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Encyclopedia > Radical feminism
Feminism

Concepts
Movement  Theory
Film theory  Economics
Feminist sexology
Women's rights
Pro-feminism
Anti-feminism
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with cultural, political and economic practices and inequalities that discriminate against women Feminism is also described as an ideology focusing on equality of both sexes [1] Some have argued that gendered and sexed... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ...


History
Women's history
Feminist history
History of feminism
Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Timeline  Suffragette
New Zealand  U.K.  U.S.
The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The effort to obtain womens suffrage — or voting rights — in the United States was a primary effort of those involved in the greater womens rights movement of the 19th century. ...


Waves of Feminism
First  Second  Third
First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... The current version of this article or section advances a limited or personal interpretation of the subject matter. ...


Subtypes

Amazon
Anarchist
Black
Chicana
Christian
Cultural
Difference
Eco
Equity
Equality
Fat
Gender
Individualist
Islamic
Jewish
Lesbian
Liberal
Marxist
New
Postcolonial
Postmodern
Pro-life
Radical
Religious
Separatist
Sex-positive
Socialist
Third world
Trans
Womanism
Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze and historical, social, political, and economic roles and of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States, especially as they concern issues of gender. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of women and men morally, socially, and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Difference feminism is a branch of feminism that stresses that men and women are essentially very different beings, instead of past feminisms of equality that stress a fundamental sameness between men and women in some way. ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... New feminism is a form of Difference feminism which emphasizes a belief in an integral complementarity of men and women, rather than the superiority of women over men. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pro-life feminism is the opposition to abortion based on feminism. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Although third world women have always been engaged in the feminism movement, they criticise it on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminism(s) indigenous to third world countries. ... Transfeminism is a form of feminism that includes transgender and transexual rights and issues, especially those of transwomen. ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ...


By country or region

France
Indonesia
Iran
Latin America
Nicaragua
Norway
U.K.
U.S.A.
Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ... Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the UK from 1800 to the present day. ... This is a history of the role of women throughout the history of the United States and of feminism in the United States. ...


Lists
Feminists  Literature
Topics
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

 v  d  e 

Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views women's oppression (which radical feminists refer to as "patriarchy") as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. It seeks to challenge this arrangement by rejecting standard gender roles and male oppression. The term Militant feminism is a pejorative term which is often associated with radical feminism. Often, radical feminism is seen by people other than adherents as a form of identity politics. Radical feminists, like many modern feminists, also believe that men are evil and openly advocate or approve of violence toward men and boys. Many of these women are fat cows that couldn't even get a horny donkey to have sex with them. Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with cultural, political and economic practices and inequalities that discriminate against women Feminism is also described as an ideology focusing on equality of both sexes [1] Some have argued that gendered and sexed... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... Interpersonal relationships are social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people who may interact overtly, covertly, face to face or may remain effectively unknown to each other such as those in a virtual community who maintain anonymity and do not socialize outside of a chat room. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


The term radical in radical feminism (from Latin rādīx, rādīc-, root) is used as an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the root or going to the root. Radical feminists locate the root cause of women's oppression in patriarchal gender relations, as opposed to legal systems (liberal feminism) or class conflict (socialist feminism and Marxist feminism). talea harris and sophie king are sluts In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject, giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ...

Contents

Radical feminist theory and ideology

Radical feminists in Western society believe that their society is an oppressive patriarchy that primarily oppresses women. Radical feminists seek to abolish this patriarchy. They also believe that the way to deal with patriarchy and oppression of all kinds is to attack the underlying causes of these problems and address the fundamental components of society that support them. Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Oppress is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ...


While Radical feminism posits that the root cause of all other inequalities is the oppression of women, some Radical feminists acknowledge the simultaneity or intersectionality (is that even a word?) of different types of oppression which may include, but are not limited to the following: gender, race, class, perceived attractiveness, sexuality, ability, while still affirming the recognition of patriarchy. [1] See also sex-positive feminism for a sex-positive feminist critique. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... When used with people, this term is often synonymous with sexual desirability, but can also simply mean whether or not someone is considered appealing to look at. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up ability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ability - the quality of person of being able to perform; A quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ...


Patriarchal theory is not always as single-sided as the belief that all men always benefit from the oppression of all women. Patriarchal theory maintains that the primary element of patriarchy is a relationship of dominance, where one party is dominant and exploits the other party for their own benefit. Radical feminists have claimed that men use social systems and other methods of control to keep non-dominant men and women suppressed. Radical feminists believe that eliminating patriarchy, and other systems which perpetuate the domination of one group over another, will liberate everyone from an unjust society.


Radical Feminist Movement

Roots of radical feminist movement

Radical feminism in the US came out of the Civil Rights Movement, particularly the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Many feminist pioneers of the 2nd wave (Shulamith Firestone, Kathie Sarachild, Carol Hanisch, Judith Brown, and others) were active as volunteers in the struggle against racism in the early and mid-1960s. Many radical feminists identify the positive lessons of seeing ordinary people who were discriminated against and oppressed make huge advances by getting together and taking radical action. They developed consciousness raising directly from experiences in the black-led Civil Rights Movement (the method used then was called "testifying" and "telling it like it is").


By the 1960s Radical feminism emerged simultaneously within liberal feminist and working class feminist discussions. In the United States it developed as a response to some of the failings of both the New Left and the liberal feminist National Organization For Women. Initially mainly concentrated in big cities like New York, Chicago, and Boston, radical feminist groups spread across the country rapidly from 1968 to 1972. The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ...


In the United Kingdom feminism developed out of discussions within community based radical women's organisations and discussions by women within the Trotskyist left. Radical feminism was brought to the UK by American radical feminists and seized on by British radical women as offering an exciting new theory. As the 1970s progressed, British feminists split into two major schools of thought: socialist and radical. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ...


In 1977, another split occurred, with a third grouping calling itself "revolutionary feminism" breaking away from the other two.


Australian radical feminism developed slightly later, during an extended period of social radicalisation, largely as an expression of that radicalization. Those involved had gradually come to understand that not only the middle class nuclear family oppressed women, but also social organizations which claimed to stand for human liberation, notably the counter-culture, SDS or Marxist political parties. Often Marxist feminists found that their own parties effectively silenced them, and that the methods used were patriarchal. Women in counter-culture groups related that the gender relations present in such groups were very much those of mainstream culture. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... // The counterculture of the 1960s began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US governments extensive military intervention in Vietnam. ... SDS Button Logo The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was, historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the countrys New Left. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Based on their experiences in these groups, the women made the conclusion that ending patriarchy was the most necessary step towards a truly free society. As a form of practice, Radical feminists introduced the use of consciousness raising groups (CR groups). These groups brought intellectuals, workers and middle class women together in developed Western countries. During these discussions, women noted a shared and repressive system regardless of their political affiliation or social class. These consciousness raising sessions allowed early radical feminists to develop a political ideology based on common experiences women faced with male supremacy. Consciousness raising was extensively used in chapter sub-units of the National Organization For Women (NOW) during the 1970s. But their main tool for combating patriarchy is to demonize all males and to make them subject to the brutal will of radical feminists. Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Consciousness-raising is process, as by group therapy, of achieving greater awareness of ones needs in order to fulfill ones potential as a person ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


The feminism which emerged from these discussions stood first and foremost for the liberation of women, as women, from the oppression of men in their own lives, as well as men in power. This feminism was radical in both a political sense, and in the sense of seeking the root cause of the oppression of women. Radical feminism described a totalising ideology and social formation which dominated women in the interests of men. This formation was called patriarchy (government or rule by fathers). This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


Action

Groups such as New York Radical Women (no relation to Radical Women, a socialist feminist organization) and Redstockings regarded "the personal as political". This attitude developed from exercises in consciousness raising, which began to take on a new importance within feminism and spurred many women toward feminist activism. Many important feminist works, such as Anne Koedt's essay "The Myth of Vaginal Orgasm" and Kate Millet's book "Sexual Politics", emerged during this time. New York Radical Women was an early feminist group that existed from 1967–1969. ... Radical Women is an international Trotskyist feminist group. ... Redstockings, also known as Redstockings of the Womens Liberation Movement, is a radical feminist group that was most active during the 1970s. ... Consciousness-raising is process, as by group therapy, of achieving greater awareness of ones needs in order to fulfill ones potential as a person ...


In addition, radical feminists also took direct action. In 1968, they protested against the Miss America pageant by throwing high heels and other feminine accoutrements into a freedom garbage bin.[1] In 1970, they also staged a sit-in at the Ladies' Home Journal.[2] Finally, they held speakouts about topics such as rape.


Social organization and aims in the US and Australia

Radical feminists have generally formed small activist or community associations around either consciousness raising, or concrete aims. Many radical feminists in Australia participated in a series of squats to establish various women's centres, and this form of action was common in the late 1970s and early 1980s. During the mid 1980s many of the original consciousness raising groups had dissolved, and radical feminism was more and more associated with loosely organized university collectives. Since that period, radical feminism has generally been confined to activist student ghettos, inspired in part by famous intellectuals. However, occasionally, working class groups of women have formed collectives dedicated to radical feminism. Look up squat, squatter, squatting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In many cases the social organizations formed by radical feminists in the 1970s and 1980s were ineffective. In Australia, many feminist social organizations accepted government funding during the 1980s, and the election of a conservative government in 1996 crippled these organizations.


While radical feminists aim to dismantle patriarchal society in a historical sense, their immediate aims are generally concrete. Common demands include expanding reproductive freedoms and changes to organizational sexual culture (a common demand in US universities during the 1980s).


Radical feminism and Marxism

Some strains of radical feminism have been compared to Marxism in that they describe a "great struggle of history" between two opposed forces. Much like the Marxist struggle between classes (typically the proletariat and bourgeoisie), radical feminism describes a historical struggle between "women" and "men". Radical feminism has had a close, if hostile, relationship with Marxism since the 1970s. Both Marxists and radical feminists seek a total and radical change in social relations and consider themselves to be on the political left. Despite this commonality, as ideologies Marxism and radical feminism have generally opposed one another. In practice, however, activist alliances generally form around shared immediate goals. Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some radical feminists are explicitly avowed Marxists, and attempt to explore relationships between patriarchal and class analysis. This strain of radical feminism can trace its roots to the Second International (in particular the Marxists Rosa Luxembourg and Alexandra Kollontai). These strains of radical feminism are often referred to as "Marxist feminism". The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 - January 15, 1919, in Polish language Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish and German Jewish Marxist politician, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — born Domontovich, Домонто́вич) (March 31 [O.S. March 19] 1872 - March 9, 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1914 on as a Bolshevik. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ...


Other radical feminists have criticized Marxists; during the 1960s in the USA, many women became feminists because they perceived women as being excluded from, and discriminated against by, leftist political groups.[3]


Criticisms

Betty Friedan and other liberal feminists often see radical feminists as potentially undermining the gains of the women's movement with polarizing rhetoric that invites backlash and hold that they overemphasize sexual politics at the expense of political reform. Other critics of radical feminism from the political left, including socialist feminists, strongly disagree with the radical feminist position that the oppression of women is fundamental to all other forms of oppression; these critics hold that issues of race and of class are as important or more important than issues about gender. Queer and postmodernist theorists often argue that the radical feminist ideas on gender are essentialist and that many forms of gender identity complicate any absolute opposition between "men" and "women". Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some feminists, most notably Alice Echols and Ellen Willis, hold that most radical feminism from after 1975 represents a narrow subset of what was originally a more ideologically diverse movement. They label this dominant tendency "cultural feminism" and hold that cultural feminist ideas on sexuality, exemplified by the feminist anti-pornography movement, severely polarized feminism, leading to the "Feminist Sex Wars" of the 1980s. Critics of Echols and Willis hold that they conflate several tendencies within radical feminism, not all of which are properly called "cultural feminism", and emphasize a greater continuity between early and contemporary radical feminism. Ellen Willis is best known as the first pop music critic for the New Yorker, working there during the 1960s. ... A sign outside an Adult store. ... The Feminist Sex Wars, Lesbian Sex Wars, or simply the Sex Wars or Porn Wars, refers to the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement and lesbian community in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of pornography, sex work, sadomasochism, gender identity, sex roles, and other sexual issues. ...


Radical feminism also often viewed as sex-negative, or anti-sex because of some identifying as radical feminists' often strong opposition to forms of sexual expression they see as patriarchal, such as pornography and BDSM and in some cases sexual intercourse and fellatio as well. To some advocates of the philosophy of sex-positivity, the traditional and still dominant view of sex in Western culture. ... Antisexualism is a term that describes the views of someone who is antagonistic towards sexuality, or a movement against all forms of sexuality. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... A collar is a common symbol in BDSM. Female bottom in bondage with leather monoglove BDSM is any of a number of related patterns of human sexual behavior. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Fellatio Fellatio is oral sex performed upon the human penis. ...


Radical feminists have also been criticized for making alliances with the political right in opposition to pornography and prostitution, for example, during the Meese Commission hearings and in the contemporary "abolitionist" anti-prostitution movement. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Whore redirects here. ... Categories: Stub | Pornography ...


References

  1. ^ Alice Echols. Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967-1975. University of Minnesota Press, 92—101. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2. 
  2. ^ Alice Echols. Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967-1975. University of Minnesota Press, 195—197. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2. 
  3. ^ Alice Echols. Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967-1975. University of Minnesota Press, 135—137. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2. 
  • Bell, Diane and Renate Klein. Radically Speaking. Spinifex Press ISBN 1-875559-38-8.
  • Coote, Anna and Beatrix Campbell. (1987) Sweet Freedom: The Movement for Women's Liberation. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-14957-0 (hardback) ISBN 0-631-14958-9 (paperback).
  • Daly, Mary. (1978) Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon Pr. ISBN 0-8070-1413-3
  • MacKinnon, Catharine. (1989) Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. ISBN 0-674-89646-7

Mary Daly (born October 16, 1928 in Schenectady, New York) is a radical feminist theologian. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ...

See also

Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... A sign outside an Adult store. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Dr. Melissa Farley is a psychologist and second wave feminist studying the effects of global sex trafficking on prostitutes. ... Nikki Craft. ... D. A. Clarke has been a radical feminist essayist and activist in the United States of America since 1980. ... The Feminists was a radical feminist group active in New York City from 1968-1973. ... Mary Daly (born October 16, 1928 in Schenectady, New York) is a radical feminist theologian. ... Mujeres Creandos Mujer Publica, May 2004 Mujeres Creando (Eng: Women Creating) is a Bolivian anarcha-feminist collective that participates in a range of anti-poverty work, including propaganda, street theater and direct action. ... Radical Women is an international Trotskyist feminist group. ... Redstockings, also known as Redstockings of the Womens Liberation Movement, is a radical feminist group that was most active during the 1970s. ... Robin Morgan (born January 3, 1941) is an American radical feminist activist, writer, and editor of Sisterhood is Powerful and . ... Shulamith Firestone (1945, also called Shulie Firestone) was a founding member of the Chicago Womens Liberation Union in 1969, and was a member of Redstockings and the New York Radical Feminists. ... Susan Brownmiller (b. ... Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 26, 1988) was an American radical feminist writer who struggled to be recognized for her writing but became famous for having shot the artist Andy Warhol in 1968. ... Womyn is one of a number of alternate spellings which some promote as a way to remove the perception of gender bias from the English word [1] Other variants include wimmin (plural), wom!n, womban and womon (singular), while femal (from female) and humyn (human) apply the principle elsewhere. ...

External links

Radical Feminist Websites

Deakin University is a large Australian public university with around 32,000 students studying Bachelor, Masters, Doctoral and Professional programs as of 2004. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Dr. Melissa Farley is a psychologist and second wave feminist studying the effects of global sex trafficking on prostitutes. ... Nikki Craft. ... The University of Wolverhampton is a British university, located on four campuses across the West Midlands and Shropshire. ...

Anti-Radical Feminist Websites


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Feminist Issues in Prostitution (4001 words)
Radical feminism opposes prostitution on the grounds that it degrades women and furthers the power politics of the male gender.
This is necessary because feminism is vibrant and changing, particularly in the case of radical feminism and liberal feminism, which either reinvent themselves or transform with time.
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Radical feminism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2013 words)
Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views women's oppression (which radical feminists refer to as "Patriarchy") as the basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged.
Radical feminists in Western society believe that their society is an oppressive patriarchy that primarily oppresses women.
This feminism was truly radical in both a political sense, and in the sense of seeking the root cause of the oppression of women.
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