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Encyclopedia > Ragweed
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Common Ragweed
Ambrosia
Ambrosia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Ambrosia
L., 1753
Species
See text.

Ragweeds (Ambrosia) is a genus of flowering plants from the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Ragweed Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:29, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families See text The Asterales are an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants which include the composite family Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) and its related families. ... Genera many, see list The aster or sunflower family (Family Asteraceae or, alternatively Family Compositae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Species See text The Helianthus L. genus comprises 67 species and several subspecies in the Asteraceae family, all of which are native to North America. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as (help· info), and in English usually under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), the name with which his publications were signed, was a Swedish botanist and physician who laid the foundations for the modern scheme... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Genera many, see list The aster or sunflower family (Family Asteraceae or, alternatively Family Compositae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ...


The name of this genus is derived from the Greek word for "food of the gods".


They occur in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and South America. They prefer dry, sunny grassy plains, sandy soils, along river banks, along roadsides, disturbed soils, vacant lots and ruderal sites. Ragweed was far less common in the Eastern United States before dense European settlement/agriculture in the late 1700's. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... The Murray River in Australia. ...

Silver Burr ragweed (Ambrosia chamissonis)
Silver Burr ragweed (Ambrosia chamissonis)

There are about 30 species worldwide. They are very ordinary in appearance. Despite being all around, they are easily overlooked. Virtually no animal browses them. Many are adapted to the arid climates of the desert. Burrobush (Ambrosia dumosa) is one of the most arid-adapted perennials in North America. About 10 species occur in the Sonoran Desert. Image File history File links Ambrosia chamissonis Downloaded from : [[1]] File links The following pages link to this file: Ragweed ... Image File history File links Ambrosia chamissonis Downloaded from : [[1]] File links The following pages link to this file: Ragweed ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation - less than 250 mm (10 in) per year. ...


These are annuals, perennials and shrubs and subshrubs with erect, hispid stems growing in large clumps to a height of 75 - 90 cm. The stems are basally branched. They form a slender taproot or a creeping rhizome. An annual plant is a plant that usually germinates, flowers and dies in one year. ... A Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... A stem is the above ground axis of a vascular plant. ... The dandelions taproot, quite apparent in this drawing, renders this plant very difficult to uproot – the plant itself gives way, but the root stays in the ground and may sprout again. ... Ginger rhizome In botany, a rhizome is a usually-underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ...


The foliage is grayish to silvery green with bipinnatifid, deeply lobed leaves with winged petioles. But in the case of Ambrosia coronopifolia, the leaves are simple. The leaf arrangement is opposite at the base, but becomes alternate higher on the stem. This article is about the leaf, a plant organ. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ...


Ragweeds are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. These include Bucculatrix leaf-miners, some of which feed exclusively on a particular species: B. agnella feeds on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, B. franseriae feeds on Ambrosia deltoidea and B. transversata feeds on Ambrosia psilostachya. B. ambrosiaefoliella and B. pomifoliella are polyphagous species which have been recorded feeding on Ambrosia. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Super Families Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Micropterigoidea Heterobathmioidea Eriocranioidea Acanthopteroctetoidea Lophocoronoidea Neopseustoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Hepialoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Palaephatoidea Tischeriodea Simaethistoidea Tineoidea Gracillarioidea Yponomeutoidea Gelechioidea Zygaenoidea Sesioidea Cossoidea Tortricoidea Choreutoida Urodoidea Galacticoidea Schreckensteinioidea Epermenioidea Pterophoroidea Aluctoidea Immoidea Axioidea Hyblaeoidea Thyridoidea Whalleyanoidea Pyraloidea Mimallonoidea Lasiocampoidea Geometroidea Drepanoidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidae Hedyloidea Noctuoidea Families About... Bucculatricidae is a family of moths. ... Phagy or phagia is an ecological or behavioral term that is used to identify particular nutritional systems or feeding behaviors. ...

Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (492x1748, 608 KB) Description: Common ragweed Source: from [1] - first upload en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (492x1748, 608 KB) Description: Common ragweed Source: from [1] - first upload en. ...


Reproduction

Ambrosia is a monoecious plant, i.e. it produces separate male and female flower heads on the same plant. The numerous tiny male, yellowish-green disc flower are about 3 mm in diameter. They grow in a terminal spike, subtended by joined bracts. The female, whitish-green flowers are 1-flowered and are inconspicuously situated below the male ones, in the leaf axils. The pappus is lacking. Toothed bracts on Rhinanthus minor In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; or a bract may be any leaf associated with an inflorescence. ...


After anemophily (wind pollination), the female flowers develops into a prickly, ovoid burr with 9-18 straight spines. It contains one arrowhead-shaped seed, brown when mature, and smaller than a wheat grain. This burr gets dispersed by clinging to the fur or feathers of animals passing by. The seeds are in important winter food for many bird species.


Allergen

Each plant is reputed to be able to produce about a billion grains of pollen over a season, and the plant is anemophilous (wind-pollinated). It is highly allergenic, as the greatest pollen allergen of all pollens, and the prime cause of hayfever. The plant blooms in the northern hemisphere from about mid August until cooler weather arrives. It usually produces pollen more copiously in wet seasons. Two species, Ambrosia artemisiifolia and A. psilostachya are considered among the most noxious to those prone to hay fever. SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomea purpurea), hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Honeybee and bumblebee pollinating a Sedum telephium Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern...


Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the most widespread of this genus in North America. It attains a height of about a meter. Great Ragweed, Giant Ragweed or Horseweed, (Ambrosia trifida), may grow to four meters (13 feet) or more. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Ragweed is a plant of concern in the global warming issue, because tests have shown that higher levels of carbon dioxide will greatly increase pollen production. On dry windy days, the pollen will travel many kilometers. When the humidity rises above 70%, the pollen tends to clump and is not so likely to become airborne. Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Goldenrod is frequently blamed for hayfever, but simply happens to have a showy flower that blooms about the same time. Goldenrod is innocent, as it is entomophilous, ie. insect pollinated. Its pollen is heavy and sticky, and cannot become airborne. Species See text The goldenrod is a flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae. ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by insects, particularly bees, moths, and beetles. ... Classes & Orders Subclass:Apterygota Orders Archaeognatha (Bristletails) Thysanura (Silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass:Pterygota Infraclass: Paleoptera (paraphyletic) Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Exopterygota Orders Caloneroptera - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera...


Some high mountain and desert areas of North America used to be refuges for severe hay fever sufferers, who would go to such areas for relief during the pollen season, but increased human activity such as building and other disturbances of the soil, irrigation, and gardening, have encouraged ragweed to spread to these areas as well. Today, no area in the United States is ragweed pollen free, and moving can only offer a degree of relief. The ragweed was accidentally imported to Europe during WWI, it had adapted to the different environment successfully and has greatly spread since the 1950s. Hungary is currently the most heavily affected country in Europe (and possibly the entire world), especially since the early 1990s, when abandonement of communist-style collective agriculture left vast fields uncultivated, which were promptly invaded by ragweed. WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Anecdotal claims are made of honey giving some relief for ragweed pollen allergies, which is noteworthy because honeybees do not visit ragweed flowers. However, during ragweed pollen shed, the pollen dusts every surface, and honeybees, being electrostatically charged, will accumulate some ragweed pollen. The pollen is frequently identified as a component of raw honey. Honey Honey (born May 26, 1990 in New York City, America) is an international supermodel. ... An allergy or Type I hypersensitivity is an immune system malfunction whereby a persons body is hypersensitised to react immunologically to typically nonimmunogenic substances. ... Species A. mellifera — western honeybee A. cerana — eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... Melissopalynology is the study of honey and any pollen contained therein. ...


Control and Eradication

Total eradication of ragweed is considered impossible, owing to the plant's frugality and tremendous spore-producing capability. As of 2005, there is no known safe biological remedy (e.g. beetle or worm) to be used against ragweed in the open. Mechanical and chemical methods are available and should be used to control its spread.


The act of manually uprooting ragweeds, sometimes shown in the media for public awareness and propaganda purposes, is best avoided. It is ineffective, and skin contact may cause the onset of full-blown hayfever symptoms in persons with latent ragweed hyper-sensitivity.


Although the scythe and its motorized descendants have a reduced efficiency against ragweed, they remain indispensible tools, especially in populated areas and near delicate plantation, where herbicide use must be limited. Fighting ragweed with the scythe involves a process. It is difficult to cut the plant right at the soil level, and the plant will regrow in two weeks (and often branch into three or four full-sized stems) if more than half an inch of the plant remains above the ground. Areas where ragweed has been reaped should be mowed down every three weeks to prevent regrowth. Using a scythe A scythe (sounds like SIGH-th) is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ...


It is considered important to control the spread of ragweed in large abandoned or uncultivated areas. Ragweed pollen can remain airborne for days and travel great distances, affecting people hundreds of miles away. One efficient method for large-scale ragweed extermination is chemical spraying. Because ragweed only reacts to some of the more aggressive herbicides, it is highly recommended to consult professionals when deciding on dosage and methodology, especially near urban areas. Some proven effective active ingredients include those that are gliphosat-based (Roundup, Gliphogan, Glialka), sulphosat-based (Medallon) and gluphosinat-ammonia based (Finale14SL). In badly infested areas usually 2 to 6.5 liters of herbicides are dispersed per hectare (equal to app. 0.2 to 0.7 US gallons per acre). The litre (or liter in US) is a metric unit of volume. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10,000 square meters, commonly used for measuring land area. ... The gallon (abbr. ... An acre is an English unit of area, which is also frequently used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. ...


Species

Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) - leaves
Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) - leaves
  • Ambrosia acanthicarpa : Flatspine Burr Ragweed, Annual Bur-Sage
  • Ambrosia ambrosioides : Ambrosia Burr Ragweed, Canyon Ragweed
    • Ambrosia ambrosioides ssp. septentrionale
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia : Annual Ragweed, Bitterweed, Blackweed, American Wormwood
  • Ambrosia aspera
  • Ambrosia bidentata : Camphor Weed, Lanceleaf Ragweed
  • Ambrosia canescens : Hairy Ragweed
  • Ambrosia carduacea : Baja California Ragweed
  • Ambrosia chamissonis : Silver Burr Ragweed, Silver Beachweed, Silver Beach Burr
  • Ambrosia cheirnathifolia : Rio Grande Ragweed
Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) - flowers
Enlarge
Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) - flowers
  • Ambrosia chenopodiifolia : San Diego Burr Ragweed, San Diego Burr Sage.
  • Ambrosia confertiflora : Weakleaf Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia cordifolia : Tucson Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia coronopifolia
  • Ambrosia deltoidea : Triangle Burr Ragweed, Triangleleaf Bur-sage, Rabbitbush.
  • Ambrosia dumosa : Burrobush, White Bursage.
  • Ambrosia elatior (synonym of A. artemisiifolia): Carrotweed, Annual Ragweed
  • Ambrosia grayi : Woollyleaf Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia helenae
  • Ambrosia hispida : Coastal Ragweed
  • Ambrosia ilicfolia : Hollyleaf Burr Ragweed, Hollyleaf Bursage.
  • Ambrosia intergradiens
  • Ambrosia johnstoniorum
  • Ambrosia linearis : Streaked Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia maritima : type species
Flatspine Burr ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa)
Enlarge
Flatspine Burr ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa)
  • Ambrosia palustris
  • Ambrosia pannosa
  • Ambrosia parvifolia
  • Ambrosia peruviana : Peruvian Ragweed
  • Ambrosia psilostachya : Cuman Ragweed, Western Ragweed, Perennial Ragweed
  • Ambrosia pumila : Dwarf Burr Ragweed, San Diego Ambrosia
  • Ambrosia sandersonii
  • Ambrosia scabra
    • Ambrosia scabra var. robusta
    • Ambrosia scabra var. tenuior
  • Ambrosia tarapacana
  • Ambrosia tenuifolia : Slimleaf Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia tomentosa : Skeletonleaf Burr Ragweed
  • Ambrosia trifida : Great Ragweed, Giant Ragweed, Bitterweed, Bloodweed
    • Ambrosia trifida texana : Texan great Ragweed
  • Ambrosia trifolia : Bitterweed, Bloodweed, Great Ragweed, Buffalo Weed
  • Ambrosia velutina

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 388 KB) Description: Common ragweed leaves Source: from [1] - first upload in en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 388 KB) Description: Common ragweed leaves Source: from [1] - first upload in en. ... Binomial name Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the most widespread plant of the genus Ambrosia in North America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 68 KB) Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 68 KB) Annual Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x774, 88 KB) Ambrosia acanthicarpa Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits  : This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x774, 88 KB) Ambrosia acanthicarpa Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits  : This image is not copyrighted and may be freely used for any purpose. ...

External links

  • UVSC Herbarium - Ambrosia
Laceleaf Ragweed (Ambrosia bidentata)
Enlarge
Laceleaf Ragweed (Ambrosia bidentata)
Skeletonleaf Burr Ragweed (Ambrosia tomentosa)
Enlarge
Skeletonleaf Burr Ragweed (Ambrosia tomentosa)
Great Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)
Enlarge
Great Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

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Ragweeds (Ambrosia) is a genus of flowering plants from the sunflower family (Asteraceae).
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Ragweed is a plant of concern in the global warming issue, because tests have shown that higher levels of carbon dioxide will greatly increase pollen production.
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