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Encyclopedia > Rafah

Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. Over the ages is has been known as Robihwa by the ancient Egyptians, Rafihu by the Assyrians, Raphia by the Greeks and Romans, and now Rafah. The Aramaic text Targum Onkelos interpreted the Biblical location of Chatzerim as referring to Rafah, but there is no other evidence for this. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 See Sinai for other uses of Sinai The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina شبه جزيرة سيناء) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south), located... Assyrian may refer to: Assyria ܐܬܘܿܪ Assyrian cuisine Assyrian flag Assyrian independence Assyrian people ܥܠܡܐ ܐܬܘܿܪܝܝܐ Assyrian Languages ܠܫܢܐ ܐܬܘܿܪܝܝܐ Akkadian language Aramaic language Syriac language Eastern Syriac Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Western Syriac Mlahso language Turoyo language Church of the East List of Assyrians This is a disambiguation page: a list of... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Jewish texts ...


It is the largest town in the southern strip, with a population of about 96,000, of which some 44,000 live in the two refugee camps about it, Canada Camp to the north, and Rafah camp to the south. Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ...

Contents


History

Ancient period

Rafah has a history stretching back thousands of years. It was first recorded in an inscription of Egyptian Pharaoh Seti I, from 1303 BC, and as the first stop on Pharaoh Shoshenq I's campaign to Palestine in 925 BC. Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Menmaatre Seti I was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt), the son of Rameses I and Queen Sitre and, later, the father of Rameses II. According to some historians, he reigned between either 1294 BC or 1290 BC to 1279 BC or 1305... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign of 40 years and... nomen or birth name Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Sheshonk I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC Events and Trends 925 BC - On the death of king Solomon, his son Rehoboam is unable to...


In 720 BC it was the site of the Assyrian king Sargon II's victory over the Egyptians, and in 217 BC the Battle of Raphia was fought between the victorious Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. (It is said to be the largest battle ever fought in Palestine, with over a hundred thousand soldiers and hundreds of elephants). Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Ashur. ... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle of the Syrian Wars between Ptolemy IV of Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. ... Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ... Antiochus III the Great, (c. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of animals, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. ...


During the Byzantine period, it was a Diocese, and an important trading city during the early Arab period, however it steadily declined and was likely abandoned by the 12th century. By the Mameluk period it was recorded as a postal station, and 16th century Ottoman records show a small village of 16 taxpayers.     Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40...


The 20th century

In 1917 the British army captured Rafah, and it was used as a base for the attack on Gaza. The presence of the army bases drew people back to the city, and in 1922 it had a population of 600. By 1948 the population had risen to 2,500. After the Israeli War of Independence, the refugee camps were established, and in 1967 the population was about 55,000, of whom only 11,000 lived in Rafah itself. Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ...


In the summer of 1971, the IDF under General Ariel Sharon (then head of the IDF southern command), destroyed approximately two thousand houses in the refugee camps of the Gaza Strip, a quarter of them in Rafah. Bulldozers plowed through dense urban areas to create wide patrol roads to facilitate the general mobility of Israeli forces. The demolitions in Rafah displaced nearly four thousand people. Israel established the Brazil and Canada housing projects to accommodate displaced Palestinians; Brazil is to the immediate south of Rafah, whereas Canada was located just across the border in Sinai. Both were named because UN peacekeeping troops from those respective countries had maintained barracks in those locations. After the Camp David peace treaty mandated the repatratiation of Canada project refugees to the Gaza Strip, the Tel al-Sultan project, to the northwest of Rafah, was built to accommodate them. For more detail of Sharons recent illness, see Illnesses of Ariel Sharon; for an overview, see Health problems. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


External links

  • Rafah Pundits: Rafah Focused Blog
  • Reports from Rafah
  • Interview with Hip Hop Artist Michael Franti - Reporting from Rafah.
  • Part A Part B Satellite photos comparing 2001 to 2004.
  • Human Rights Watch report on mass house demolitions in Rafah by the IDF.

 
 

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