FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Radical Republican

The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. They fought with moderate Republicans, especially presidents Abraham Lincoln and his successor Andrew Johnson. Using as a base the Joint Committee on Reconstruction the Radicals demanded a more aggressive prosecution of the war and the faster destruction of slavery and Confederate nationalism. After their victory in the Congressional elections of 1866 they finally had enough votes to enact their legislation over Johnson's vetoes. They replaced ex-Confederates with a Republican coalition of Freedmen, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags. From the 1890s to the 1950s they were denounced by historians of the Dunning School for being corrupt and violating the principles of self government. In recent years they have been in favor among Neoabolitionist historians. The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed the Rail Splitter, Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... For other people named Andrew Johnson, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was a United States Congressional joint committee created to inquire into the condition of the States which formed the so-called Confederate States of America, and report whether they, or any of them, are entitled to be represented in either house of Congress. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ...

Contents


Wartime

After the 1860 elections, moderate Republicans dominated the United States Congress. Radical Republicans were often critical of Lincoln, whom they felt was too slow in freeing slaves and supporting their equality. Lincoln put all factions in his cabinet, including Radicals like Salmon P. Chase (Secretary of the Treasury), whom he later appointed to the Supreme Court; and James Speed (Attorney General). Edwin M. Stanton, the (Secretary of War), started as a leading Democrat but by 1864 was in the Radical camp, though he remained a staunch supporter of Lincoln. An important opponent of the Radicals was Henry Jarvis Raymond, editor of the New York Times and chairman of the Republican National Committee. In Congress the most influential Radicals during the war and Reconstruction were Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They led the call for a total war, one that would destroy the economic base of the rebellion by freeing the slaves. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... This French poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the U.S. and leads the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ... James Speed (March 11, 1812–June 25, 1887) was a American lawyer, politician and professor. ... Alberto Gonzales, current Attorney General of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Edwin M. Stanton Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry Jarvis Raymond (24th January 1820 - 1869) was an American journalist born near the village of Lima, Livingston County, New York. ... Charles Sumner Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811–March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ...


Reconstruction

During Reconstruction, Radical Republicans increasingly took control, led by Sumner and Stevens. They demanded harsher measures in the South, and more protection for the Freedmen, and more guarantees that the Confederate nationalism was totally eliminated. Following Lincoln's assassination in 1865, Andrew Johnson, a former War Democrat, became President. The Radicals at first admired his hard line talk, but soon discovered his lenience toward the South when Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 over Johnson's veto — the first time that Congress had overridden a President on an important bill. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... In March 1866, the Republican United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ...


The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made African Americans American citizens and forbade discrimination against them, with enforcement in federal courts. The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution (with its equal protection clause) was the work of a coalition of moderate and Radical Republicans. The Radical Republicans led the Reconstruction of the South and the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. They elected Ulysses S. Grant president in 1868, and he strongly supported their programs. Grant used federal power to shut down the Ku Klux Klan. By 1872 the Liberal Republicans thought that Reconstruction had succeeded and should end. They lost as Grant was reelected. In state after state in the south, the Redeemers movement seized control from the Republicans, until only three were left in 1876, South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Rutherford B. Hayes was a moderate Republican and when he became president after the Compromise of 1877, he removed federal troops and Redeemers took over. Liberal Republicans (in 1872) and Democrats argued the Radical Republicans were corrupt, in two senses: they accepted bribes (notably in the Grant Administration), and they violated the republican principle of government by the consent of the governed. Even supporters agree much of their motivation was political (creating a constituency beholden to the Republicans). Their goals (of civil rights and equal treatment for African-Americans following emancipation) were hailed by neoabolitionist historians who came of age in the 1960s and after, who charged that racism itself was the worst form of corruption and violation of republicanism. In March 1866, the Republican United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... (Redirected from 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution) Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ... Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, and military leader from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... In United States the Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed Election of 1876 by awarding the White House to the Republican Rutherford Hayes on the implicit understanding he would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ...


Leading Radical Republicans

John Bingham (1815–1900) was a Republican Congressman from Ohio, a Radical Republican, and the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Zachariah T. Chandler (December 10, 1813 – November 1, 1879) was Mayor of Detroit (1851–52), a four-term U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan (1857–75, 1879), and Secretary of the Interior under U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant (1875–77). ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Henry Winter Davis (August 16, 1817 – 30 December 1865) was an American politician, well known as one of the Radical Republicans during the Civil War. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881), and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Stub | 1814 births | 1866 deaths | United States Senators | Suicides ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... Charles Sumner Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811–March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Benjamin Franklin Wade (October 27, 1800–March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer. ... The seal for the President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Henry Wilson Henry Wilson (February 16, 1812–November 22, 1875) was a Senator from Massachusetts and the eighteenth Vice President of the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ...

See also

We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... The National Union Convention (also known as the Loyalist Convention, the Southern Loyalist Convention, or the National Loyalists Loyal Union Convention) held on August 14, 15, and 16, 1866 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...

References

Secondary sources

  • Belz, Herman. Emancipation and Equal Rights: Politics and Constitutionalism in the Civil War Era (1978), pro-moderate.
  • Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedman's Rights, 1861-1866 (2000) pro-moderate.
  • Benedict, Michael Les. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999), pro-Radical.
  • Castel, Albert E. The Presidency of Andrew Johnson (1979), balanced.
  • Donald, David. Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970) Major critical analysis. balanced perspective
  • Donald, David. "Lincoln" (1996). pro-moderate.
  • Du Bois, W. E. Burghardt. Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 (1935), Marxist interepretation by leading Black scholar.
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005), pro-moderate.
  • Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (2002), major synthesis; takes Neoabolitionist viewpoint of Freedmen.
  • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997) Lincoln as moderate and opponent of Radicals.
  • Hesseltine; William B. Ulysses S. Grant: Politician (1935), postwar years.
  • McFeeley, William S. Grant: A Biography (1981).
  • McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1961).
  • Nevins, Allan. Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration (1936)
  • Randall, James G. Lincoln the President: Last Full Measure (1955) pro-moderate.
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 7 (1920)
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (1967); pro-Radical Neoabolitionist overview.
  • Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868 (1991).
  • Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents (1998)
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren.The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865-1878 (1994)
  • Trefousse, Hans. The Radical Republicans (1969) pro-Radical
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (2001)]. Standard biography; pro-Radical Neoabolitionist
  • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and the Radicals (1941) anti-Radical

Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ... Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist) referes to the historiographic tradition in American history adopted by the abolitionists after the Civil War. ...

Primary sources

  • Harper's Weekly news magazine
  • Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational, and Industrial (1906) anti-radical.
  • Hyman, Harold M., ed. The Radical Republicans and Reconstruction, 1861-1870. (1967), pro-radical.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Radical Republican - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1012 words)
The Radical Republicans were an influential group of American politicians in the Republican party (GOP) during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras.
Radical Republicans were often critical of Lincoln, whom they felt was too slow in freeing slaves and supporting their equality.
Liberal Republicans (in 1872) and Democrats argued the Radical Republicans were corrupt, in two senses: they accepted bribes (notably in the Grant Administration), and they violated the republican principle of government by the consent of the governed.
Radical Republican - definition of Radical Republican in Encyclopedia (487 words)
Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history.
Radical Republicans were often critical of President Abraham Lincoln, whom they felt was too slow in freeing slaves and supporting their equality.
The Radical Republicans led the Reconstruction of the South and the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, and had an influence on future presidents including Ulysses S. Grant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m