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Encyclopedia > Radio Caroline

Radio Caroline is a European radio station that started transmissions on Easter Sunday 1964 from a ship anchored in international waters off the coast of Felixstowe, Suffolk England.[1] Unlicensed by any government for most of its life, it was labelled as a pirate radio station. A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ...


Although one of a number of unlicensed radio stations based on ships anchored off Britain, Radio Caroline was the first such station to broadcast all day using the English language. This, together with the station's tenacity in surviving for some 40 years, has established Radio Caroline as a household name for offshore radio. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Offshore radio refers to the practice of radio broadcasting from ships or fixed maritime structures, usually in international waters. ...


A legal, onshore version of Radio Caroline continues to broadcast via several methods, predominantly via satellite and over the internet.

Radio Caroline
Broadcast area Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom:
Britain (Sky);
Europe, the Middle East and Africa (Worldspace);
Worldwide (Internet)
First air date March 28, 1964
Frequency Sky Digital: 0199
UPC Ireland: 927
Format Classic Rock
Owner Radio Caroline
Website http://www.radiocaroline.co.uk

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For a wider corporate history and profile, see British Sky Broadcasting. ... Europe, the Middle East and Africa, usually abbreviated to EMEA, is a regional designation used for government, marketing and business purposes. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... For a wider corporate history and profile, see British Sky Broadcasting. ... UPC Ireland N.V. is Liberty Global Europes operation in Ireland. ... A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...

History

The station has seen four distinct stages:

  1. 1964–1968: its founding on March 28, 1964, through to 1968 when its two ships were impounded by the shipping company
  2. 1972–1980: the return of Caroline in 1972 and survival until 1980 when the ship sank in a storm
  3. 1983–1991: the second return of Caroline, using a new ship in 1983 until 1991 when this vessel was shipwrecked and brought into harbour
  4. 1991–present: Caroline's move onto land, operating as a primarily onshore station broadcasting principally via satellite.

is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

1964-1968

Radio Caroline opens

Caroline's second ship, MV Mi Amigo, c. 1974
Caroline's second ship, MV Mi Amigo, c. 1974

Radio Caroline was founded by Irish music industry businessman Ronan O'Rahilly. The station, Radio Caroline, began broadcasting on 28 March 1964 from the ex-passenger ferry MV Fredericia, anchored in international waters three miles off the coast of Felixstowe, Suffolk, southeast England. The station took its name from Caroline Kennedy, daughter of U.S. President John F. Kennedy: O'Rahilly has said in interviews that when he flew to Dallas, Texas to buy the transmitters for the radio station, he was reading a copy of Look magazine. That issue contained a now-famous photo essay about the president and his two children John Jr and Caroline, who were playing with him in the Oval Office. O'Rahilly recalled a picture that showed John Jr crawling through a miniature doorway away from the President's legs. O'Rahilly changed the subject in his retelling of this story from John Jr to Caroline and that is how both his ship and station gained their names. Image File history File links Mi_Amigo_kleine. ... Image File history File links Mi_Amigo_kleine. ... Ronan ORahilly is an Irish businessman in the music industry. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Caroline Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg (born November 27, 1957) is the daughter and only surviving child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Look was a weekly, general-interest magazine published in the United States from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ...


Radio Caroline's first theme tune was Jimmy McGriff's "Round Midnight" (a jazz standard composed by Thelonious Monk which was an LP track on I've Got a Woman, Sue ILP 907 1962 UK; Sue 1012 USA). During March 1964, Birmingham band The Fortunes recorded the song "Caroline" on Decca F11809, and this later became the station's theme song, with "Round Midnight" confined to close down after the syndicated religious slot from US evangelist Garner Ted Armstrong. lots of issues | leave me a message 23:00, 2 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations | Hammond organ players ... Jazz standard refers to a tune that is widely known, performed, and recorded among jazz musicians. ... Thelonious Sphere Monk (October 10, 1917 – February 17, 1982) was a jazz pianist and composer. ... This article is about the British city. ... The Fortunes are an archetypal English beat group. ... Garner Ted Armstrong (February 9, 1930 - September 15, 2003) was an American evangelist and the son of Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God, at the time a Sabbatarian organization that taught strict observance of a seventh-day sabbath, holy days typically associated with the Jewish faith...


Radio Caroline chose a wavelength announced as "199" metres, which rhymed with "Caroline". In reality the station was on 197.3 metres (1520 kHz) at the high end of the medium wave band. The Dutch offshore station Radio Veronica was on 192 metres (1562 kHz) and Radio Atlanta chose 201 metres (1495 kHz). The original transmitter power of Radio Caroline was almost 20kW, achieved by linking two 10kW Continental Electronics transmitters together. Broadcasting hours were initially limited from 6am to 6pm daily under the slogan "Your all-day music station", because Radio Luxembourg came on the air in the English language at 6pm and direct competition was avoided. Later the station decided to return to the airwaves after 8pm and it continued until just after midnight. In this way Caroline saved its fuel by avoiding direct competition with the most popular television programmes. The use of radio sets at work was an uncommon practice and most commuters used public transport. Consequently most of its pop music programmes were aimed at housewives and later in the day they were targeted towards children arriving home from school. Because of the lack of daytime music radio competition during the first six months of transmission, Radio Caroline soon commanded a daytime audience of several million listeners at a time when all-day pop music broadcast in English was unknown in Europe. A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... This article refers to a historical Dutch radio station, not the current oldies station with the same name Radio Veronica is also a radio station in Athens, Greece, see http://www. ... Kwai Lo is Chinese slang for foreigner or ghost person. ... Continental Electronics is a major American manufacturer of broadcast and military radio transmitters, based in Dallas, Texas. ... Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ...


Caroline was not the first offshore station; the first ship-based radio station reportedly broadcast in the USA from the casino ship Rex, moored off California in the 1930s. Later, offshore radio ships were anchored off the coasts of Denmark and Sweden in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and since 1960 Radio Veronica had been broadcasting successfully to the Netherlands from a ship off the Dutch coast as well as Radio Northsea. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article refers to a historical Dutch radio station, not the current oldies station with the same name Radio Veronica is also a radio station in Athens, Greece, see http://www. ... Radio Nordzee broadcast from the REM island a structure built in the Republic of Ireland and towed to a position off the Dutch coastline in 1964 to serve as the pirate broadcasting home of Radio Nordzee. ...


Creation of Radio Caroline North and South

Other offshore radio ships soon followed Caroline's example and began broadcasting off the British coast. A few months after launch, Caroline merged with the new competitor station Radio Atlanta, and until 1968 broadcast from two ships — the original vessel Fredericia, which moved to the Bay of Ramsey, Isle of Man, to become Radio Caroline North — and the MV Mi Amigo, the ex-Radio Atlanta ship, which remained anchored off the Essex coast and took the name Radio Caroline South. Together the two ships were able to cover most of the British Isles and the western-most parts of continental northern Europe. Radio Caroline is a European radio station that originally commenced transmissions as an offshore radio station broadcasting from a ship anchored off the coast of South East England in international waters. ...

The first programme heard on Caroline was presented by Chris Moore [1]. DJs who went on become nationally famous included Tony Blackburn, Roger Day, Simon Dee, Tony Prince, Spangles Muldoon, Keith Skues, Johnnie Walker, Robbie Dale, Dave Lee Travis and Andy Archer. There were also a number of DJs from the USA and Commonwealth countries, such as Graham Webb, Tom Lodge, Emperor Rosko and Norman St John. DJ Jack Spector, of the WMCA "Good Guys" in New York, contributed a show, taped specifically for Radio Caroline on a regular basis. Syndicated shows from the US as well as prerecorded religious programmes were also broadcast. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2094 × 1628 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Own by by myself - made by myself - Tom Lodge - and I agree to all the terms. ... Chris Moore was a key figure in the British rock music radio revolution of the 1960s Moores was the first voice heard from the offshore pirate radio ship Radio Caroline on Easter Sunday, 1964[1]. At its peak the station had 23 million listeners. ... Tony Blackburn (born 29 January 1943 in Guildford, Surrey) is an award winning English disc jockey, who broadcast on the pirate stations Radio Caroline and Radio London in the 1960s and was the first presenter to appear on BBC Radio 1 in 1967. ... Broadcaster Roger Day born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire on 29th March 1945 & currently presents shows on Birminghams Saga 105. ... Simon Dee in the film, Doctor in Trouble (1970) Cyril Nicholas Henty-Dodd[1] (born July 28, 1935, England) is better known by his stage name Simon Dee. ... Tony Prince (born 9th May 1944) is a British radio disc jockey and businessman, who is best remembered for his programmes on Radio Caroline and Radio Luxembourg in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Born in Chester, U.K., on October 5th, 1946. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Johnnie Walker Johnnie Walker MBE (born Peter Dingley, 30 March 1945 in Birmingham, England) is a radio disc jockey. ... Robbie Dale The Admiral was born in Littleborough, U.K. on 21st April 1940. ... Dave Lee Travis (born in Buxton, Derbyshire on 25 May 1945) also known professionally as DLT, is a British radio presenter, best known for his career on BBC Radio 1. ... Andy Archer is a fictional character on the SOAPnet & ABC Daytime drama series, General Hospital: Night Shift and General Hospital. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mike Pasternak, or Emperor Rosko (born December 26, 1942 is a well known pop radio presenter. ... WMCA, 570 AM, is a radio station in New York City, most known for its Good Guys Top 40 era in the 1960s. ...


Mi Amigo runs aground

In January 1966, the Radio Caroline South ship MV Mi Amigo drifted in a storm and ran aground on the beach at Frinton-on-Sea. Transmissions ceased as the boat entered British territorial waters, and the crew and broadcasting staff were rescued unharmed, but the ship's hull was damaged and it had to go into dry dock for repair. While the repairs were being carried out, Caroline South broadcast from the vessel Cheeta II, owned by Swedish offshore station Radio Syd which was off the air at the time due to severe weather in the Baltic Sea. The Cheeta II was equpped for FM broadcasting, so to enable Caroline to return on 199 it was fitted with the 10kW transmitter from the Mi Amigo, fed through a makeshift antenna system. The resulting signal was low-powered, but ensured that Caroline South's advertising revenue would not dry up. , Frinton-on-Sea is a small seaside town in Essex, England, in the Tendring district. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


The repaired and refitted Mi Amigo attempted a return to the air on April 18, broadcasting on 259 metres (actually 252, but called 259 to rhyme with Caroline and enable use of the same jingles as Radio Caroline North on 1169 kHz), with a redesigned antenna and a new 50kW transmitter. The increased power initially proved too much for the antenna insulators, and it was not until April 27 that the Mi Amigo was fully operational. The Cheeta II continued to relay Caroline South programmes until May 1. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The move to 259 metres meant that Caroline's channel was now just a notch away from the highly popular pirate radio station Wonderful Radio London on 266m (1133 kHz), also with 50kW, on the one side of the dial, and the BBC's Light Programme mainstream music and entertainment service on 247m (1214 kHz) on the other. This gave Caroline a higher profile and helped the station capture new listeners away from these other two channels. Radio Caroline North subsequently moved to 257m (1169 kHz) but also called it 259. Caroline would continue to utilise the "259m" (1187 kHz) wavelength until the late 1970s. Wonderful Radio Londons transmitter ship, the MV Galaxy Don Pierson in 1964 Wonderful Radio London also known as Big L, was a top 40 (in Londons case, the Fab 40) offshore commercial station that operated from 16 December 1964 to 14 August 1967, from a ship anchored in... The Light Programme was a BBC radio station broadcasting mainstream light entertainment and music. ...


On May 3, 1966 two new rival stations, Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio, began test transmissions from the MV Olga Patricia (later renamed Laissez Faire). Both of these stations also used 50kW transmitters, and the British government became increasingly concerned about potential interference to foreign radio stations. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Swinging Radio England (SRE) was a top 40 offshore commercial station billed as the Worlds Most Powerful that operated briefly from 3 May to 13 November of 1966 from a ship anchored in the North Sea, three and a half miles off Frinton-on-Sea, Essex, England. ... Swinging Radio England (SRE) was a top 40 commercial pirate radio station with studios and transmitter located in the hold of the MV Olga Patricia, renamed MV Laissez Faire, a former US built World War II merchant ship. ...


The Radio City death

In June 1966 Radio Caroline embarked on a joint venture with rival pirate Radio City, which broadcast from a Second World War marine fort off the Kent coast, seven miles from Margate. One of the directors of Caroline, Major Oliver Smedley, agreed to pay for a new transmitter to relay Caroline's programmes from the fort, while Reg Calvert, the owner of Radio City, would continue to run the operation but this time on behalf of Radio Caroline. Radio City was a British pirate radio station that broadcast from Shivering Sands Fort, one of the abandoned World War II Maunsell Sea Forts in the Thames Estuary. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Maunsell Sea Forts are a set of sea forts built in Britain in WWII. Guy Maunsell designed four Naval Sea Forts, double pontoon gun platforms with 2 6 guns and a Bofors, sunk in position in 1942 to deter and report back German attempts at mine laying (called Roughs... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Margate is a town in Thanet, Kent, England (population about 60,000). ... ... The Fortunes are an archetypal English beat group. ...


However, Radio Caroline then withdrew from the deal when it was heard that the government intended to prosecute those occupying the forts, which were still Crown property. Smedley, however, had received no payment from Calvert for the transmitter. This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ...


A raid on the Radio City fort was subsequently launched by Smedley, and the station's transmitter was put out of action. Calvert then visited Smedley's home to demand the departure of the raiders and the return of vital transmitter parts. A violent struggle developed during which Smedley shot Calvert dead. During the subsequent trial, Smedley was acquitted on grounds of self-defence.


Marine Broadcasting Offences Act 1967

The British government responded to the presence of Caroline and the other offshore stations in 1967 by passing the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act which made it an offence to advertise or supply an offshore radio station from the UK. However a rearguard action was attempted by the Manx Parliament to exclude the North Ship from the legislation with an appeal to the European Court on the legallity of the act being applied to the Isle Of Man. All the offshore stations off the British coast closed, with the exception of Radio Caroline, which moved its supply operation to the Netherlands where offshore broadcasting had not yet been outlawed. She was the only UK offshore station to do so. However, the expected advertising revenue from overseas sources was not forthcoming, and less than a year later the station was forced off the air when the Dutch shipping company which tendered the two Caroline ships seized the vessels on grounds of non-payment. The Marine, etc, Broadcasting (Offences) Act was introduced in the UK in 1967, and, broadly speaking, prohibits broadcasting (i. ... Advert redirects here. ...


Six weeks after the Marine Offences Act was passed, the BBC introduced its national pop station Radio 1, modelled largely on the successful pirate competitor station to Caroline, Radio London. The old BBC Light, Third and Home programmes became Radios 2, 3 and 4 respectively[2]. It was to be another five years before the first on-land commercial radio stations began to appear in the UK. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


1967-1980

Radio Caroline International

Upon the Marine &c. Broadcasting Offences Act becoming extant law, Radio Caroline renamed itself Radio Caroline International.


The original two ship stations of Radio Caroline International eventually ran out of money in early 1968, and a salvage company towed them away for unpaid bills. For a time nothing more was heard of Radio Caroline until a new and powerful offshore radio station aboard the MV Mebo II anchored off the coast of southeast England in time for the British General election, calling itself Radio Northsea International or RNI. A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Radio Nordsee International also known as Radio Northsea International (RNI) was a European offshore pirate radio station. ... RNI may refer to: Corn Island Airport (IATA Code: RNI) on Corn Island, Costa Rica Java Native Interface, a Java programming framework Original name of the 1970s pirate radio station Radio Delmare Radio Newyork International, a 1980s pirate radio station which broadcast from a ship anchored just off New York...


RNI was jammed by the UK Labour government and responded by campaigning for the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom general election 1970. At that moment Radio Northsea International - RNI - suddenly changed its name to Radio Caroline International, by arrangement with Radio Caroline's original owners, and it began to lobby for the introduction of licensed commercial radio in the United Kingdom. After the election this Radio Caroline International renamed itself back to RNI, but the jamming continued under the new Conservative government. RNI may refer to: Corn Island Airport (IATA Code: RNI) on Corn Island, Costa Rica Java Native Interface, a Java programming framework Original name of the 1970s pirate radio station Radio Delmare Radio Newyork International, a 1980s pirate radio station which broadcast from a ship anchored just off New York... The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on 18 June 1970, and resulted in a surprise victory for the Conservative Party under leader Edward Heath, who defeated the Labour Party under Harold Wilson. ... Radio Nordsee International also known as Radio Northsea International (RNI) was a European offshore pirate radio station. ...


Caroline Television

There were several major news stories in the European press announcing the start of Caroline TV from two aircraft using Stratovision technology. One plane was set to circle over the North Sea in international air space near the coastline of the United Kingdom, while the other one was kept on standby to take over duties. Although these stories continued for some time and included details of co-operation by a former member of the Beatles and a sign-on date was given, nothing more was heard of the venture once that date came and went. It has been suggested that the entire event was a publicity stunt in an effort to keep the name of Radio Caroline in the news, but the technology behind this story was both valid and perfected by the Westinghouse company which invented Stratovision. Stratovision is an airborne television transmission relay system from aircraft flying at high altitudes. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ...


1972: Radio Caroline returns

Caroline made a comeback in 1972, this time from the smaller of the two ships, the MV Mi Amigo, anchored off the Dutch coastal resort of Scheveningen and serviced and operated from the Netherlands. The ship had restarted broadcasting as Radio 199, but soon became Radio Caroline once again with a Top 40 line up that included DJs Chris Carey (who was also station manager), Roger 'Twiggy' Day, Andy Archer, Paul Alexander (Paul Rusling, who later set up Laser 558), Steve England, Johnny Jason, and Peter Chicago. The ship carried programmes for Radio Veronica for a short time (while the latter's ship was on the beach, thrown there in a violent storm) and at one stage in summer 1973 broadcast two separate stations (English and Dutch) simultaneously, on 773 and 1187 kHz. Two aerials were deployed at the time, the twin transmitters were on air for about six weeks until the aerial mast failed. To accommodate the second aerial, a second but short mast positioned just in front of the bridge was used as the other end for the main mast. Scheveningen pier Scheveningen is part of Den Haag, the Netherlands. ...


O'Rahilly decided Caroline should adopt an album format similar to that found on "FM progressive rock" stations in the USA, as this radio market segment was uncatered for in Europe. This service was initially broadcast using the name Radio Seagull. Progressive rock is a radio station programming format that prospered in the late 1960s and 1970s, in which the disc jockeys are given wide lattitude in what they may play, similar to the freeform format but with the proviso that some kind of rock music is almost always what is...


Radio Atlantis and Radio Seagull

Radio Caroline could not find substantial advertising revenue and so the station shared its 259 metre frequency (actually 1187 kHz, corresponding to a wavelength of 253 metres) with Dutch language pop stations, the first of which was a Belgian station called Radio Atlantis, which used the frequency during the daytime to broadcast pre-recorded programmes. Radio Seagull broadcast during the night live from the ship's studio.


Radio Mi Amigo

Once the contract with Radio Caroline had come to an end, Radio Atlantis moved to their own ship, the MV Janiene. Daytime programmes were provided by another Belgian station, Radio Mi Amigo which was officially launched on January 1, 1974. In contrast to Caroline in the 1970s, this station was a commercial success, with a wide listenership in Flemish-speaking Belgium, the Netherlands and a surprisingly large following in the UK. Radio Seagull then changed its name back to Radio Caroline. Throughout most of the 1970s, Radio Caroline itself could be heard only at night, under the banner "Radio Caroline — Europe's first and only album station". is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Caroline's daytime partner station Radio Mi Amigo was run by Belgian businessman Sylvain Tack. The station's offices and studios were based on Spain's Playa De Aro coastal resort, where it produced programmes for Dutch-speaking holidaymakers. Most of the programmes of Radio Mi Amigo were taped and rebroadcast from the Caroline ship by day and were a mixture of Top 40/MOR together with native Dutch language popular music, presented by Belgian, Dutch and occasionally English DJs with frequent commercials. Land-based commercial radio was prohibited in Belgium at that time; thus Radio Mi Amigo had little competition and so enjoyed a wide popularity in Belgium and to a lesser extent in the Netherlands. Thus for the first few years there was a big demand for advertising on the station. After the closure of the Netherlands' Radio Veronica, Radio Mi Amigo poached a number of Veronica presenters and shows. Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ... Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... This article refers to a historical Dutch radio station, not the current oldies station with the same name Radio Veronica is also a radio station in Athens, Greece, see http://www. ...


Loving Awareness

Caroline's chosen format of heavy album tracks rather than top 40 now meant that, although the station served a market gap, overall listenership was smaller than in the 1960s. Caroline also promoted O'Rahilly's new concept of "LA" (Loving Awareness), a far-eastern inspired philosophy of love and peace. Some of the station's DJs were embarrassed at the idea of promoting love and peace on air, but some were fascinated by the challenge of promoting an abstract concept in the same way that they might promote a brand of detergent. At least one disc jockey, however, was an enthusiastic supporter of the concept. Tony Allan developed a cult following among listeners as he also combined his promotion of "Loving Awareness" with a professional style, deep knowledge of music and rich radio voice. Allan died in 2004 aged 54 from cancer, and the cult around him has grown.


O'Rahilly set up a group called The Loving Awareness Band, which released one album, Loving Awareness on Morelove Records. It was - and still is - promoted heavily on the station, and was re-released by the Caroline organisation in 2006 on CD with a replica of the original sleeve. The musicians who played on the album went on to join the Blockheads and work with Ian Dury. Ian Dury, in a look combining Gene Vincent with a Cockney pearly king. ...


Caroline's constant plugging of "LA", together with the progressive rock album music it played — bands such as Pink Floyd; Emerson, Lake and Palmer; Led Zeppelin; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; and Hawkwind - gave the station an unusual and distinctive sound. Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... ELP can also stand for Extra Long Play, a format for the VCR tape. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


During this time, the theme tune of the station changed to "On My Way Back Home" by New Riders of the Purple Sage, a track from the Gypsy Cowboy album which included the words "Flying to the sun, sweet Caroline". New Riders of the Purple Sage New Riders of the Purple Sage was a 1970s country rock band from Marin County, California. ...


Last of the Pirates

Cover from Bob Noakes' Last of the Pirates shows the Mi Amigo c. 1973, with short-lived triangular lattice mast.

The book Last of the Pirates by engineer and occasional DJ Bob Noakes (Edinburgh, Paul Harris Publishing, 1984, ISBN 0-86228-092-3) describes this period as one of poverty, makeshift equipment, disorganization and severe personality clashes amongst the DJs and office staff. It must be borne in mind that we only have his and the word everyone else who has worked at Radio Caroline for this, and some of his claims may be moderated to comply with British censorship. Image File history File links Book_cover-_bob_noakes_last_of_the_pirates. ... Image File history File links Book_cover-_bob_noakes_last_of_the_pirates. ... This article is about the year. ...


According to Noakes and Tony Blackburn to name but two, some of the station's equipment was acquired on credit which was never repaid, tenders had to keep changing ports to avoid customs raids, and there was a high turnover of DJs due to inexperience or personal conflicts. Noakes claims that some of the best Loving Awareness promotions were made at a time when DJs were at each other's throats (sometimes almost literally). Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ...


Noakes struggled to keep the station on the air despite the poor condition of some of the equipment, describing days of back-breaking work in appalling weather, assisted by most of the English-speaking staff but never the Dutch, who apparently considered maintenance work beneath them. When the station managed to get on the air many of the Seagull and Caroline DJs presented programmes while high on marijuana. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Finally in 1974 some of the staff planned a coup, which would have involved taking over the ship, sailing it to the coast of Belgium next to the Radio Atlantis ship Janiene, and continuing to broadcast normal Caroline and Mi Amigo programmes so the public would be unaware that anything was going on. Noakes and his fellow conspirators planned to set up a simultaneous daytime Caroline service on 389 metres (773 kHz) broadcasting a Top Forty format which could have attracted major advertisers, while retaining Caroline's nighttime album rock format on 259. Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ...


However, the plot was discovered, Noakes was fired, as Roger "Twiggy" Day was by the MEBO AG, and took a job at RNI, and, as he claims, the backstabbing and disorganization at Caroline continued.


Dutch Marine Broadcasting Act

In 1974 the Dutch government passed laws to prohibit pirate radio which came into effect on September 1. However, Caroline continued broadcasting, this time moving its headquarters and the servicing operation to Spain and its ship from off the Dutch coast to a position in the Knock Deep Channel, approximately 30 km from the British coast. On September 1 a small motor launch ran into difficulties in rough seas and tied up alongside the Mi Amigo until help could arrive. Radio Caroline broadcast appeals for help, giving the ship's position as 51° 41' N, 1° 35' E. A coastguard vessel was sent to escort the boat back to shore, but the authorities were unhappy that Caroline fans had jammed the emergency switchboards. The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A coast guard is an organization devoted to saving the lives of shipwrecked mariners or people in danger at sea. ...


After August 31, pre-recorded shows for Radio Mi Amigo were delivered on cassettes which were much smaller and lighter than reels of tape although the sound quality was greatly inferior.


It was claimed that the stations were tendered from Spain. In practice the Mi Amigo was tendered clandestinely from ports in Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Tenders and small boat owners were warned and in some cases prosecuted for ferrying staff and provisions out to the ship. Belgium had outlawed offshore radio in 1962 and its authorities took action to prosecute the advertisers. This cut the station's revenues. In addition, Belgian courts sentenced the owner and a number of DJs to fines and jail terms in absentia — although the prison terms were later cancelled.


Wavelength changes

The two stations experimented with several different broadcast frequencies. After a short test on 773 kHz in late 1975, May 1976 saw Caroline beginning a daytime service on 1562 kHz (192 metres, the old Radio Veronica frequency) using one of the 10 kW transmitters, while its existing overnight service continued to share the 50 kW tx with Mi Amigo's daytime programming on 1187 kHz (253 metres, announced as 259).


In December of that year Mi Amigo moved onto 1562 kHz on the 50 kW tx, leaving Caroline on 1187 kHz 24 hours a day on the 10 kW. The reduction in power caused Caroline to experience greater interference at night, and in an attempt to improve the signal it was decided to move Caroline to a new frequency. On March 3, 1977 (coincidentally the 9th anniversary of the Caroline ships being towed away in 1968) Caroline closed down, announcing that it would return six days later on an improved wavelength of 319 metres. To allow Radio Mi Amigo to continue broadcasting by day, the engineering work necessary for Caroline's move had to be carried out at night after the 50 kW transmitter was switched off, accounting for the six day closure. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Caroline returned on schedule on March 9 on a frequency of 953 kHz (actually 315 metres but called 319, again because 319 rhymed with Caroline). This frequency produced very strong heterodyne interference because the transmitter crystal was off-channel, and Caroline soon moved to the adjacent channel, 962 kHz (312 metres but still called 319). this was a relatively clear channel that had previously been used by Radio Atlantis, and Caroline's reception in England improved. is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In telecommunications, to heterodyne is to generate new frequencies by mixing two or more signals in a nonlinear device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode mixer. ... Radio Atlantis was a Belgian-owned pirate radio station which operated between 1973 and 1974. ...


Meanwhile Radio Mi Amigo experienced interference on 1562 kHz (as had Veronica before it) and announced another frequency change. The 1562 kHz service closed on July 23, 1977 and Mi Amigo reopened on 1412 kHz (212 metres) two days later. This channel produced strong sideband interference. [citation needed] is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Finally it was decided to move Radio Mi Amigo onto 962 kHz (the same frequency as Caroline), this happened on December 1. Generator trouble meant that no longer could two services be broadcast simultaneously, and so Radio Caroline was once more relegated to a night-time only service. The upside was that both stations were once more sharing the 50 kW tx, which meant that Caroline began to receive mail from all over Europe. At times one of the 10 kW transmitters was used to save on fuel and because the generators give more trouble as time went by. The 10 kW transmitters could be run on the Henshaw generator that was available beside the main two Man units and a Cummings that was positioned on the aft deck behind the wheelhouse. [3] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


To the chagrin of fans, Caroline then began broadcasting sponsored evangelical programmes in order to supplement its income. Such programmes had been a staple of the 1960s pirates, but Caroline was broadcasting as many as three hours of them each night after Radio Mi Amigo closed, pushing the start of music programmes back to 9 p.m.


On October 20, 1978 a combination of technical and financial problems put the Mi Amigo off the air. Unhappy at the loss of advertising revenue, Radio Mi Amigo terminated its contract with Caroline in November and set about equipping its own ship. Caroline finally returned to the air on April 15, 1979, broadcasting in Dutch and English under its own name by day. Radio Mi Amigo began broadcasting from the MV Magdalena later that year, but this was short-lived. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Mi Amigo sinks

By the end of the 1970s, conditions on the MV Mi Amigo had deteriorated. The ship was now 60 years old and had been used to house offshore radio stations for almost 20 years, since its original use as Sweden's Radio Nord in 1961. The ship had drifted and run aground on sandbanks in the North Sea a number of times. Radio-Nord is a Canadian broadcasting group. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


One particularly serious grounding occurred in September 1976 when the ship broke its anchor chain in heavy seas, the studios were flooded, the antenna feed cable broke and the hull was breached below the water line. On that occasion the crew had managed to patch the hull and keep the ship afloat until a tender arrived with welding gear and a new (and according to some reports, stolen) anchor. Six days after the grounding the stations were back on the air almost as if nothing had happened, but it was not to be the last such incident.


As early as 1972 serious doubts had been voiced as to the ship's seaworthiness, but by the end of the 70s some of the boat crews that visited the Mi Amigo were describing it as a floating death trap, so badly rusted that it was only being held together by its paint.


Finally, just after midnight UK time on the 20th of March 1980, the Mi Amigo foundered in a storm after once again losing its anchor and drifting for several miles, and began taking in water. The crew were rescued by lifeboat. The generator had been left running to power the pumps, but these could not manage the inflow of water and the Mi Amigo sank only ten minutes after taking off the four-man crew, three British nationals and a Dutchman, and their parrot. The last words spoken from the Mi Amigo were by Stevie Gordon and Tom Anderson, and were as follows:


"It's not a very good occasion really, we have to hurry this because the lifeboat is waiting. We're not leaving and disappearing, we're going into the lifeboat hoping that the pumps can take it, if so, we'll be back, if not, well we really don't like to say it. I'm sure we'll be back one way or another. For the moment from all of us, goodbye and God Bless."


The Mi Amigo's 160-foot mast remained erect, pointing skywards out of the sea for a further six years in what some fans called a gesture of defiance.


1983-1990

The Ross Revenge at anchor. Cover photo from The Legend Lives On, a 1990 Dutch CD of Caroline recordings.
The Ross Revenge at anchor. Cover photo from The Legend Lives On, a 1990 Dutch CD of Caroline recordings.

In 1983 Radio Caroline returned to the air for a third time, with a new set of owners and Ronan O'Rahilly acting as the front person. This time from its biggest and most robust ship yet, the MV Ross Revenge, a sturdy ex-North Sea factory fishing trawler. The name Revenge was not considered entirely appropriate for a station devoted to Loving Awareness (the ship was originally built during the Anglo-Icelandic Cod War, hence the name), and it was originally intended to rename the ship Imagine after the John Lennon song. However, for legal or financial reasons, this was never done. The station's antenna was 300 ft (90 m) high and was the tallest mast on any ship in the world, and well over 100 ft higher than the mast of the Mi Amigo. Officially Caroline was now run from offices in North America with most of the advertising coming from the US and Canada. In practice, day-to-day servicing of the station was carried out clandestinely from France and the UK. From the ship's original anchorage in the Knock deep the Mi Amigo's mast could be seen on the horizon. Image File history File links Cd_cover-_the_legend_lives_on_(ross_revenge). ... Image File history File links Cd_cover-_the_legend_lives_on_(ross_revenge). ... Carolines second ship, MV Mi Amigo, c. ... Carolines second ship, MV Mi Amigo, c. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Ship types ... “UK” redirects here. ... The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Imagine is a utopian-themed song performed by John Lennon, which appears on his 1971 album, Imagine. ...


O'Rahilly wanted an oldies station. This met with opposition from some DJs and crew who had previously served on the Mi Amigo. Caroline returned to the air with the former album format as on the old ship. Oldies is a generic term commonly used to describe a radio format that usually concentrates on Top 40 music from the 50s, 60s and 70s. ...


The MV Ross Revenge was considerably larger than the old vessel and was to be fitted over the years with more elaborate transmitting equipment than the Mi Amigo had seen. In 1983 two 5 kW RCA transmitters were available besides the RCA 50 kW unit. One of these was initially regarded as not serviceable. When Radio Monique hired the main transmitter, sufficient spare parts could be taken from a fourth transmitter that was brought on board from Ireland, to rebuild the third transmitter into a working 10 kW unit. (the RCA 5 and 10 kW transmitters are similar in many respects). [4] The remaining 5 kW transmitter was later converted for short wave use.


The availability of four studio's enabled the ship after an initial period of only carrying Radio Caroline to transmit a number of other services. As in the 1970s Caroline tried out several frequencies, among them besides 963; 576, 585 (briefly), 558 (after Laser 558 closed) and later 819 kHz. (By this time European mediumwave channels had been reallocated to exact multiples of 9.) In the evenings on 963, in addition to the main Radio Caroline service on 576 or 558, some alternative music programmes were tried, including the reggae-oriented "Jamming 963", and then throughout 1986 and early 1987, a separate programme of progressive and indie rock called Caroline Overdrive. This service can be considered as more in line with the album format. Laser 558 was a popular European offshore pirate radio station (others include Radio Caroline, Radio Nordzee and Swinging Radio England) launched in 1984. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Caroline Overdrive was a programming strand which ran on Radio Caroline in 1986 - 1987. ...


Radio Monique

Once again, Caroline had a Dutch operation. From December 1984 the Ross Revenge broadcast the taped and live programmes of a Dutch music radio production company by day under the name Radio Monique using the 50 kW transmitter. These programmes featured mainly Pop and Euro-Pop style music, aimed at the mainstream Dutch radio listening audience, which gave Radio Monique wide appeal throughout the Benelux. Radio Monique (Later Radio 558)was an offshore radio station part financed by the Canadian Lottery 6/49, broadcasting to Holland from the Radio Caroline ship, Ross Revenge. ...


In addition, Caroline transmitted paid-for programmes of various Dutch and American religious evangelist broadcasters such as Johann Maasbach and Roy Masters. these were broadcast on medium wave (and later on short-wave as well) under the name "Viewpoint 963/819" (or "World Mission Radio" in the case of the SW service). Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1985 following the arrival of another station Laser 558, the British government launched a surveillance action lasting several months, anchoring a vessel on board which were officials from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). The action was thought to have been primarily targeted at Laser but Caroline was somewhat affected as well. Vessels and persons attempting to supply the two stations from land were subject to harassment and prosecution.


In November 1985, the competitor offshore station, Laser, dragged its anchor in a storm. Laser broadcast a Mayday (distress signal) call, which the DTI answered and escorted the Communicator into harbour, where they impounded the ship. With Laser off the air, Caroline moved from 576 kHz to Laser's 558 kHz frequency, now broadcasting a Top 40 music format similar to Laser's under the name Caroline 558. Thus when Laser briefly returned as Laser Hot Hits, it was in turn forced to use Caroline's former (and somewhat inferior) frequency of 576. Mayday is an emergency code word used internationally as a distress signal in voice procedure radio communications, derived from the French maider, meaning help me. ... Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ...


The mast collapses

In 1987 the British Government passed the Territorial seas act which extended the UK maritime limit from three to twelve nautical miles. In order to remain in International waters the ship had to move to a new ancorage which was less sheltered and close to major shiping lanes. Initially this was regarded as a minor inconvenience as the 300 foot ship (the largest ever used in offshore radio) was felt to be sturdy enough to operate at this ancorage however in October a massive storm hit southern England, causing loss of life and severe damage to buildings and trees. Unable to take shelter inside territorial waters, the MV Ross Revenge was forced to weather the storm in the North Sea. Unbeknown at the time, the storm had weakened her 300 foot antenna mast, and it collapsed in a further storm some weeks later (a video taken aboard the ship at the time by Nigel Harris, known as Stuart Russell in earlier times, is widely available). Caroline quickly returned to the airwaves Initially with a makeshift aerial which gave less powerful signal (and as a result, a much reduced audience) For several months only one transmitter could be used leading to the loss of the crucial income-generating Radio Monique although a substitute Dutch daytime service Radio 558 (later Radio 819) was eventually established. A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ... Satellite image of the powerful storm The Great Storm of 1987 occurred on October 15 and 16, 1987, when an unusually strong weather system caused hurricane force winds to hit much of the south of England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nigel Harris. ...


1989 Joint Anglo-Dutch Raid

On land, the UK Thatcher government sharpened the 1967 anti-offshore broadcasting law further, this time to permit the boarding and silencing of stations operating even in international waters, if British nationals were involved. [5] On August 19, 1989 (months before the new law had even made it through Parliament) James Murphy, an investigator for the Office of Official Solicitor acting on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry, led colleagues and counterparts from the Netherlands Radio Regulatory Authority to carry out a raid on the Ross Revenge in which vital equipment was wrecked or confiscated. It was claimed that Caroline's use of a short wave frequency 6215 kHz for the transmission of paid-for religious programmes was causing interference to maritime communications (although the shortwave transmissions had stopped on the day prior to the raid). That station was called World Mission Radio and its on air announced address was in California. Another possible reason for the raid is that the Dutch station Radio 819 ran catchy adverts for a cigarette brand, Texas Cigarettes. The blatant advertising of a product banned from being advertised by European Union law further compounded the authorities' venom for the unregulated broadcasts that were emanating from the Ross Revenge. The main reason according to most people was the Dutch state radio station found out that 1.5 million people were listening each day to Radio Monique, transmitted from the Ross Revenge. The station complained, to do something about that because they did not want less advertising money. The interference on short wave however did exist, and several times Caroline was warned about this by officials and offshore-radio fans. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Official Solicitor is a term which relates to two different and relatively old offices of British government. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Part of the raid was broadcast live before officials finally cut off the transmitters. Dutch staff were arrested and taken back to the Netherlands, together with most of the broadcasting equipment that had been used for the Dutch language broadcasts. Although the British staff were not arrested and were left on the ship, Radio Caroline was no longer in a position to broadcast.


The legality of the raid (as well as accounts of what actually took place on board that day) is still hotly disputed between the Caroline Organisation and the authorities. Caroline claimed that the boarding of the ship and removal/destruction of equipment was an act of piracy on the high seas under international maritime law (a crime which at the time still carried the death penalty) . The Dutch claimed that as the ship's Panamanian registration had lapsed in 1987 it was not under legal protection from any country and that its transmissions were a breach of international radio regulations which since 1982 have prohibited broadcasting from outside national territories. This article is about maritime piracy. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


1990-1991: After the raid

Six weeks after the police raid, on 1 October 1989, Radio Caroline restarted from the Ross Revenge . Although initially using makeshift equipment and on very low power, Caroline's return was seen by its staff as a necessary gesture of defiance toward the raiders. One of Caroline's most faithful people of all time, engineer Peter Chicago, had hidden parts during the raid. In six weeks he managed to put these into good use and restored the 5 kW tranmitter previously used on short-wave to 558 kHz. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Over the following months Caroline's signal quality improved as transmitting valves were donated and programming returned to normal. A new challenge occurred in June 1990, when Spectrum Radio, a new muti-ethnic community radio station for London, was allocated 558 kHz, the same frequency as Caroline. This was seen by many of Caroline's fans as an attempt by the British authorities to jam Caroline. Spectrum Radio is the only station of its kind in the United Kingdom; a commercial radio station dedicated to serving the ethnic communities which form todays cosmopolitan London. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Radio jamming is the (usually deliberate) transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal to noise ratio. ...


In the event Caroline's signal caused more interference to Spectrum's than vice versa. Caroline broadcast regular apologies to Spectrum and its listeners but refused to vacate the channel. Spectrum threatened to sue the Radio Authority, which relented and allowed Spectrum to use a second, clear frequency of 990 kHz. Eventually, however, Caroline did leave 558 kHz and moved to 819. The Office of Communications, usually known as Ofcom, is the UKs communications regulator. ...


This continued until 5 November 1990 when lack of fuel and supplies finally put the station off the air. Most of the previous broadcasting staff had by now left. A skeleton staff of volunteers remained on board for a year as caretakers, whilst fresh funding and equipment was sought on land. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


In November 1991 hurricane force storms caused the ship to break anchor and drift onto Goodwin Sands, a notorious "ships' graveyard" in the English Channel. The crew were rescued by RAF helicopter. The Ross Revenge was later salvaged and brought into harbour in Dover. The Goodwin Sands are a 10-mile long sand bank in the English Channel, lying six miles east of Deal in Kent, England. ... RAF redirects here. ...


1991 onwards: Caroline onshore

A legal, onshore 'tribute' version of the offshore Radio Caroline now broadcasts from The Maidstone Studios in Maidstone, Kent. The new Caroline began broadcasting via Astra satellites from 19 and 28 degrees east, covering Western Europe, first with an analogue, and then later with a digital service. Astra transmissions temporarily ceased in November 2002[6]. The station has also held several Restricted Service Licences, and now broadcasts via internet audio streaming, Sky Digital and Freesat (via the Astra 28e satellite), and WorldSpace. The Maidstone Studios is a television studio complex based at Vinters Park in Maidstone, Kent UK. It is home to a lot of independent British television programming including quiz shows and popular childrens shows such as CITVs Art Attack. ... For other uses, see Maidstone (disambiguation). ... SES Astra SA, is a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user whilst it is being delivered by the provider. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... Freesat is a BBC-owned trademark for free to air digital satellite television services targeting the UK. It is used as a tradename by two, differing systems, one of which is not purely free-to-air. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ...


As of 2007, following numerous moves, the Ross Revenge is docked at Tilbury and is undergoing repairs and maintenance by a volunteer crew. The ship still has working radio studios aboard, from which both Caroline and BBC Essex have occasionally broadcast. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. ... BBC Essex is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Essex. ...


Satellite Caroline

- In the 21st century, Radio Caroline now broadcasts primarily by satellite and as in the 1990s, still relies principally on listener donations from the Caroline Support Group. The station now uses onshore studios The Maidstone Studios in the southeast English town of Maidstone in Kent. The Maidstone Studios is a television studio complex based at Vinters Park in Maidstone, Kent UK. It is home to a lot of independent British television programming including quiz shows and popular childrens shows such as CITVs Art Attack. ... For other uses, see Maidstone (disambiguation). ...


- A website and internet audio stream are also available. Caroline began broadcasting via Astra satellite from 19 degrees east, covering the whole of Western Europe. Original Caroline broadcast on Sunday afternoons on the satellite station European Klassik Rock (EKR). Following the closure of EKR Caroline started a full service on the former EKR channel first with an analogue, and then later digital service. Former offshore broadcasters who continue to broadcast on Caroline from the Maidstone Studios are Nigel Harris, Johnny Lewis, Martin Fisher, Bob Lawrence, Tom Lodge, Roger Matthews and Roger Day. - - On Saturdays, a German-English language service is broadcast in the morning for two hours, under the name German Caroline. Evangelical programmes are also broadcast, together with a number of sponsored specialist music shows. - - However, the Astra satellite used for the broadcasts, Astra 1 at 19.2E, is one which is rarely used for British programming. This put Caroline at a disadvantage for attracting audiences in Britain. The majority of British satellite dishes are pointed at Astra 2 at 28.2E which is used for BBC programming and the Sky Digital service. Listenership levels in continental Europe were also disappointing and the service was therefore discontinued in early 2003, with the station moving to a channel on the Eurobird 1 satellite at 28.5E, which allows the station to be received by the majority of satellite viewers in the UK with their existing equipment. - - In 2002 Caroline took a channel with the WorldSpace satellite radio system. This is a subscription-based satellite which carries only radio services and covers a third of the world from South Africa across to the western tip of India and northern Europe. A special dedicated WorldSpace receiver is required in order to receive WorldSpace stations, together with an annual subscription to descramble the broadcasts. It remains to be seen whether this service will enjoy widespread popularity, but it gives those living outside of the Sky Digital broadcast footprint (principally the British Isles), the chance to hear Caroline on a radio set. In 2007 Worldspace announced it would no longer offer services on its current platform of radios and would instead concentrate on its new Hybrid Satellite system. - - In spring 2004, Radio Caroline negotiated a deal with Italy's RTL 102.5 for Caroline to broadcast as part of Italy's national DAB (Digital Audio Broadcast) system. This means Radio Caroline can now be heard in Rome, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence and Naples. Programming is a mix of Caroline's UK-produced and locally created material. - - Caroline can also be heard on channel 927 on the NTL Cable TV networks in Dublin, Galway and Waterford. Caroline finally purchased an EPG slot of Sky Channel 0199 in Sky during the summer of 2006. A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... SES Astra SA, is a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ... Nigel Harris is a broadcaster on the Kmfm radio network in Kent. ... Astra 1 is the common name for the group of SES Astra satellites located at 19. ... Astra 2D is one of a group of satellites operated by SES Astra, located at 28. ... Eurobird 1 is a Eutelsat operated satellite, used for digital television. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... RTL 102. ... Digital Audio Broadcast or DAB is a standard for digital radio broadcast developed by EUREKA as a research project for the European Union. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... NTL Communications (Ireland) Limited is a cable television and MMDS company in the Republic of Ireland. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... The Sky Digital EPG in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. ... For a wider corporate history and profile, see British Sky Broadcasting. ...


The RSL broadcasts

Following the near shipwrecking of the Ross Revenge and subsequent harbouring off the south east coast of England in 1990, the ship has been maintained by an association of enthusiasts called the Caroline Support Group (originally called the Ross Revenge Support Group - this way they could support the ship without getting into any legal trouble with regards to supporting the station). The radio station itself was off the air for most of the 1990s, with the exception of occasional low-power broadcasts of one month's duration. A number of these licensed 28-day RSL (Restricted Service Licence) broadcasts took place from the Ross Revenge during the 1990s, with the ship anchored off Clacton, in London's Canary Wharf and off the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. Meanwhile O'Rahilly was said to be canvassing foreign states in an attempt to be granted a licence to broadcast legally again from the Ross Revenge. The most recent and, reportedly, most successful RSL ran from 7th August until 3 September 2004 from the ship moored at the cruise liner terminal jetty at Tilbury in Essex. On this occasion the medium wave frequency authorised was 235 metres (1278 kHz) and an ISDN link enabled the programmes created on-board to be routed by landline to their Maidstone studio and thus to web streams and the satellite broadcast. The retailer ASDA and English Heritage, guardians of Tilbury Fort, were amongst the backers for this short duration event, intended to mark the 40th anniversary year of Radio Caroline and promote awareness of the continuing legalised digital and satellite programmes. A UK Restricted Service Licence (often called an RSL), is typically granted to radio stations and television stations broadcasting within the UK to serve a local community or a special event. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... View towards Minster from Elmley Marshes The Isle of Sheppey is a small (36 square miles, 94 km²) island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some 38 miles (62km) to the east of central London. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ...


Dutch Caroline and Caroline South

In January 2002, Sietse Brouwer, a DJ with Caroline in the 1980s launched a Netherlands-based Radio Caroline operating from Harlingen and broadcasting on the Dutch cable network with coverage in the northern Netherlands. This operation is run largely independent of UK Caroline. This was intended to be a prelude to obtaining an AM frequency from the Dutch authorities in 2003, when Dutch medium wave frequencies were reallocated. However, Dutch Caroline failed to obtain a frequency and the cable network service has been discontinued for the interim, due to lack of funds. In the meantime, the Dutch station is broadcasting in the interim solely via internet streaming technology, using the resurrected name of Radio Seagull, presenting a progressive rock format based on that of the original Radio Seagull that broadcast from the MV Mi Amigo in the early 1970s. Harlingen is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. ...


Caroline also now has a broadcasting partner based on the French and Italian Mediterranean Rivieras. Presented under the name Caroline South, this operation provides weekend evening programmes for Radio Caroline which are also broadcast on local FM radio stations on the Riviera. Veteran Caroline DJs Grant Benson and Tom Anderson are among the presenters.


2007 Ownership Controversy

As of 2007, two web sites sites claim to be the "official" Radio Caroline. The onshore site in UK is broadcasting music via satellite, internet and relays, the other in France is not broadcasting at all. Both sites claim to be "endorsed" by the original founder Ronan O'Rahilly, although he does not appear actively involved in either. Both sites appear to involve personalities from the offshore ships, the UK site is owned by Peter Moore, who holds a registered UK trademark. The French site implies that Peter Chicago (the former offshore engineer) is one of their stakeholders.


Pop culture references

  • Godley & Creme recorded a song about Radio Caroline called "Get Well Soon" from their 1980 album Freeze Frame. The song describes the unwell protagonist listening to Radio Caroline in order to get better, and then when he does the station disappears altogether.
  • On his album The Golden Age of Wireless, British musician Thomas Dolby recorded a song entitled "Radio Silence", where he makes cryptic references to a woman named "Caroline" and lamenting a lost love like an empty radio frequency. It is presumed that this is a "love song" of sorts for Radio Caroline.
  • In The Goodies the Goodies created an offshore pirate radio station and offshore pirate post service.
  • The Status Quo song "rock and roll" refers to Radio Caroline
  • Ska band The Toasters have a song titled "Pirate Radio," which is about Radio Caroline.

Godley & Creme was a duo of English pop musicians and music video directors, Kevin Godley and Lol Creme. ... Freeze frame or Freeze Frame may refer to: Freeze frame shot, a cinematographic technique Freeze frame television, a technique making use of freeze frame shots Freeze Frame, an album by Godley & Creme Freeze Frame, an album by the J. Geils Band Freeze Frame, a 2004 film directed by John Simpson... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... The Goodies was a surreal British television comedy series of the 1970s and early 1980s combining sketches and situation comedy and starring Graeme Garden, Tim Brooke-Taylor and Bill Oddie. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... The Toasters are a third wave ska band from New York formed in 1981 by Robert Bucket Hingley. ...

See also

Radio Portal
  • Pirate radio in Europe
  • Alan Crawford - Brief biography about the person who founded Radio Atlanta, which became Radio Caroline South in 1964.
  • Marine Broadcasting Offences Act - The law which ended the hey-day and commercial viability of offshore radio between March 1964 and August 1967.
  • Tony Benn - As Postmaster-General, he led for the government on the Marine Broadcasting Offences Bill in 1967, and was responsible for enforcing it once it was enacted on August 14.

Image File history File links Radio_icon. ... An introduction to the subject of pirate radio can be found under that heading. ... Radio Caroline is a European radio station that originally commenced transmissions as an offshore radio station broadcasting from a ship anchored off the coast of South East England in international waters. ... The Marine, etc, Broadcasting (Offences) Act was introduced in the UK in 1967, and, broadly speaking, prohibits broadcasting (i. ... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Don't Get Mad, Get Even
  2. ^ Imogen Carter. "The day we woke up to pop music on Radio 1", Daily Telegraph, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. 
  3. ^ This site is put together by Johnny Lewis, an engineer and presenter who worked on the station at the time.
  4. ^ http://www.eylard.nl/OffShoreRadio/Caroline/index.htm Photos of the transmitters can be found here
  5. ^ http://www.unlockdemocracy.org.uk/charter88archive/pubs/other/mcgann.html Charter 88 - Why break a butterfly upon the wheel?
  6. ^ Where is Caroline's place in the new millennium?

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Background Material

  • Radio Caroline, by Venmore Rowland, John. - Landmark Press, UK. 1967. - The original book about Radio Caroline. Contains interesting information about the stations.
  • When Pirates Ruled The Waves, by Harris, Paul. - Impulse Publications, UK. 1968. - The first book published in the wake of the Marine Offences Act of 1967 at a time of uncertainty. There are factual errors in the book which is mainly based upon press cuttings.
  • History of Radio Nord, by Kotschack, Jack. - Forlags AB, Sweden. (Swedish) English version published in 1970 by Impulse Publications, UK. - Radio Nord used the MV Mi Amigo which was later used by Radio Atlanta which merged with the Caroline Organization to become Radio Caroline South. This ship sank in 1980.
  • From International Waters, by Leonard, Mike. - Forest Press, Heswall, UK. 1996. ISBN 0-9527684-0-2 - An encyclopedia about the history of offshore broadcasting until 1996. Contains extensive coverage about the history of Radio Caroline.
  • Mass Media Moments in the United Kingdom, the USSR and the USA, by Gilder PhD., Eric. - "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu Press, Romania. 2003. ISBN 973-651-596-6 - Contains academic studies of government reaction to the advent of pirate radio in Europe and details of how Radio Caroline influenced Texans to start Wonderful Radio London.
  • The Beat Fleet: The story behind the 60's 'pirate' radio stations, by Leonard, Mike. - Forest Press, Heswall, UK. 2004 ISBN 0 9527684 1 0 - A look at the business operations behind Britain's offshore stations.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Radio Caroline South (1149 words)
Radio Caroline survives thanks to a team of volunteers and supporters.
Radio Caroline South is just one chapter of a rich history of English language broadcasting from the Riviera to the world and also to the local Anglophone residents and tourists.
Legendary Radio Caroline DJ Tom Anderson is a resident of the South of France for over a decade.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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