FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Radio broadcasting

Radio broadcasting can be done via cable FM, local wire networks, satellite and the Internet. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Cable radio or cable FM is a complementary concept to that of cable television, bringing radio transmissions into homes and businesses via coaxial cable. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of radio

The earliest radio stations were simply radio and audiotelegraph systems and did not carry audio. The first claimed audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906, and was made by Reginald Fessenden. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices where only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year. // For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian-born inventor, best known for his work in early radio. ... A radiotelephone is a communications device that allows two or more people to talk using radio. ... Charles David Doc Herrold, (November 16, 1875 - 1948) was an American radio broadcasting pioneer. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


For the next decade, radio tinkerers had to build their own radio receivers. KDKA AM of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (owned by Westinghouse) started broadcasting as the first licensed "commercial" radio station on November 2, 1920[citation needed]. The commercial designation came from the type of license—they didn't start airing advertisements until a few years later. The first broadcast was the results of the U.S. presidential election, 1920. The Montreal station that became CFCF-AM began program broadcasts on May 20, 1920, and the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. KDKA is a U.S. class A clear channel AM radio station located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that operates on 1020 kHz. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... CINW is an English language Canadian radio station located in Montreal, Quebec. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... WWJ (Newsradio 950) is Detroit, Michigans only 24-hour all-news radio station. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Radio Argentina began regularly scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim. The station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date. This station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. [1][2] For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


When internet based radio became feasible in the mid '90s, the new medium required no licensing and the stations could broadcast from anywhere in the world without the need for "over the air" transmitters. This greatly reduced the overhead for establishing a station, and in 1996, 'A' Net Station (A.N.E.T.)[3] began broadcasting commercial free from Antarctica.


M.I.T. developed the "Radio Locator" List of Radio Stations. [4]. After stations started streaming audio on the internet, Radio-Locator added this to their search engine so anyone could locate a station's website and listen to a station offering a worldwide stream. This list also tracks "terrestrial" radio stations who may not have live audio on the net, or even a website, but are able to find station information by various other search queries.


Types

Radio stations are of several types. The best known are the AM and FM stations; these include both commercial, public and nonprofit varieties as well as student-run campus radio stations and hospital radio stations can be found throughout the developed world. AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the listening public. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Typical hospital radio studio Hospital radio stations provide radio entertainment to patients in UK hospitals. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


Although now being eclipsed by internet-distributed radio, there are many stations that broadcast on shortwave bands using AM technology that can be received over thousands of miles (especially at night). For example, the BBC has a full schedule transmitted via shortwave. These broadcasts are very sensitive to atmospheric conditions and sunspots. A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than those commonly... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ...


AM

AM stations were the earliest broadcasting stations to be developed. AM refers to amplitude modulation, a mode of broadcasting radio waves by varying the amplitude of the carrier signal in response to the amplitude of the signal to be transmitted. Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ...


One of the advantages of AM is that its unsophisticated signal can be detected (turned into sound) with simple equipment. If a signal is strong enough, not even a power source is needed; building an unpowered crystal radio receiver was a common childhood project in the early years of radio. An example of a modern set created by VE6AB The crystal radio receiver (also known as a crystal set) is a passive radio receiver consisting of a variable LC tuned circuit, a diode detector, and audio transducer. ...


AM broadcasts occur on North American airwaves in the mediumwave frequency range of 530 to 1700 kHz (known as the "standard broadcast band"). The band was expanded in the 1990s by adding nine channels from 1620 to 1700 kHz. Channels are spaced every 10 kHz in the Americas, and generally every 9 kHz everywhere else. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Many countries outside of the U.S. use a similar frequency band for AM transmissions. Europe also uses the longwave band. In response to the growing popularity of FM radio stations in the late 1980s and early 1990s, some North American stations began broadcasting in AM stereo, though this never really gained acceptance. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Longwave can also refer to the economics concept of Kondratiev waves, or to the rock band Longwave The Longwave radio broadcasting band is the range of frequencies between 148. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... AM stereo is any of a number of mutually-incompatible techniques for broadcasting two_channel audio in the mediumwave band in a manner that is compatible with receivers designed for standard amplitude modulation. ...


AM radio has some serious shortcomings.

  • The signal is subject to interference from electrical storms (lightning) and other EMI.
  • Fading of the signal can be severe at night.

AM signals exhibit diurnal variation, travelling much longer distances at night. In a crowded channel environment this means that the power of regional channels which share a frequency must be reduced at night or directionally beamed in order to avoid interference, which reduces the potential nighttime audience. Some stations have frequencies unshared with other stations in the U.S.; these are called clear channel stations. Many of them can be heard across much of the country at night. (This is not to be confused with Clear Channel Communications, which currently owns many U.S. radio stations.) This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... Clear channel stations are AM radio stations that are designated as such so that only one or two 50,000 watt powerhouses operate at night on each designated frequency, covering a wide area via sky wave propagation. ... Not to be confused with clear channel radio stations, which are AM radio stations with certain technical parameters. ...

  • AM radio transmitters can transmit audio frequencies up to 20 kHz (now limited to 10 kHz in the US due to FCC rules designed to reduce interference), but most receivers are only capable of reproducing frequencies up to 5 kHz or less. At the time that AM broadcasting began in the 1920s, this provided adequate fidelity for existing microphones, 78 rpm recordings, and loudspeakers. The fidelity of sound equipment subsequently improved considerably but the receivers did not. Reducing the bandwidth of the receivers reduces the cost of manufacturing and makes them less prone to interference. In the United States, AM stations are never assigned adjacent channels in the same service area. This prevents the sideband energy generated by two stations from interfering with each other.Bob Carver created an AM stereo tuner employing notch filtering that demonstrated an AM broadcast can meet or exceed the 15 kHz bandwidth of FM stations without objectionable interference. After a few years the tuner was discontinued; Bob Carver had left the company and Carver Corporation later cut the number of models produced before discontinuing production completely. AM stereo broadcasts declined with the advent of HD Radio.

Bob Carver is an American designer of audio equipment based in the Pacific Northwest. ... A notch filter, also called a band-stop filter, sometimes a narrow band-pass filter, or T-notch filter, is an electronic filter typically used when the high frequency and the low frequency are less than 1 to 2 decades apart (that is, the high frequency is less than 10... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ...

FM

FM refers to frequency modulation, and occurs on VHF airwaves in the frequency range of 88 to 108 MHz everywhere (except Japan and Russia). Japan uses the 76 to 90 MHz band. FM stations are much more popular in economically developed regions, such as Europe and the United States, especially since higher sound fidelity and stereo broadcasting became common in this format. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Label for 2. ...


FM radio was invented by Edwin H. Armstrong in the 1930s for the specific purpose of overcoming the interference (static) problem of AM radio, to which it is immune. At the same time, greater fidelity was made possible by spacing stations further apart. Instead of 10 kHz apart, they are 200 kHz apart—the difference between the lowest current FM frequency in the U.S., 88.1 MHz and the next lowest, 88.3 MHz. This was far in advance of the audio equipment of the 1940s, but wide interchannel spacing was chosen to reduce interference problems that existed with AM. Edwin Howard Armstrong Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 - March 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In fact 200 kHz is not needed to accommodate an audio signal — 20 kHz to 30 kHz is all that is necessary for a narrowband FM signal. The 200 kHz bandwidth allowed room for ±75 kHz signal deviation from the assigned frequency plus a 50 kHz guardband to eliminate adjacent channel interference. The larger bandwidth allows for broadcasting a 15 kHz bandwidth audio signal plus a 38 kHz stereo "subcarrier" — a piggyback signal that rides on the main signal. Additional unused capacity is used by some broadcasters to transmit utility functions such as background music for public areas, GPS auxiliary signals, or financial market data. A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


The AM radio problem of interference at night was addressed in a different way. At the time FM was set up, the only available frequencies were far higher in the spectrum than those used for AM radio. Using these frequencies meant that even at far higher power, the range of a given FM signal was much lower, thus its market was more local than for AM radio. Reception range at night was the same as daytime, and while the problem of interference between stations has not disappeared, it is far less.


The original FM radio service in the U.S. was the Yankee Network, located in New England. See [5] [6] [7]. Broadcasting began in the early 1940s but did not pose a significant threat to the AM broadcasting industry. It required purchase of a special receiver. The frequencies used were not those used today: 42 to 50 megahertz. The change to the current frequencies, 88 to 108 megahertz, began at the end of World War II and was to some extent imposed by AM radio owners so as to cripple what was by now realized to be a potentially serious threat. MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


FM radio on the new band had to begin from step one. As a commercial venture it remained a little used audio enthusiast's medium until the 1960s. The more prosperous AM stations, or their owners, acquired FM licenses and often broadcast the same programming on the FM station as on the AM station (simulcasting). The FCC limited this practice in the 1970s. By the 1980s, since almost all new radios included both AM and FM tuners (without any government mandate), FM became the dominant medium, especially in cities. Because of its greater range, AM remained more common in rural environments. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... A simulcast takes place when a program or event is simultaneously broadcast across more than one broadcast platform at the same time. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


Digital

Digital radio broadcasting has emerged, first in Europe (the UK in 1995 and Germany in 1999), and later in the United States. The European system is named DAB, for Digital Audio Broadcasting, and uses the public domain EUREKA 147 system. In the United States, the IBOC system is named HD Radio and owned by a consortium of private companies called iBiquity. An international non-profit consortium Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM), has introduced the public domain DRM system. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Official DAB logo, found on compliant devices Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Eureka 147 is a protocol for digital radio broadcasting originally developed in Europe, but now being deployed in many countries around the world. ... In-band on-channel (IBOC) is a method of transmitting digital and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency. ... HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ... A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organisations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal. ... iBiquity is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


It is expected that for the next 10 to 20 years, all these systems will co-exist, while by 2015 to 2020 digital radio may predominate, at least in the developed countries.


Satellite

Satellite radiobroadcasters are slowly emerging, but the enormous entry costs of space-based satellite transmitters, and restrictions on available radio spectrum licenses has restricted growth of this market. In the USA and Canada, just two services, XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio exist. A satellite radio or subscription radio (SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite, which covers a much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... “XM” redirects here. ... Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is one of two satellite radio (SDARS) services operating in the United States and Canada, along with XM Satellite Radio. ...


Other

Many other non-broadcast types of radio stations exist. These include:

The term base station can be used in the context of land surveying, wireless computer networking, and wireless communications. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A dispatch can be: A report sent to a newspaper by a correspondent. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. ... A courier is a person or company employed to deliver messages, packages and mail. ... A slide used by television stations during Emergency Broadcast System announcements and tests. ... An amateur radio station is a facility equipped with the apparatus necessary for carrying on radiocommunications in the Amateur Radio Service. ...

Program formats

Main article: Radio format

Radio program formats differ by country, regulation and markets. For instance, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission designates the 88–92 megahertz band in the U.S. for non-profit or educational programming, with advertising prohibited. A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... The FCCs official seal. ...


In addition, formats change in popularity as time passes and technology improves. Early radio equipment only allowed program material to be broadcast in real time, known as live broadcasting. As technology for sound recording improved, an increasing proportion of broadcast programming used pre-recorded material. A current trend is the automation of radio stations. Some stations now operate without direct human intervention by using entirely pre-recorded material sequenced by computer control. Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ...

Further information: Voice-tracking

Voice tracking, also called cyber jocking, is a technique employed by some radio stations. ...

See also

// Broadcasting around the World United States Broadcasting pioneer Frank Conrad in a 1921 portrait. ... // For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously, or slightly delayed, for the purpose of extending total coverage beyond the limits of a single broadcast signal. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... This is a list of radio stations in Africa. ... This is a list of radio stations in Asia. ... This is a list of radio stations in Europe. ... Here are lists of radio stations in South America // Argentina Main article: List of radio stations in Argentina Pop Radio 101. ... Here is a encyclopedic cirectory of South-Pacific, and Oceanian radio stations: List of radio stations in the Cook Islands List of radio stations in Eastern Indonesia List of radio stations in East Timor List of radio stations in Guam List of radio stations in Java and Bali (Central Indonesia... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... In radio (including television), a callsign or call sign (also call letters) is a unique designation for amateur, broadcast, and sometimes military radio use, as well as for broadcast television. ... A low power radio station emits a comparatively weak radio signal. ... A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... A Construction permit is a permit needed in many jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Look up Radio broadcasting in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 1,082,221 ,Georg Graf Von Arco, "Radiotelegraphic station" (December 1913)
  • U.S. Patent 1,116,111 , Richard Pfund, "Station for the transmission and reception of electromagnetic wave energy". (November 1914)
  • U.S. Patent 1,214,591 , Gustav Reuthe, "Antenna for radiotelegraph station" (February 1917)

General


  Results from FactBites:
 
Broadcasting - MSN Encarta (1329 words)
The term broadcasting refers to the airborne transmission of electromagnetic audio signals (radio) or audiovisual signals (television) that are accessible to a wide population via standard, readily available receivers.
Broadcasting is a crucial instrument of modern social and political organization.
The story of radio begins in the development of an earlier medium, the telegraph, which was the first instantaneous system of information movement.
Broadcasting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1411 words)
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group.
American radio network broadcasters habitually forbade prerecorded broadcasts in the 1930s and 1940s, requiring radio programs played for the Eastern and Central time zones to be repeated three hours later for the Pacific time zone.
Ewbank Henry and Lawton Sherman P. Broadcasting: Radio and Television (Harper and Brothers, 1952).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m