FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
People who viewed "Radius" also viewed:


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Radius

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. It is intended to work in both local and roaming situations. The word radius (Latin for wheel spoke; plural radii, pronounced ray-dee-eye) has several meanings in English: In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any line segment with one endpoint on the circle (i. ... In computer security, AAA stands for “authentication, authorization and accounting”. Authentication  Authentication refers to the confirmation that a user who is requesting services is a valid user of the network services requested. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ...

Many networks services (including corporate networks and public ISPs using modem, DSL, or wireless 802.11 technologies) require you to present security credentials (such as a username and password or security certificate) in order to connect on to the network. Before access to the network is granted, this information is passed to a Network Access Server (NAS) device over the link-layer protocol (for example, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) in the case of many dialup or DSL providers), then to a RADIUS server over the RADIUS protocol. The RADIUS server checks that the information is correct using authentication schemes like PAP, CHAP or EAP. If accepted, the server will then indicate to the NAS that you are authorized to access the network. RADIUS also allows the authentication server to supply the NAS with additional parameters, such as “ISP” redirects here. ... Note: to create a user account for Wikipedia, go to the login page. ... A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ... A Network Access Server, or NAS, is a single point of access to a remote resource. ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ... Password Authentication Protocol, sometimes abbreviated PAP, is a simple authentication protocol used to authenticate a user to a remote access server or Internet service provider (ISP). ... In computing, the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) authenticates a user to an Internet access provider. ... Extensible Authentication Protocol, or EAP, is a universal authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. ...

  • The specific IP address to be assigned to the user
  • The address pool from which the user's IP should be chosen
  • The maximum length that the user may remain connected
  • An access list, priority queue or other restrictions on a user's access
  • L2TP parameters

The RADIUS protocol does not transmit passwords in cleartext between the NAS and RADIUS server (not even with PAP protocol), but in hidden, using a rather complex operation instead, which involves MD5 hashing and shared secret, as described in references. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... In data communications, cleartext is the form of a message or data which is transferred or stored without cryptographic protection. ... In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. ...

RADIUS is also commonly used for accounting purposes. The NAS can use RADIUS accounting packets to notify the RADIUS server of events such as

  • The user's session start
  • The user's session end
  • Total packets transferred during the session
  • Volume of data transferred during the session
  • Reason for session ending

The primary purpose of this data is so that the user can be billed accordingly; the data is also commonly used for statistical purposes and for general network monitoring. A bill is a document requesting payment for goods previously supplied. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ...

Additionally RADIUS is widely used by VoIP service providers. It is used to pass login credentials of a SIP end point (like a broadband phone) to a SIP Registrar using digest authentication, and then to RADIUS server using RADIUS. Sometimes it is also used to collect call detail records (CDRs) later used, for instance, to bill customers for international long distance. IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Use the power of the internet to make phone calls at far cheaper rates than regular phone companies. ... Digest access authentication is one of the agreed methods a web page can use to negotiate credentials with a web user (using the HTTP protocol). ... A Call Detail Record (CDR) (also Call Detail Recording) or Station Message Detail Recording (SMDR) in the telecom sector is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed...

RADIUS was originally specified in an RFI by Merit Network in 1991 to control dial-in access to NSFnet. Livingston Enterprises responded to the RFI with a description of a RADIUS server. Merit Network awarded the contract to Livingston Enterprises that delivered their PortMaster series of Network Access Servers and the initial RADIUS server to Merit. RADIUS was later (1997) published as RFC 2058 and RFC 2059 (current versions are RFC 2865 and RFC 2866). Now, several commercial and open-source RADIUS servers exist. Features can vary, but most can look up the users in text files, LDAP servers, various databases, etc. Accounting records can be written to text files, various databases, forwarded to external servers, etc. SNMP is often used for remote monitoring. RADIUS proxy servers are used for centralized administration and can rewrite RADIUS packets on the fly (for security reasons, or to convert between vendor dialects). For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP (IPA: ), is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.[1] A directory is a set of objects with similar attributes organized in a logical and hierarchical manner. ... The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program) which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers. ...

RADIUS is a common authentication protocol utilized by the 802.1X security standard (often used in wireless networks). Although RADIUS was not initially intended to be a wireless security authentication method, it improves the WEP encryption key standard, in conjunction with other security methods such as EAP-PEAP. IEEE 802. ... Wired Equivalent Privacy or Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) is a scheme to secure IEEE 802. ... Extensible Authentication Protocol, or EAP, is a universal authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. ... Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol, Protected EAP, or simply PEAP (pronounced peep), is a method to securely transmit authentication information, including passwords, over wireless networks. ...

RADIUS is extensible; many vendors of RADIUS hardware and software implement their own variants using Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSAs).

RADIUS is used by RSA SecurID to enable strong authentication for access control; products such as PhoneFactor add two-factor authentication to legacy RADIUS applications that typically only support username and password authentication. RSA, The Security Division of EMC Corporation (NYSE: EMC), is headquartered in Bedford, Massachusetts, and maintains offices in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Japan. ...

RADIUS uses UDP ports 1812 or 1645 for Authentication and 1813 or 1646 for Accounting. For example, Microsoft RADIUS servers default to the higher ports but Cisco devices default to the lower ports. Juniper Networks' RADIUS servers also defaults to the lower ports. The official IETF port number assignment is the higher port numbers 1812 and 1813. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Cisco may refer to: Cisco Systems, a computer networking company Cisco IOS, an internet router operating system CISCO Security Private Limited, a security company in Singapore Commercial and Industrial Security Corporation, a statutory board in Singapore Abbreviation for San Francisco, California Cisco (wine) The Cisco Kid, a fictional character created... Juniper Networks NASDAQ: JNPR is a telecommunications equipment company. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...

The DIAMETER protocol is the planned replacement for RADIUS. DIAMETER uses SCTP or TCP while RADIUS uses UDP as the transport layer. DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2002. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ...


The RADIUS protocol is currently defined in:

  • RFC 2865 Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)
  • RFC 2866 RADIUS Accounting

Other relevant RFCs are:

  • RFC 2548 Microsoft Vendor-specific RADIUS Attributes
  • RFC 2607 Proxy Chaining and Policy Implementation in Roaming
  • RFC 2618 RADIUS Authentication Client MIB
  • RFC 4668 RADIUS Authentication Client MIB for IPv6 (Supersedes: RFC 2618)
  • RFC 2619 RADIUS Authentication Server MIB
  • RFC 4669 RADIUS Authentication Server MIB for IPv6 (Supersedes: RFC 2619)
  • RFC 2620 RADIUS Accounting Client MIB
  • RFC 4670 RADIUS Accounting Client MIB for IPv6 (Supersedes: RFC 2620)
  • RFC 2621 RADIUS Accounting Server MIB
  • RFC 4671 RADIUS Accounting Server MIB for IPv6 (Supersedes: RFC 2621)
  • RFC 2809 Implementation of L2TP Compulsory Tunneling via RADIUS
  • RFC 2867 RADIUS Accounting Modifications for Tunnel Protocol Support
  • RFC 2868 RADIUS Attributes for Tunnel Protocol Support
  • RFC 2869 RADIUS Extensions
  • RFC 2882 Network Access Servers Requirements: Extended RADIUS Practices
  • RFC 3162 RADIUS and IPv6
  • RFC 3575 IANA Considerations for RADIUS
  • RFC 3576 Dynamic Authorization Extensions to RADIUS
  • RFC 3579 RADIUS Support for EAP (Updates: RFC 2869)
  • RFC 3580 IEEE 802.1X RADIUS Usage Guidelines
  • RFC 4014 RADIUS Attributes Suboption for the DHCP Relay Agent Information Option
  • RFC 4372 Chargeable User Identity
  • RFC 4590 RADIUS Extension for Digest Authentication (new revision pending)
  • RFC 4675 RADIUS Attributes for Virtual LAN and Priority Support
  • RFC 4679 DSL Forum Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes
  • RFC 4818 RADIUS Delegated-IPv6-Prefix Attribute
  • RFC 4849 RADIUS Filter Rule Attribute

See Also

This is a list of notable RADIUS server implementations. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... In computer networking, TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus) is a protocol which provides access control for routers, network access servers and other networked computing devices via one or more centralized servers. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Radius wireless remote control, SCADA, Telemetry, distribution automation, digital data radio modems. (385 words)
Radius is a world-class leader in the area of remote control for wide area wireless networks for SCADA systems, Industrial control and Distribution automation.
Radius NME 200 is a maintenance free electric motor driven operating device for supervision and control of pole-mounted air-break switches, load break switches and disconnec-tors.
Radius NME 110 is a maintenance free electric motor driven operating device for supervision and control of pole-mounted air-break switches, load break switches and disconn-ectors.
Radius - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) (848 words)
Radius is extensible and new accounting methods can be added using the extension language.
Radius imposes no restrictions on the structure of authentication and accounting tables.
Radius can be found on http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/radius/ or one of the mirrors.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m