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Encyclopedia > Radio controlled car
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Kyosho Inferno 1/8-scale buggy
Kyosho Inferno 1/8-scale buggy

A radio controlled car is a powered model car driven from a distance by a hand-held radio transmitter which sends its control information to the car's onboard radio receiver. Building, driving, and modifying radio-controlled car kits is a hobby enjoyed by enthusiasts of all ages. From http://uditha. ... From http://uditha. ... Jump to: navigation, search This remote control airplane is carrying a scale model of X-33 and is taking part in actual NASA research. ... Metal die-cast model of a Checker taxicab A model car is a toy which represents an automobile, generally reproducing the shapes of actually produced vehicles, as a small scale model. ... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ...

Contents


Types of cars

Radio controlled (or R/C) cars can be categorized in two ways, electric powered and gas powered. Electric cars use small but powerful electric motors and rechargeable nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, or lithium polymer cells to power them. Some radio controlled cars use small internal combustion engines fuelled by a special mixture of nitromethane, methanol, and oil (either castor oil or synthetic oil), which are referred to as "gas" cars. Recently, exceptionally large models have been introduced that are powered by small gasoline engines. Electric cars are generally considered easier for the novice to work with than fuel-driven models, but can be equally as complex at the higher budget and skill levels. The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Jump to: navigation, search Electric motors of various sizes. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd or NiCad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A Nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but does not have expensive (and environmentally risky) cadmium. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Jump to: navigation, search A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which combustion occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Nitromethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3NO2. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid that is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (or preferably castor seed as the castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is not a member of the bean family). ... A synthetic oil is an oil manufactured for enhanced lubrication performance using The Fischer-Tropsch process which converts carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol (abbreviated from petroleum spirit), in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ...


In both of these categories, both on-road and off-road vehicles are available. Off-road models, which are built with fully-functional off-road suspensions, can be used on various types of terrain. In comparison, on-road cars, which generally have a limited or non-existent suspension, are strictly limited to smooth, paved surfaces. The term off-road refers to a driving surface which is not conventionally paved. ...


Maintenance

Modified 1/8 scale buggy with upper body removed
Modified 1/8 scale buggy with upper body removed

All hobby-grade radio controlled cars require regular maintenance to ensure smooth and trouble-free operation. In comparison, cheaper "toy-grade" cars, found in discount and consumer electronics stores, are generally unserviceable. For those interested in mechanics, this maintenance provides an interesting adjunct to the hobby. Due to their modular construction, in the event that parts of a hobby-grade remote control car break or wear out, they can be replaced individually. The availability of many replacement and high-performance parts for hobby-grade model vehicles allows them to be extensively upgraded (sometimes, to the extent of having no original parts remaining whatsoever of the vehicle); in comparison, parts are generally impossible to find for toy-grade model cars, which are notoriously difficult to disassemble. In recognition of this distinction, Radio Shack released the popular XMODS and ZipZaps toy cars; these are mid-grade cars which can be tuned, modified, and repaired, although still to a lesser degree than professional hobby-grade vehicles. From http://uditha. ... From http://uditha. ... RadioShack Corporation (formerly Radio Shack) (NYSE: RSH) runs a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of Europe. ... Nissan Skyline with full body kit XMODS are 1:28 scale RC (Remote Control) cars sold by RadioShack that feature four wheel drive, 30,000 rpm motors, working headlights, fully independent front and rear suspension, optional all-wheel drive and other features. ... ZipZaps are miniature radio controlled cars sold by RadioShack. ...


In recent years, hobby-grade "ready to run" models have become available from every major manufacturer of remote control cars, attracting many hobbyists who would otherwise have purchased a pre-assembled toy car. Vehicles of this type need little or no final assembly and in some cases, the bodies are shipped painted and trimmed, requiring no further work from the owner before they can be used. A number of cars and trucks are presently available only in ready-to-run form; recent examples include the Traxxas Revo and Hobby Products International (HPI) Savage 25, both fuel-powered model vehicles.


History

The beginnings of model racing

Small, nitromethane-powered engines originally entered the market in the 1940s. At the time, there was insufficient technology to control an engine-powered model car other than on a tether. "Tether cars", or "spin dizzies", were capable of speeds upwards of 70 mph (113 km/h), but merely ran in a circle from the tether. In the late 1960s, the first miniaturized solid state radio control systems became available, which allowed a model car to have servo-controlled steering, throttle, and brake functionality that could be remotely controlled from a radio control transmitter unit. This allowed model cars to be able to run a racetrack, with the ability for precise control in a similar manner as with a full-sized vehicle. Nitromethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3NO2. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and trends The 1940s were seen as a transition period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s, which also leads the period to be divided in two halves: The first half of the decade was dominated by World War II, the widest and most... A tether is a cord that anchors something to something else, such as a pole. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... In physics, the solid state is one of the three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). ... Jump to: navigation, search This remote control airplane is carrying a scale model of X-33 and is taking part in actual NASA research. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term servo can refer to: Servomechanism - usually just shortened to servo, is a device used to effect mechanical motion for a specified distance. ...


First commercial products

In 1976, the Japanese firm Tamiya, who were renowned for their intricately detailed plastic model kits, released a series of elegant but somewhat mechanically crude car models that were sold as "suitable for radio control". Although rather expensive to purchase, the kits and radio systems sold rapidly; Tamiya eventually turned their attention away from scale detail of vehicles and towards the development of more purpose-built remote control model cars. Featuring working suspensions, more powerful motors, textured off-road rubber tires and often topped with stylized "dune buggy" bodies, these models were durable, easy to assemble, capable of being modified, and simple to repair. These models can be credited with launching a boom in the popularity of radio controlled model cars in the early to mid 1980s, and they provided the basis for today's radio controlled car market. Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tamiya Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of plastic model kits, radio controlled electric and nitro-powered car models, battery- and solar-powered educational models, and sailboat models. ... Dune buggy A dune buggy is a recreational vehicle having big wheels and tires designed for use on sand dunes or beaches, especially a light vehicle with a modified engine mounted on an open chassis. ...


A British firm, Schumacher Racing, was the first to develop a ball differential in 1980, which allowed nearly infinite tuning for various track conditions. At the time the majority of on-road cars had a solid axle, while off-road cars generally had a gear-type differential. Team Associated followed suit with the introduction of the RC-10 off-road racing buggy in 1984 (see below). In this differential, input torque is applied to the ring gear (blue). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1980 (MCMLXXX) is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Jump to: navigation, search This page is about the year 1984. ...


Modern developments in radio controlled racing

In 1984, Associated Electrics, Inc. of Costa Mesa, California introduced the RC10 off-road electric racer; this model was a departure from Associated Electrics' regular line of nitromethane-powered on-road race cars. Designed as a more professional radio controlled car, the chassis of the RC10 was manufactured from anodised, aircraft-grade aluminium alloy. The shock absorbers were machined, oil-filled and completely tuneable; they were also produced from the same aluminium alloy. Suspension control arms were manufactured from high-impact nylon, as were the two-piece wheels. Associated Electrics, Incorporated of Costa Mesa, California is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of radio controlled cars, trucks and accessories. ... Costa Mesa is a city located in Orange County, California. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Jump to: navigation, search An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, which has a combination of at least two metals, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... A shock absorber in United States parlance (sometimes damper in British use) is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or damp a sudden shock impulse and dissipate kinetic energy. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article covers the material nylon. ... Jump to: navigation, search A driving wheel on a steam locomotive. ...


Optional stainless steel miniature ball bearings were sometimes incorporated in RC10 wheels and transmissions. The RC10 transmission contained innovative differential featuring - hardened steel rings pressed against ball bearings - which made it infinitely adjustable for any track condition. The RC10 quickly became the dominant model in electric off-road racing. The pinnacle of New Yorks Chrysler Building is clad with stainless steel In metallurgy, stainless steel (inox) is defined as a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10. ... Nickel-chrome plated steel balls A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing, a kind of bearing. ... Transmission is the following: Generally, transmission is the act of passing something on. ... A differential can mean one of several things: Differential (mathematics) Differential (mechanics) Differential signaling is used to carry high speed digital signals. ...


In 1986, Schumacher Racing Products released their CAT (Competition All Terrain) vehicle, widely considered the best four wheel drive off-road "buggy" racer of the time. The CAT went on to win the 1987 off-road world championship, following suit in 1990, 1994, 1995, and 1996. This car is credited for sparking an interest in four wheel drive electric off-road racing. Jump to: navigation, search 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the Temptations album, see 1990 (Temptations album) MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Gil Losi, whose family ran the "Ranch Pit Stop R/C" racetrack in Pomona, California, turned his college studies toward engineering, primarily in the field of injection molded plastics, leading to his foundation of Team Losi. When the JRX-2, the first Team Losi buggy, was released it initiated a rivalry with Team Associated that continues to this day. Team Losi went on to secure a number of achievements, which included the industry's first all-natural rubber tires, the first American made four wheel drive racing buggy, and an entirely new class of cars, the 1/18-scale Mini-T off-road electrics. Pomona is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, in the eastern San Gabriel Valley. ... Slightly modified XXX-T RTR. To see this vehicle with the body removed, look here Slightly modified XXX-NT, built from a kit. ... Slightly modified XXX-T RTR. To see this vehicle with the body removed, look here Slightly modified XXX-NT, built from a kit. ...


Although Losi and Associated seemed to dominate much of the American market, Traxxas (another American company) and Kyosho (from Japan) were also making competitive two-wheel-drive off-road racing models. Although Losi and Associated were close rivals in the USA, Schumacher off-road models continued to be popular amongst European hobbyists. // Company Traxxas is a hobby level radio control model manufacturer based in the USA. Their more popular models include the T-Maxx, the Revo, and the Jato. ...


Technical aspects of radio controlled car racing

Electrically-powered models

1/12-scale onroad electric with body removed
1/12-scale onroad electric with body removed
1/10-scale electric sedan on a carpet track
1/10-scale electric sedan on a carpet track

Electrically powered models usually stay cleaner during operation, are lighter in weight, and require less maintenance than fuel-powered models. After having run a few races with an electric car, the only dirt accumulated on the vehicle is usually from track dust. The light weight of electrically-powered cars allows them to accelerate rapidly. Another advantage that electric cars has against fuel-powered engines is that electric motors have a more even torque; in addition, they also have better throttle response. Electric batteries, however, take some time to charge. Routine maintenance usually consists of cleaning, inspecting the model car for damages, and replacing any parts that have been damaged during use. The disadvantages of electric cars are they generally do not reach the same speeds produced by comparable fuel-powered vehicles, unless expensive upgrades are added. High performance electric motors must be allowed to cool down after use, to avoid demagnetizing the permanent magnets. Uncopyrighted photo from gallery at http://www. ... Uncopyrighted photo from gallery at http://www. ... Uncopyrighted photo from gallery at http://www. ... Uncopyrighted photo from gallery at http://www. ... The concept of torque in physics, also called moment or couple, originated with the work of Archimedes on levers. ...


In terms of long-term maintenance of the engine, the application of motor cleaning solution is needed between runs to avoid wear from dirt and dust. Also, the bearings (or bushings) in the motor must be re-oiled periodically. Replacing the motor brushes is also sometimes required, and tyres used must be very carefully selected to match the racing surface for maximum traction. Racing tires wear out relatively quickly, compared to "play tires", which are more durable but do not have quite as much traction.


Fuel-powered models

"Ready-to-run" fuel powered cars (commonly abbreviated to "RTR") can be purchased, which leave the factory in a pre-tuned condition that affords for good racing performance without prior adjustment. Alternatively, composite vehicles can be purchased that are either in kit form or are partially assembled, which are built and tuned by the owner prior to use.


Fuel-powered engines allow model cars to reach impressive speeds, with much higher top speeds than electric cars. Maximum horsepower is generally achieved at medium to high speeds, and a slightly slower throttle response than electrically-powered vehicles is usually expected.


One disadvantage of fuel-powered engines is the dirt produced; a short five-minute run of such an engine is sufficient to coat the vehicle in dirt from fuel combustion. Cleaning is usually achieved by the use of compressed air blowers and solvents (such as denatured alcohol), because of the stubborn nature of the exhaust residue and fuel that tends to cover the chassis. Tuning a fuel-powered vehicle requires some skill to maintain optimum performance, fuel economy, and to keep the engine from overheating, even in ready-to-run vehicles. Because of the higher performance and their ability to be driven for longer periods of time, mechanical wear to the vehicle is generally greater than in electrics. In addition, the increased speed and weight of fuel-powered vehicles generally leads to collisions causing greater damage to the collided vehicles, and some degree of safety concern needs to be considered when racing them. Denatured alcohol is ethanol with added adulterants that make it useless for consumption as an intoxicating beverage by rendering it toxic but still useful for industrial processes or as a household chemical. ...


Accessories

Both fuel-powered and electric models generally require the purchase of additional accessories. For electrical vehicles, battery packs will be needed to power the car, and a battery charger is necessary to charge the battery packs. A soldering iron and supplies are often necessary to build high performance battery packs and install upgraded electronics.


Racing

There are tracks and racing clubs around the world for enthusiasts to get together and race, and there are many levels of difficulty from novice all the way to professional, ensuring that there is a racing class regardless of skill or equipment level. R/C racing on a professional level is a serious motorsport, regardless of the size of the cars involved, with factory-backed drivers racing for cash purses all over the world.


Some commonly raced classes and the types of models that race them are:

  • 1/12 Electric Onroad - Rear wheel Drive Cam Am-bodied cars, Touring cars, oval racers
  • 1/10 Electric Onroad - Touring cars, Can Am-bodied cars, Formula One/Indy cars, oval racers
  • 1/10 Electric Offroad - 2WD trucks, 2WD buggies, 4WD trucks, 4WD buggies, dirt track oval racers
  • 1/10 Nitro Onroad - Touring cars, Can Am-bodied cars, oval racers
  • 1/10 Nitro Offroad - 2WD trucks, 2WD buggies, 4WD trucks, 4WD buggies, dirt track oval racers
  • 1/8 Nitro Onroad - Touring cars, Can Am-bodied cars
  • 1/8 Nitro Offroad - 4WD buggies, 4WD trucks

It should be noted that the fractional number used throughout this article refers to the model's scale in proportion to its full-sized counterpart. Therefore, a 1/10-scale car is one-tenth the size of a real car, though most purpose-built racing models are not built to true scale. A scale is either a device used for measurement of weights, or a series of ratios against which different measurements can be compared. ...


Not all tracks will race all classes, as terrain, space and noise requirements differ from class to class. It also means that the same track cannot always be used for more than one or two similar classes.


However, if the class you drive in is not raced at your local track, yet is similar to a class that is raced, it is often possible to run with the other cars. This obviously must be discussed with the race coordinators prior to the race, and usually depends on the willingness of the coordinators to bend the rules in order to encourage new members to the track...and therefore to the hobby. In a race sanctioned by a governing body such as ROAR (Radio Operated Auto Racing) and IFMAR (International Federation of Model Auto Racing), the rules clearly define that only vehicles of the same class may be run together.


In the United States, the main sanctioning body for racing is ROAR, itself a part of the worldwide IFMAR racing organization. At the ROAR level, there are thirteen different regions in the US and one region for all of Canada. Each region has a championship race, including the US Nationals. Placing well in the nationals will qualify a person for the Worlds Races, sanctioned by IFMAR. The IFMAR Worlds are the pinnacle of radio controlled competition. After winning the 1/10th Electric Off-Road Worlds in 2003, Team Associated driver Billy Easton retired from racing and continued his college education. He has since returned to professional racing.


The world's most successful driver is Japan's Masami Hirosaka. Hirosaka has won fourteen world titles in all electric racing categories except 1/10th touring.


Drifting

Drifting refers to the difference in slip angle between the front and rear tires of a car. When the rear wheels are slipping at a greater angle than the front wheels, the car is drifting, or oversteering. The rear end of the car appears to chase the front end around a turn, and the driver utilizes both front tires and the rear tires to control the actual direction of the car. Like larger vehicles, radio controlled cars can accomplish this skill with practice and some supplies, such as black ABS plastic pipes as tires to allow for drifting and grip on the road. Any type of plastic pipe can be used as tires, but ABS has better grip. ABS pipe can be obtained from a local hardware or plumbing store. ABS is a TLA (acronym) for: ADULT BOOK STORE Anti-lock braking system Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australias official statistical organization American Bureau of Shipping American Bible Society Anchor Bible Series Asset-backed security Automatic Beam System - automated railways & monorails Albino Black Sheep - website...


World speed record

The 2003 Guinness Book of World Records lists the fastest-ever top speed of a radio-controlled car as 111 mph (178.63 km/h) set by Cliff Lett of Associated Electrics. Lett, a Team Associated professional driver and one of the designers and developers of the aforementioned RC10, set the record with a heavily modified Associated RC10L3 touring car at Irwindale Speedway on January 13, 2001. The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... Irwindale Speedway is located in Irwindale, California. ...


References

Jump to: navigation, search September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Associated Electrics, Incorporated of Costa Mesa, California is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of radio controlled cars, trucks and accessories. ... Slightly modified XXX-T RTR. To see this vehicle with the body removed, look here Slightly modified XXX-NT, built from a kit. ... Schumacher Racing Products (Schumacher) is a well established manufacture of radio controlled car. ... HPI, or Hobby Products International, is a leading manufacturer of radio controlled models including the monster truck Savage, the 4wd stadium truck Nitro MT2, and the 2wd stadium truck Rush. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tamiya Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of plastic model kits, radio controlled electric and nitro-powered car models, battery- and solar-powered educational models, sailboat models, acrylic model paints, and various modelling tools and supplies. ... // Company Traxxas is a hobby level radio control model manufacturer based in the USA. Their more popular models include the T-Maxx, the Revo, and the Jato. ...

External links

  • Monster Madness
  • Wikicities has a wiki about radio control: radiocontrol
  • ROAR, IFMAR, BRCA and RC Pro Series are some US and International racing organizations.

Radio Controlled Car Action, RC411, and Jump to: navigation, search Wikicities is a wiki hosting service created in 2004 by Jimmy Wales and Angela Beesley. ... The BRCA or British Radio (Controlled) Car Association is a club for members of all types of radio controlled cars in Britain. ...

  • RC Drifting Set up
  • RC Drifting Videos
  • Team Associated
  • Team Losi
  • Schumacher Racing
  • HPI Racing
  • Kyosho
  • Mugen Seiki (English)
  • Ofna
  • Tamiya
  • Traxxas

  Results from FactBites:
 
Radio-controlled model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1379 words)
A radio-controlled model (or RC model) is a model that is steerable with the use of radio control.
In the 1990s miniaturised equipment became widely available, allowing radio control of the smallest models, and by the 2000s radio control was commonplace even for the control of inexpensive toys.
Many cars, boats, and aircraft can accept equipment from different manufacturers, so it is possible to take RC equipment from a car and install it into a boat, for example.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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