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Encyclopedia > Radio Luxembourg

Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. It was a cheap and effective way to advertise products to audiences in the UK, France and (since 1957) Germany by circumventing the broadcasting restrictions in place at the time. For many years complete English programmes were pre-recorded in London and flown to the tiny independent Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on mainland Europe. German programmes were produced in a studio in Luxembourg. A powerful transmitter enabled broadcasts to be received throughout Europe. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term pirate radio lacks a specific universal interpretation. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ...

Contents

History

Luxembourg was special, because while radio stations all over Europe were exclusively government-owned and operated well into the 1980s, Radio Luxembourg was a private station from its inception. A radio amateur (ham) obtained a licence in 1924, using it to broadcast military music. French businessmen bought the licence in May 1929 and managed to get a broadcasting monopoly in Luxembourg in November 1929. In May 1931 the Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Radiodiffusion was founded, which started to build the transmitters. Transmissions in French and English started in 1933. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby and public service enjoyed by about 3 million people[1] throughout the world. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Military Band marching A military band is a group of soldiers assigned to musical duties. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... RTL Group is Europes largest TV, radio and production company. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The station was closed three weeks after the beginning of World War II, because the Grand Duchy wanted to protect its neutrality. However, Luxembourg was occupied by Nazi Germany, and the station became part of the de:Großdeutscher Rundfunk. The usual propaganda was broadcast, such as fabricated news stories delivered by William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw). Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lord Haw-Haw. ...


Luxembourg was occupied by American troops in September 1944. The transmitter was then used for Radio 1212, a black propaganda station aimed at undermining German morale. Between April and November 1945, the station transmitted the programming of the Voice of America. Radio Luxembourg produced and transmitted its own programming during this time, though not under the name "Radio Luxembourg", but as a "United Nations Station". 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ...


The station reached its peak in the 1950s after it switched its wavelength to 208 metres (1439 kHz, later 1440) the number with which it became synonymous, in 1951 ("2-0-8 Power Play"). Propagation conditions meant that this frequency could be well received in Germany during daytime and could only be heard at night in the UK, so the English service began broadcasting at 7:00 PM. The German service was launched in 1957 with a one hour experimental program at 2:00PM, later expanded to a full daytime program. The UK commercials aimed at Ovaltineys and Horace Batchelor's "Infra-Draw Method" for winning money on football pools were particularly popular and successful. Radio Luxembourg also launched the careers of many UK presenters including Chris Moyles, Noel Edmonds, Jimmy Savile, Hughie Greene, Alan Dell, Kent Walton and Pete Murray, Luxembourgian presenters like Desirée Nosbusch and German presenters like Thomas Gottschalk, Frank Elstner, Anke Engelke. Its cultural influence in the UK was immense and it is rightly regarded as one of the main forces for the popularisation of rock'n'roll in Britain; those who equate popular culture with politics argue that this is ironic for a station based in mainland Europe. The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... The metre, or meter (US), is a measure of length. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Radio propagation is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ovaltineys or League of Ovaltineys was a childrens club developed in the 1930s to promote the sale of Ovaltine brand drink in the United Kingdom. ... Horace Batchelor was famous in the UK during the late 1950s and early 1960s as an advertiser on Radio Luxembourg. ... Pool has several meanings: A planted garden pool at Mission San Juan Capistrano It is any of several games similar to billiards, distinguished by using a table that has one pocket at each corner and one in the middle of each of the two longer sides. ... Christopher Moyles (born February 22, 1974 in Leeds), is a British radio DJ and presenter of The Chris Moyles Show on BBC Radio 1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir Jimmy Savile OBE Sir James Wilson Vincent Savile OBE, (born 31 October 1926), commonly called Jimmy Savile, is a British DJ, actor and television personality. ... Hughie Green (February 2, 1920 - May 3, 1997), born in London, was the host of numerous British television shows. ... Alan Dell (March 8, 1924 - August 18, 1995) was a BBC Radio broadcaster, who probably did more than anyone else in the second half of the 20th century to ensure that the dance music of the 1920s and 30s remained in the public consciousness. ... Kent Walton (Kenneth Walton Beckett) (22 August 1917 - 24 August 2003) was a British television sports commentator and presenter. ... Pete Murray (born 1928) is a well-known British disc jockey and actor, popular during the 1960s. ... Motto: Luxembourgish: Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn (English: We wish to remain what we are) Anthem: Ons Hémécht (Our Homeland) Royal anthem: De Wilhelmus 1 Capital Luxembourg Largest city Luxembourg French, German, Luxembourgish (de jure since 1984) Government Grand duchy  - Grand Duke Grand Duke Henri (List... Désirée Nosbusch in 2005 Désirée Nosbusch (born January 14, 1965) is a television presenter and actress. ... Thomas Gottschalk at Festung Ehrenbreitstein Thomas Gottschalk (born May 18, 1950) is a famous German TV host. ... Anke Engelke Anke Christina Fischer, née Engelke is a German comedian and actress born in Montréal on December 21, 1965. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, (literally: the culture of the people) consists of the cultural elements that prevail (at least numerically) in any given society, mainly using the more popular media, in that societys vernacular language and/or an established lingua franca. ... Politics is the process by which individuals or relatively small groups attempt to exert influence over the actions of an organization. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


In the 1960s the station had to compete against the pirate radio stations located closer to the UK on ships or abandoned World War II sea forts, and was disadvantaged by its inability to broadcast by day. The tendency of its signal to keep fading in and out also put many listeners off. In the 1970s its audience continued to decline as BBC Radio 1, Capital Radio and other local radio stations competed for its audiences. At one point it became an all disco station. The station's 50th anniversary in 1983 was a rather low-key affair in the UK. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The term pirate radio lacks a specific universal interpretation. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Maunsell Sea Forts are a set of sea forts built in Britain in WWII. Guy Maunsell designed four Naval Sea Forts, double pontoon gun platforms with 2 6 guns and a Bofors, sunk in position in 1942 to deter and report back German attempts at mine laying (called Roughs... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station operated by the BBC, specialising in popular music aimed at the 16-24 age bracket. ... The Capital Radio building in Leicester Square, London. ... Logo used by the Independent Broadcasting Authority for promoting Independent Local Radio services. ... Discothèque redirects here. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1989 the station began broadcasting in stereo via the Astra satellite which could be received throughout Europe, and expanded its satellite service to 24 hours with daytime programmes in English but aimed at Scandinavian audiences. But the station's owners RTL had lost interest in the English service, preferring to concentrate on their new station Atlantic 252. The 208m wavelength was unceremoniously reassigned to German language programmes of a successor station RTL RADIO, and a programming with no resemblance to the original German program. The satellite service was closed down on December 30, 1992 (one day before New Year's Eve to avoid clashing with listeners' New Year celebrations). 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... In popular usage, stereo generally to dual-channel sound recording and sound reproduction – sound that contains data for more than one speaker simultaneously. ... Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), now SES Astra. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... MILSTAR:A communication satellite A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe. ... RTL Group is Europes largest TV, radio and production company. ... ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... In 1992 Radio Luxemburg, the German version of the legendary Radio Luxembourg, changed its format and profile to become RTL Radio. ... MILSTAR:A communication satellite A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... New Years Eve is a celebration held the day before New Years Day, on December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next. ...


2005 and Relaunch

Today, as of 2005, the 1440 kHz frequency is still in use by the remodeled German successor RTL RADIO. Since the first of January 2005 the transmission has mainly switched to digital (01:00 AM until 05:00 AM and 09:00 AM until 06:00 PM). During the evening hours airtime is sold to international broadcasters (currently China Radio International) and religious organisations. In addition the station utilizes a few FM frequencies (93.3 and 97.0 MHz) targeted to Germany, has slots on analog and digital cable, and transmits analog and digital signals via the Astra 1A and 1H satellites. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... China Radio International (CRI), (Chinese: 中国国际广播电台, Pinying: Zhōng Guó Guó Jì GuÇŽng Bō Diàn Tái) the former Radio Beijing, is one of the two state-owned national radio broadcasting networks in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Astra can mean: Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association, acronym for Astra (Marvel), Marvel comics character Astra (reactor), a type of nuclear research reactor built in Austria Astra missile, under development by India Astra (album), a 1985 album by Asia Astra, codename for a secret type of USA military aircraft...


During August 2005, RTL conducted digital test broadcasts to Great Britain on 7145 kHz using Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM). This culminated in the soft re-launch of Radio Luxembourg at 07:00 BST on 12 September 2005. The current output consists of pre-recorded voicetracked programming and includes legendary Radio Luxembourg presenters Benny Brown and Dave Christian amongst the line-up. The music format is predominantly classic rock with some modern rock and adult contemporary. The official relaunch of Radio Luxembourg with live presenters is expected by the end of 2006 once new DRM receivers are available on the market. Radio Luxembourg is available online, as well as on 7295 kHz via DRM. Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ...


Trivia

For many years, due to British advertising restrictions, Radio Luxembourg was the only station available in the UK that could advertise tampons. Billboards and street advertising in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, (2005) Advertising is drawing public attention to goods and services by promois performed through a variety of media. ... A tampon in the vagina A tampon is a plug of cotton or other absorbent material inserted into a body cavity or wound to absorb fluid. ...


By the 1980s Luxembourg claimed to be broadcasting with 1.3 megawatts, making it the world's single most powerful commercial broadcaster in the medium wave range, at least in terms of individual transmitter power. It was certainly the most powerful commercial medium wave station in Europe, at least. The transmitter of Radio Luxembourg is situated in Marnach. Only some governmental stations, e.g. Transmitter Solt in Hungary and the Voice of Russia, used higher powered transmitters in the medium wave range. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... The transmitter Marnach is a high power transmission facility for the medium wave frequency 1440 kHz of RTL near Marnach in Luxembourg for transmitting Radio Luxembourg. ... The Transmitter Solt is a transmission facility for the medium wave frequency 540 kHz near Solt, Hungary. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


Because of sponsor insistence, the famous Top 20 Countdown show was presented in descending order, based on the British New Musical Express (NME) Top 30 charts; i.e., starting with the week's #1 hit and working downward. Also, because of the constraints of a one-hour programme (not to mention allowing for commercials and announcer comments), only the first two minutes of the week's chart hits were likely to be played. To sponsor something is to support an event, activity, person or organization by providing money or other resources in exchange for something, usually advertising or publicity, and always access to an audience. ... The New Musical Express (better known as the NME) is a weekly magazine about popular music published in the UK. It is unlike many other popular music magazines due to its intended focus on guitar-based music and indie rock bands, instead of mainstream pop acts. ...


A tune called "Go Get It" usually closed the Top 20 Countdown in the 1960s.


Radio Luxembourg is a main theme in the Godley & Creme song "Get Well Soon" (lyrics) from their "Freeze Frame" album. In popular music, Godley & Creme was a duo of English musicians and music video directors, namely Kevin Godley and Lol Crème. ...


Van Morrison describes listening to Radio Luxembourg in his nostalgic song "On Hyndford Street". It's featured on the album Hymns to the Silence. Morrison's song "In The Days Before Rock'n'Roll" also mentions the station and was the last track played on the 208m wavelength in 1991. George Ivan Van Morrison (born August 31, 1945) is a singer and songwriter from Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Hymns to the Silence is an album by Irish singer-songwriter Van Morrison, released in 1991 (see 1991 in music. ...


The Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band frequently alluded to Radio Luxembourg and some of its eccentricities in the likes of their "Keynsham" LP (inspired by the advertisements for the Horace Batchelor Infra-Draw Method as were a staple of Radio Luxembourg from the 1950's well into the mid-1970's) and in such numbers as "The Intro and The Outro" (poking fun @ Radio Luxembourg's penchant for airing paid religious broadcasts such as Herbert W. Armstrong's The World Tomorrow and Billy Graham's Hour of Decision prior to the start of transmissions in the early 1960's). The Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band (more often the Bonzo Dog Band or to fans simply the Bonzos) were the brainchild of a British art-school set of the 1960s. ... Horace Batchelor was famous in the UK during the late 1950s and early 1960s as an advertiser on Radio Luxembourg. ... Herbert W. Armstrong (July 31, 1892 – January 16, 1986) was the founder of the Worldwide Church of God, Ambassador College (a private university), a broadcaster, a publisher, a self-styled Ambassador for Peace, and (through the Church and the Ambassador International Cultural Foundation) a promoter of the arts, humanities and... The World Tomorrow is a now-defunct radio and television half-hour program which had been sponsored by the Radio Church of God (later renamed Worldwide Church of God while under the direction of Herbert W. Armstrong. ... Billy Graham, April 1966 Rev. ...


Radio Luxembourg's sign-off music through the years

  • "At the End of the Day" by Steve Conway and The Hastings Girls' Choir (1950s)
  • "Maybe the Morning" by Marian Montgomery (1970s; this would also be "the last tune on Radio Luxembourg" when the English-language service was discontinued on 30 December 1992)
  • "All of You Out There" by Duncan McKenzie (1980s)

The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

"Fab 208" Magazine

In the 1970's, Radio Luxembourg published a weekly magazine and series of annuals called Fab 208 as featured celebrity gossip and profiles, competitions, beauty and fashion tips, short fiction and the weekly Radio Luxembourg programme listings.


Transmitters for the French programme

In the longwave range, a French speaking programme is transmitted on 234 kHz with a directional aerial with 2000 kilowatts over the longwave transmitter Beidweiler, which replaced the older longwave transmitter Junglinster. The longwave transmitter Beidweiler is a longwave transmission facility of RTL near Beidweiler, Luxemburg. ... The longwave transmitter Junglinster is a longwave broadcasting facility of RTL near Junglinster, Luxemburg, which went into service in 1932. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Radio Luxembourg (888 words)
Radio Luxembourg (1933 - 1992) was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe.
Luxembourg was special, because while radio stations all over Europe were exclusively government-owned and operated well into the 1980s, Radio Luxembourg was right from the beginning privately owned.
The transmitter of Radio Luxembourg is situated in Marnach.
Radio Luxembourg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1511 words)
Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe.
Luxembourg was special, because while radio stations all over Europe were exclusively government-owned and operated well into the 1980s, Radio Luxembourg was a private station from its inception.
This culminated in the soft re-launch of Radio Luxembourg at 07:00 BST on 12 September 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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