Taiwan

Taiwan started to build up railway in the Qing dynasty using 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge. The Japanese colonial government, which ruled from 1895 to 1945, continued using 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm). The system is now under Taiwan Railway Administration. The new Taipei Rapid Transit System and the metro system under construction in Kaohsiung use standard gauge. The Taiwan High Speed Rail (HSR) which started operation in January 2007 also uses standard gauge. An isolated 2 ft (610 mm) gauge line on the east coast was regauged to 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) when the line was interconnected. The Alishan forest railway is narrow gauge 2 ft 6 in (762 mm). The Taiwan Railway Administration (å°ç£éµè·¯ç®¡ç†å±€, a. ... The Taipei Rapid Transit System (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the MRT, or by locals simply as the Metro Taipei (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a series of underground and elevated metro and VAL systems throughout the Taipei metropolitan area. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Lingya District (è‹“é›…å€) Government  - Mayor Chen Chu (é™³èŠ) Area  - Total 154 kmÂ² (59. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... The Taiwan High Speed Rail (traditional Chinese: , also known as the THSR) is Taiwans high-speed rail network, running approximately 335. ...

#### Africa

The railways of South Africa and many other African countries, including Angola, Botswana, Congo, Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Zambia and Zimbabwe, use 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge, sometimes referred to as Cape gauge. Kenya, Uganda and others use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) gauge lines. In Tanzania former East African Railways lines are metre gauge while the Tazara line is 3ft6in. Although existing railways in South Africa use the Cape gauge, the Gautrain project uses the more expensive standard gauge of 1435mm (4ft8.5in). TAZARA Train The Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority(TAZARA) was established in the 1970s to build a railway to serve landlocked Zambia as an alternative to rail lines via apartheid-controlled Rhodesia and South Africa. ... An artists impression of the trains to be built for the Gautrain system (Bombardier press image). ...

#### Caribbean

##### Haiti

Haiti has had two different gauges on its railroads. 130 km of rural line between Port-au-Prince, Saint-Marc, and Verrettes (1905–about 1960s) used 3 ft (914 mm) gauge. Tramlines in Port-au-Prince (1878–1888 and 1896–1932), which was the first known track in Haiti, and a total of 80 km of rural line west to Léogâne and east to Manneville (1896–1950s(?)) used 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge. Totalling over 100 km of track, the plantation railroads in the north and north-east most likely used 2 ft 6 in (762 mm). There were at least four separate isolated lines. The story of the demise of one Haitian railroad is that it was sold and physically picked up, and shipped to Asia during the Papa Doc period (approx. 1957–1971). Other gauges may have been used on the plantation tracks in the north and north-east of Haiti. The CIA fact book suggests that in the 1990s there were only 40 km of abandoned track left(?). History of Haitian railroads. // The capital of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, have had two urban railroad eras: a horsecar network between 1878 and 1888, and a second system which started with steam locomotives in 1897 and ended with internal combustion engines in 1932. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... Saint-Marc is a coastal, port town in western Haiti. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... LÃ©ogÃ¢ne is the name of both a coastal city and an arrondissement in Ouest Department, HaÃ¯ti. ... Demise is an Anglo-French legal term (from the Fr. ... // The capital of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, has had two urban railroad eras: a horsecar network between 1878 and 1888, and a second system which started with steam locomotives in 1897 and ended with internal combustion engines in 1932. ... François Duvalier known as Papa Doc (possibly April 14, 1907 - April 21, 1971) was the President of Haiti from 1957 and later dictator from 1964 until his death. ... // The capital of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, has had two urban railroad eras: a horsecar network between 1878 and 1888, and a second system which started with steam locomotives in 1897 and ended with internal combustion engines in 1932. ...

#### South America

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Chile have 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) gauge lines. Colombia and Peru have 3 ft 4 in (914 mm) gauge lines.

## Dual gauge and adjustable axles

Main article: Dual gauge

Dual gauge allows trains of different gauges to share the same track. This can save considerable expense compared to using separate tracks for each gauge, but introduces complexities in track maintenance and signalling, as well as requiring speed restrictions for some trains. If the difference between the two gauges is large enough, for example between 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm), three-rail dual-gauge is possible, but if the difference is not large enough, for example between 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in), four-rail dual-gauge is used. Dual-gauge rail lines are used in the railway networks of Switzerland, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, North Korea, Tunisia and Vietnam. Sunlight reflects off dual-gauge tracks near Chur, Switzerland Mixed-gauge track and pointwork (4 ft 8Â½ in (1435 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm)) at Odawara in Japan Dual-gauge tram tracks in Katwijk, The Netherlands Dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway is a special configuration of...

### Africa

 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauges are too close to allow three-rail dual gauge. 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauges can be used together, with four-rail dual gauge - note the third (useless) 1,267 mm gauge. 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauges can be used together with four-rail dual gauge, with bonus standard gauge.

Africa is particularly affected by gauge problems, where railways of different gauges in adjacent countries meet. Image File history File links Dual_gauge_Africa_3_rail_impossible. ... Image File history File links Dual_gauge_Africa_4_rail_2_gauge. ... Image File history File links Dual_gauge_Africa_4_rail_3_gauge. ...

Gauge rationalisation in Africa is facilitated since four-rail dual gauge of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) contains a hidden gauge, which can be made to be standard gauge 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) . The four-rail system reuses and doubles the effective strength of the old light rails, which might otherwise have only a low value reuse as fenceposts. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... Sunlight reflects off dual-gauge tracks near Chur, Switzerland Mixed-gauge track and pointwork (4 ft 8Â½ in (1435 mm) and 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm)) at Odawara in Japan Dual-gauge tram tracks in Katwijk, The Netherlands Dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway is a special configuration of...

### Variable gauge axles

Main article: Variable gauge axles

Variable gauge axles (VGA), developed by the Talgo company and Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain, enable trains to change gauge with only a few minutes spent in the gauge conversion process. The same system is also used between China and Central Asia, and Poland and Ukraine[citation needed]. Both China and Poland are standard gauge, while Central Asia and Russia are 1520 mm gauge. Variable gauge axles are used to allow railway vehicles to pass from one train operators rail gauge to another different gauge. ... Tilting Amtrak Cascades passenger cars use the Talgo design. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Possible reasons why the VGA system is not more widely used could include:

• Marketing and/or economics
• Unfamiliarity.
• Conservatism.
• Not Invented Here
• From standard to narrow gauge, not enough space between the wheels to accommodate the mechanism, especially going down to 3 ft (914 mm) gauge.

Next big thing redirects here. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

## Future

Further standardization of rail gauges seems likely, as individual countries seek to build inter-operable national networks, and international organizations seek to build macro-regional and continental networks. National projects include the Australian and Indian efforts mentioned above to create a uniform gauge in their national networks. The European Union has set out to develop inter-operable freight and passenger rail networks across the EU area, and is seeking to standardize not only track gauge, but also signalling and electrical power systems. EU funds have been dedicated to convert key railway lines in the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from 1,520 mm gauge to standard gauge, and to assist Spain and Portugal in the construction of high-speed rail lines to connect Iberian cities to one another and to the French high-speed lines. The EU has also developed plans for improved freight rail links between Spain, Portugal, and the rest of Europe. High speed train redirects here. ...

### High speed

All high-speed rail systems around the world have been built using or planning to use standard gauge, even in countries like Japan, Taiwan, Spain and Portugal where most of the country's existing rail lines use a different gauge (save for Russia and Finland that have 5 ft high-speed rail, very recent). Once standard gauge high-speed networks exist, they may provide the impetus for gauge conversion of existing passenger lines to allow for interoperability. All high speed lines have adopted 25 kV, 50 Hz AC., Overhead Line as the standard electrification system, except Germany, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (15 kV AC) and the first high speed lines in Italy (3000 V DC). 25 kV AC is one of the most common voltages used for railway electrification, usually at 50 Hz or 60 Hz depending on that countrys normal mains frequency. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...

### Mining

Mining railways which have little interconnection with other lines also tend to choose standard gauge to allow them to use off-the-shelf equipment, especially heavy-duty rolling stock.

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) is planning a Trans-Asian Railway that will link Europe and the Pacific, with a Northern Corridor from Europe to the Korean Peninsula, a Southern Corridor from Europe to Southeast Asia, and a North-South corridor from Northern Europe to the Persian Gulf. All the proposed corridors would encounter one or more breaks of gauge as they cross Asia. Current plans do not call for widespread gauge conversion; instead, mechanized facilities would be built to move shipping containers from train to train at the breaks of gauge. UN redirects here. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... The Trans-Asian Railway (TAR) is a project to create an integrated freight railway network across Europe and Asia. ...

• Rail lines for iron ore to Oakajee port in Western Australia are now proposed to be a combined dual gauge network.
• Rail lines for iron ore to Kribi in Cameroon are likely to be 1435 mm with a likely connection to the same port from the 1000 mm gauge Cameroon system.

Oakajee is a small town about 25km north of the Western Australian city of Geraldton. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product (\$m)  \$107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  \$53,134/person... Kribi is a beach resort and sea port in Cameroon, lying on the Gulf of Guinea coast, at the mouth of the KienkÃ© River. ...

### Kenya-Uganda-Sudan proposal

A proposal was aired in October 2004 [3] [4] [5] [6] to build a high-speed electrified line to connect Kenya with southern Sudan. Kenya and Uganda use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) gauge, while Sudan uses 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge. By choosing standard gauge for the project, the gauge incompatibility is overcome. A bonus is that Egypt, further north, uses standard gauge. Since the existing narrow gauge track is quite likely of a "pioneer" standard, with sharp curves and low-capacity light rails, substantial reconstruction of the existing lines are needed, so gauge unification would be reasonable. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ...

### Congo-Rwanda-Tanzania

Developments in 2007 may see several lines of different gauges, 1000 mm and 1067 mm meet in a hub in Rwanda

## Early origins of the standard gauge

There is a story that rail gauge was derived from the rutways created by war chariots used by Imperial Rome, which everyone else had to follow to preserve their wagon wheels, and because Julius Caesar set this width under Roman law so that vehicles could traverse Roman villages and towns without getting caught in stone ruts of differing widths (another example is Qin Shihuang's law of a standard gauge for carriages and chariots after his unification of China). A problem with this story is that the Roman military did not use chariots in battle. However, an equal gauge is probably coincidence. Excavations at the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum revealed ruts averaged 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) center to center, with a gauge of 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm). For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) (November or December 260 BC - September 10, 210 BC), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ...

The designers of both chariots and trams and trains were dealing with a similar issue, namely hauling wheeled vehicles behind draft animals. A more likely theory as to why the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) measurement was chosen is that it reflects vehicles with a 5 ft (1,524 mm) outside gauge. This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...

Italy defined its gauges from the centres of each rail [5], rather than the inside edges of the rails, giving some unusual measurements (950 mm instead of 1000 mm). According to the law of 28.VII.1879, the only legal gauge widths in Italy were 1500, 1000, and 750 measured on the middle of the rail, corresponding to 1445, 950, and 700 mm inside the rail.

 List of rail gauges Loading gauge Structure gauge Clearance car Rail transport Rail terminology Transport in present-day nations and states Rail transport by country History of rail transport by country Railroad switch (points) Breitspurbahn Railway signal Overhead lines

// This is the Standard or international gauge Medium gauge railways are narrow gauge railways of approximately 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge and above. ... The size of tunnels dictates the maximum size of the trains. ... The Structure gauge, also called the minimum clearance outline, is the minimum size of tunnels and bridges as well as the minimum size of the doors that allow a rail siding access into a warehouse. ... This primitive clearance car of the D&RGW consists of a simple wooden outline. ... railroads redirects here. ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. ... This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. ... // Asia History of rail transport in India Europe Denmark France Germany Great Britain Ireland Spain Sweden North America Canada United States Oceania Australia See also History of rail transport Categories: History of rail transport ... A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ... The Breitspurbahn was a wide-track railroad planned by Adolf Hitler during his rulership of Germany. ... A signal is a mechanical or electrical device that indicates to train drivers or engineers information about the state of the line ahead, and therefore whether he or she must stop or may proceed, or instructions on what speed the train may go. ... The overhead lines of a Swiss Federal Railways track. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... Brakes are used on railway trains to bring the train to a standstill. ... Knuckle (AAR Type E) couplers in use AAR Type E railroad car coupling A coupling (or a coupler) is a mechanism for connecting railway cars in a train. ... A railway platform is a section of pathway, alongside rail tracks at a train station, metro station or tram stop, at which passengers may board or alight from trains or trams. ... One of the smallest (Z scale, 1:220) placed on the buffer bar of one of the largest (Live steam, 1:8) model locomotives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rail transport modelling scales. ...

## References

1. ^ Pursley, Louis H., "Street Railways of Toronto, 1861-1921", Page 14, Interurbans 25, 1958
2. ^ Railways in Afghanistan
3. ^ Nepad < Nepad News >
4. ^ SudanTribune article : After 21 years of civil war, railway to link Sudan and Kenya
5. ^ People's Daily Online - Roundup: Kenya, southern Sudan to enhance ties
6. ^ http://sd2.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/chinanews/200501/20050100014390.html

Results from FactBites:

 EriksRailNews.com (3308 words) In contrast to road transport, rail freight has increased since 2003 so that there is now a shortage of track, terminals and staff. Tonne-kilometres grew from 95,4bn in 2005 to 105,5bn. Hector Rail is a spin-off from the liquidated Ikea Rail, using Rc locos rented from SJ as well as six El15 ore locos from the Norwegian ore railway, which have been fixed up and re-designated class 161.
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