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Encyclopedia > Radio Canada International

Radio Canada International (RCI) is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Image File history File links Radio Canada International logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ...

Contents


History

The Early Years (1942 – 1967)

The idea for creating an international radio voice for Canada was first proposed as far back as the 1930s. Several studies commissioned by the CBC Board of Governors had come to the conclusion that Canada needed a radio service to broadcast a Canadian point of view to the world.


By the early 1940s, this need was also recognized by a series of Parliamentary Broadcasting Committees. Finally, in 1942, Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced that Canada would begin a short-wave radio service that would keep members of the Canadian Armed Forces in touch with news and entertainment from home. The CBC International Service became a reality with the signing of an Order-in-Council on September 18, 1942. Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes) are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ...


By the end of 1944, both the production facilities and the transmitting plant were ready for test broadcasts. These tests, which began on December 25, 1944, were broadcast to Canadian troops in Europe in both English and French. In early 1945, it was announced that the CBC International Service was ready and would go on the air for real on February 25. December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


By 1946, the CBC International Service had expanded to include regular transmissions in Czech and Dutch. Beginning in July, special once-a-week programs were broadcast to Scandinavia in Swedish and Danish and later in Norwegian, as well. Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ...


In November 1946, daily broadcasts started to the Caribbean in English. There were also Sunday night programs broadcast to Cuba, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador in Spanish and to Brazil in Portuguese. Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on...


Daily Spanish and Portuguese transmissions began on July 6, 1947. At around the same time as the expansion into the Caribbean and Latin America, the CBC International Service became involved with the newly formed United Nations. United Nations broadcasts through the CBC International Service continued until November 29, 1952, when they were transferred to larger shortwave facilities run by the Voice of America. July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Early Cold War Broadcasting (1950 – 1967)

Throughout its early years, the CBC International Service had concentrated on broadcasting to Western Europe in the aftermath of World War II. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


By the early 1950s several international short-wave stations began to beam programs into the Soviet bloc countries in an effort to let those people know what was really happening around them. During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...

  • RCI's Russian language transmissions were jammed during the 1950s and into the mid 1960s stopping about 1967.
  • On March 4, 1961, the Danish, Dutch, Italian, Norwegian, and Swedish services were all discontinued.
  • In addition, the German service was reoriented from its previous emphasis on West Germany to focus on East Germany.

New English and French programs directed to Africa were added giving the International Service direct coverage to every continent except Asia. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a socialist country that existed from 1949 to 1990. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


The Cold War Era (1967 – 1991)

The CBC International Service played a major role in covering Canada's Centennial celebrations in 1967. Ceremonies from coast to coast were carried over short-wave to the world on July 1, 1967 as Canada marked its 100th birthday. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


In July 1970, the service was renamed Radio Canada International.


The change took place because it was felt that RCI should have its own identity, separate from the CBC domestic network, even though RCI had just been fully integrated into the CBC system.


On November 7, 1971, RCI inaugurated its new 250 kW transmitters which were five times more powerful than the existing units. This significantly improved RCI's signal quality in Europe and Africa. November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


Canada became the first major Western power to recognize the People's Republic of China in 1971. Before beginning its Chinese service, RCI produced a 40-week series called Everyday English which was broadcast in 1988 and early 1989 over local stations in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. With an estimated audience of almost 20 million, the course was a huge success. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海 pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city. ... Location within China Canton, China redirects here. ...


Just 10 months after beginning the Chinese broadcasts, RCI started a series of Arabic broadcasts to the Middle East. This coincided with the United Nations effort in the Persian Gulf to support the American Desert Shield operation, of which Canada was a participant. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


The Internet Era (1991 – present)

In early 1991, facing further budget deficits, the Government ordered an across-the-board budget cut. Every ministry and Crown corporation, including the CBC, was required to participate. In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ...


After evaluating its own budget, the CBC decided it could no longer pay for Radio Canada International without extra funding from Ottawa.


To save the service, RCI Program Director Allan Familiant announced a major restructuring that took effect on March 25, 1991. March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Six of the 13 languages — Czech, German, Hungarian, Japanese, Polish, and Portuguese — were discontinued.


And while the English and French services survived, all RCI-produced programming, except for news broadcasts, was eliminated and replaced with CBC Domestic network programs.


Since then some RCI-produced programs in English and French have been restored, but the situation continues to be uncertain.


History of RCI's Foreign Language Services

History of RCI Language Broadcasting Services

Language Start Date Stop Date Restart Date
Arabic 2000 - -
Chinese-Mandarin 1988 - -
Czech 1946 (see Slovak) 25 March 1991 -
Danish 1946 4 March 1961 -
Dutch 1946 4 March 1961 -
English 25 December 1944[1] - -
Finnish December 1950 29 January 1955 -
French 25 December 1944[2] - -
French-Creole 1989 2001 -
German 1946 25 March 1991 -
Hungarian January 1951 25 March 1991 -
Japanese 1988 25 March 1991 -
Italian January 1949 4 March 1961 -
Norwegian 1947 4 March 1961 -
Polish January 1951 25 March 1991 -
Portuguese-Brasil 6 July 1947 25 March 1991 2004
Russian[3] January 1951 - -
Slovak January 1951 25 March 1991 -
Spanish 6 July 1947 - -
Swedish 1946 4 March 1961 -
Ukrainian September 1952 - -

source The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Mandarin, or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally official speech), or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方方言; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazilian Portuguese is a collective name for the varieties of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 180 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants and temporary workers in other countries, mainly in Canada, United States, Portugal, Paraguay and Japan. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...

  1.  a Test transmissions started in 1944, formal broadcasting started on 25 February 1945.
  2.  The RCI Russian Service experienced jamming until 1967.

February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...

Station

Interval Signal

RCI's interval signal is the first four notes of O Canada played on a piano, followed by "Radio Canada International" pronounced in English, and then French. An interval signal is a characteristic sound or musical phrase used in international broadcasting and by some domestic broadcasters. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ...


How RCI's programming reaches listeners

RCI began its broadcasts on shortwave, later expanding to satellite delivery to the European region in the 1990s. RCI is also a partner in the World Radio Network, and is available on Sirius Satellite Radio Canada. A Grundig shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than those commonly in use at... A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... The World Radio Network is a consortium of national public broadcasters from around the world, who share programming on a series of international satellite radio networks. ... Sirius Canada is a Canadian partnership between Standard Broadcasting, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Sirius Satellite Radio, which was one of three services licensed by the CRTC on June 16, 2005 to introduce satellite radio service to Canada. ...


As with most international broadcasters in the developed world RCI's programs can also be heard, or downloaded over the Internet.


RCI produces much of its own programming, especially for languages other than English and French (which are often from the CBC domestic service).


Budget cuts by the Canadian Parliament have forced it to downsize, but it still remains the pre-eminent neutral international broadcaster of North America, not facing the perceived U.S. bias of the Voice of America. Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... The Parliament of Canada (in French: le Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Downsizing refers to layoffs initiated by a company in order to cut labor costs by reducing the size of the company. ... In philosophy, objectivity is generally considered as the compatibility of propositions distinct and independent of propositional acts or attitudes. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George... For Wikipedias policy on avoiding bias, see Wikipedia:Neutral point of view. ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ...


Studios

The main studios for RCI have been in Montréal since RCI was created in 1943-44. Adriaen van Ostade. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ...


RCI as a corporate entity (separate from its broadcasting operations) has also been based in Montreal since its inception in the 1940s. RCI could move its English and French services to CBC Ottawa in the future.


By keeping all external language services located in Montreal, the costs of transition could be eased. This move to Ottawa would allow RCI to operate from the national capital region much like BBC World Service, VOA, Voice of Russia and Radio France International. World Service logo The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to around 150 million people throughout the world. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... ...


Budget

Figures are in units of millions, Canadian Dollars (CAD). CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease...

  • 2003: 14.2 Million {CAD / year}
  • 2004: 14.4 Million {CAD / year}

RCI's Gross Cost per Canadian resident (per year) is: 0.38 CAD (2003, 2004).


Canada for all practical purposes does not fund Radio Canada International, considering the nation's geopolitical stature.

  • The Voice Of America has had an average yearly budget of 100,000,000 USD since 2000.
  • Radio France International's budget for 2004 is 127.2m Euros (some 154.7 Million USD).

The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ...

Hours of Programming Produced (per week)

Note: there are 168 hours in a week (24 hours × 7 days).


RCI's Programming Production (historical)

  • 1950s: 85 (WWII recovery phase for broadcaster)
  • 1960s: 80 (Language services to Western Europe cut, Russian & Ukrainian launched)
  • 1970s: 98 (Cold War detente)
  • 1980s: 134 (late Cold War)

In the 1990s RCI's programming output peaked

  • 1990: 195
  • 1996: 175

For a comparasion of RCI to other broadcasters see

Enlarge
Output of RCI compared to other broadcasters (1950-1996). Please convert to a Wiki 'Category table' if possible, adding 2006 in the final column.


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1453x2181, 87 KB) Summary Estimated {Hours/Week} for International Broadcasters (1950-1996). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1453x2181, 87 KB) Summary Estimated {Hours/Week} for International Broadcasters (1950-1996). ...


Transmission Network

RCI is the owner and operator of the Sackville transmission site. RCI's only transmitter site is located on the Tantramar Marshes several kilometres east of the town of Sackville, New Brunswick. RCI leases or barters its spare transmission capacity with other international broadcasters. Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A typical view of the Marsh The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova Scotia to New Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ... Sackville can refer to several different things: Named individuals Baron Sackville Lionel Edward Sackville-West, 3rd Baron Sackville Edward Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville (1901-1965), writer and musicologist. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 71 450 km² 1 458 km...


Sackville is the only high power Shortwave Relay Station in Canada. The CBC-SRC network runs 3 × 1 kw relays of domestic radio. These domestic radio transmitters are not high power by modern definition. Sackville's northern hemisphere transmission targeting capabilities are very similar to the transmission capabilities of Wertachtal Relay Station, in Bavaria. A Grundig shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than those commonly in use at... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


Sackville is also used by Radio Japan, China Radio International, BBC World Service, Voice of Vietnam, Radio Sweden, and Radio Korea as part of a transmitter time exchange agreement. China Radio International (CRI), the former Radio Beijing, is one of the two state-owned national radio broadcasting networks in the Peoples Republic of China. ... World Service logo The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to around 150 million people throughout the world. ...


Sackville has a site layout similar to the Wertachtal Shortwave Relay Station, with a few substantial differences. Wertachtal has 3 arms of HRS type antennas that are spaced at ~120 degrees. This configuration allows for near 360 degree coverage of the world. Wertachtal exclusively contains HRS type transmission antennas, whereas Sackville does not. The following site configuration information supports this comparison... // What are HRS type antennas The curtain antenna is a dipole array, consisting of rows and columns of dipoles. ...


RCI Sackville Relay Station

The site at Sackville was originally built in 1938 for CBC local broadcasting. In 1943, two RCA shortwave transmitters were installed. In 1970, all CBC operations moved to Moncton, NB — this move was necessary so as to allow new Collins transmitters to be installed. In the mid 1980s, the RCA transmitters were replaced by the three, more modern, Harris transmitters.


Technology

The whole facility is controlled by computer automation which is centralized in the main control room. Frequencies, antennas, and input feeds are switched all according to internationally agreed upon schedules which are renegotiated twice per year with other countries. The RCI Sackville facility is an impressive mixture of diverse technologies. There are currently 9 transmitters in operation. The newest ASEA BROWN BOVERI (ABB) transmitters use a "pulse-step" type modulation (PSM) completely implemented in solid state and are each 250KW output. These transmitters incorporate Dynamic Carrier Control (DCC) which causes the carrier level to be automatically reduced when there are lower levels or no audio. During periods of silence (no audio), the carrier power is reduced by 50%, so the 250KW transmitter is putting out a carrier of 125KW during audio pauses. This saves otherwise wasted empty carrier power.


Site Configuration

This site configuration data is known to be accurate for 2004-2005.


Transmitters (configuration not fully verified)

  • 3 × 250 kw SW (1993–1995, ABB: SK 53 C3-2)
  • 3 × 100 kw SW (1983, Harris: SW-100A)
  • 3 × (Unknown power) (Unknown models)
  • A new SW transmitter has been acquired that is DRM capable.

It known that at least one SW transmitter has been outfitted to transmit DRM at this time. Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is an international non-profit consortium committed to designing and implementing an open-source platform for digital radio broadcasting around the world, especially on shortwave. ...


Antennas (Type, Bearing) (configuration not fully verified)

  • HR 4/4/1.0 (60 degrees)
  • HR 4/2/1.0 (105 degrees)
  • HR 4/4/1.0 (163 degrees)
  • HR 4/4/1.0 (176 degrees)
  • HR 4/4/1.0 (189 degrees)
  • HR 2/4/1.0 (227 degrees)
  • HR 2/4/1.0 (240 degrees)
  • HR 4/4/1.0 (240 degrees)
  • HR 4/4/1.0 (272 degrees)
  • HR 2/1/0.5 (277 degrees)

To better understand the ITU HR antenna notation, see the HRS type antennas guide. // What are HRS type antennas The curtain antenna is a dipole array, consisting of rows and columns of dipoles. ...


External links


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