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Encyclopedia > Radiation poisoning
Radiation poisoning
Classification & external resources
Radiation Hazard symbol.
ICD-10 T66.
ICD-9 990

Radiation poisoning, also called "radiation sickness" or a "creeping dose", is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The term is generally used to refer to acute problems caused by a large dosage of radiation in a short period, though this also has occurred with long term exposure to low level radiation. Many of the symptoms of radiation poisoning occur as ionizing radiation interferes with cell division. This interference allows for treatment of cancer cells; such cells are among the fastest-dividing in the body, and may be destroyed by a radiation dose that adjacent normal cells are likely to survive. Image File history File links Radiation_warning_symbol. ... The skull and crossbones, a common symbol for poison. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // S00-T98 - Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-S09) Injuries to the head (S00) Superficial injury of head (S01) Open wound of head (S02) Fracture of skull and facial bones (S03) Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of head (S04) Injury of cranial nerves... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


The clinical name for "radiation sickness" is acute radiation syndrome as described by the CDC.[1][2][3] A chronic radiation syndrome does exist but is very uncommon; this has been observed among workers in early radium source production sites and in the early days of the Soviet nuclear program. A short exposure can result in acute radiation syndrome; chronic radiation syndrome requires a prolonged high level of exposure. In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ...


The use of radionuclides in science and industry is strictly regulated in most countries (in the U.S. by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). In the event of an accidental or deliberate release of radioactive material, either evacuation or sheltering in place will be the recommended measures. A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable Goat, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ...

Contents

Measuring radiation dosage

The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose defined in terms of the energy actually deposited in the tissue. One rad is an absorbed dose of 0.01 joules of energy per kilogram of tissue. The more recent SI unit is the gray (Gy), which is defined as 1 joule of deposited energy per kilogram of tissue. Thus one gray is equal to 100 rad. The rad is a unit of radiation dose, with symbol rad. ... Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionising radiation. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... The gray (symbol: Gy) is the SI unit of absorbed dose. ...


To accurately assess the risk of radiation, the absorbed dose energy in rad is multiplied by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiation to get the biological dose equivalent in rems. Rem stands for "Röntgen equivalent in man (sic)." In SI units, the absorbed dose energy in grays is multiplied by the same RBE to get a biological dose equivalent in sieverts (Sv). The sievert is equal to 100 rem. The röntgen (roentgen) equivalent in man or rem (symbol rem) is a unit of radiation dose. ... The röntgen or roentgen (symbol R) is a unit of exposure to ionizing radiation (X or gamma rays), and is named after the German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen. ... The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ...


The RBE is a "quality factor," often denoted by the letter Q, which assesses the damage to tissue caused by a particular type and energy of radiation. For alpha particles Q may be as high as 20, so that one rad of alpha radiation is equivalent to 20 rem. The Q of neutron radiation depends on their energy. However, for beta particles, x-rays, and gamma rays, Q is taken as one, so that the rad and rem are equivalent for those radiation sources, as are the gray and sievert. See the sievert article for a more complete list of Q values. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ...


Acute (short-term) vs chronic (long-term) effects

Radiation sickness is generally associated with acute exposure and has a characteristic set of symptoms that appear in an orderly fashion. The symptoms of radiation sickness become more serious (and the chance of survival decreases) as the dosage of radiation increases. These effects are described as the deterministic effects of radiation. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The term deterministic may refer to: the more general notion of determinism from philosophy, see determinism a type of algorithm as discussed in computer science, see deterministic algorithm scientific determinism as used by Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking deterministic system in mathematics deterministic system in philosophy deterministic finite state machine...


Longer term exposure to radiation, at doses less than that which produces serious radiation sickness, can induce cancer as cell-cycle genes are mutated. If a cancer is radiation-induced, then the disease, the speed at which the condition advances, the prognosis, the degree of pain, and every other feature of the disease are not functions of the radiation dose to which the sufferer is exposed. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ...


Since tumors grow by abnormally rapid cell division, the ability of radiation to disturb cell division is also used to treat cancer (see radiotherapy), and low levels of ionizing radiation have been claimed to lower one's risk of cancer (see hormesis). For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ...


Exposure

External vs internal exposure

External

External exposure is exposure which occurs when the radioactive source (or other radiation source) is outside (and remains outside) the organism which is exposed. Below are a series of three examples of external exposure.

  • A person who places a sealed radioactive source in their pocket
  • A space traveller who is irradiated by cosmic rays
  • A person who is treated for cancer by either teletherapy or brachytherapy. While in brachytherapy the source is inside the person it is still external exposure because the active part of the source never comes into direct contact with the biological tissues of the person.
A diagram showing a hypothetical animal being irradated by radioactive contamination (shown in yellow), being irradated by an external source (in red) of radiation
A diagram showing a hypothetical animal being irradated by radioactive contamination (shown in yellow), being irradated by an external source (in red) of radiation

One of the key points is that external exposure is often relatively easy to estimate, and if the irradiated objects do not become radioactive (except for a case where the radiation is an intense neutron beam which causes activation of the object). It is possible for an object to be contaminated on the outer surfaces, assuming that no radioactivity enters the object it is still a case of external exposure and it is normally the case that decontamination is easy (wash the surface). Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... External beam radiotherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy where a patient lies on a couch and an external source of X-rays is pointed at a particular part of the body. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Activation Activation in science generally refers to prepare some object for a process. ...

A diagram showing a hypothetical animal being irradated by radioactive contamination (shown in red) which is present on an external surface such as the skin, this emits radiation (shown in yellow) which can enter the animal's body
A diagram showing a hypothetical animal being irradated by radioactive contamination (shown in red) which is present on an external surface such as the skin, this emits radiation (shown in yellow) which can enter the animal's body

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Internal

Internal exposure is when the radioactive material enters the organism, and the radioactive atoms become incorporated into the organism. Below are a series of examples of internal exposure.

  • The exposure due to 40K present within a normal person.
  • The exposure to the ingestion of a soluble radioactive substance, such as 90Sr in cow’s milk.
  • A person who is being treated for cancer by means of an open source radiotherapy method where a radioisotope is used as a drug. A review of this topic was published in 1999.[4] Because the radioactive material becomes intimately mixed with the affected object it is often difficult to decontaminate the object or person in a case where internal exposure is occurring. While some very insoluble materials such as fission products within a uranium dioxide matrix might never be able to truly become part of an organism, it is normal to consider such particles in the lungs as a form of internal contamination which results in internal exposure. The reasoning is that the particles have entered via an orifice and can not be removed with ease from what the lay person (non biologist) would regard as within the animal. It is important to note that strictly speaking the contents of the digestive tract and the air within the lungs are outside the body of a mammal.
A diagram showing a hypothetical animal (after it has evolved into one with an orifice and a lung) being irradiated by radioactive contamination (shown in red) which is present within its lung, this emits radiation (shown in yellow) which can enter the animal's body
A diagram showing a hypothetical animal (after it has evolved into one with an orifice and a lung) being irradiated by radioactive contamination (shown in red) which is present within its lung, this emits radiation (shown in yellow) which can enter the animal's body

Potassium (K) Standard atomic mass: 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... UO2 A black, radioactive, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes. ... In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Nuclear warfare

Japanese woman suffering burns from thermal radiation after a nuclear bomb explosion in 1945.
Japanese woman suffering burns from thermal radiation after a nuclear bomb explosion in 1945.

Nuclear warfare is more complex because a person can be irradiated by at least three processes. The first (the major cause of burns) is not caused by ionizing radiation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (808x900, 104 KB) [edit] Summary from http://fr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (808x900, 104 KB) [edit] Summary from http://fr. ...

  • Thermal burns from infrared heat radiation.
  • Beta burns from shallow ionizing radiation (this would be from fallout particles; the largest particles in local fallout would be likely to have very high activities because they would be deposited so soon after detonation and it is likely that one such particle upon the skin would be able to cause a localised burn); however, these particles are very weakly penetrating and have a short range.
  • Gamma burns from highly penetrating radiation. This would likely cause deep gamma penetration within the body, which would result in uniform whole body irradiation rather than only a surface burn. In cases of whole body gamma irradiation (circa 10 Gy) due to accidents involving medical product irradiators, some of the human subjects have developed injuries to their skin between the time of irradiation and death.

In the picture on the right, the normal clothing that the woman was wearing would have been unable to attenuate the gamma radiation and it is likely that any such effect was evenly applied to her entire body. Beta burns would be likely all over the body due to contact with fallout, but thermal burns are often on one side of the body as heat radiation does not penetrate the human body. In addition, the pattern on her clothing has been burnt into the skin. This is because white fabric reflects more infra-red light than dark fabric. As a result, the skin close to dark fabric is burned more than the skin covered by white clothing. For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


There is also the risk of internal radiation poisoning by ingestion of fallout particles.


Nuclear reactor accidents

Radiation poisoning was a major concern after the Chernobyl reactor accident. It is important to note that in humans the acute effects were largely confined to the accident site. Thirty-one people died as an immediate result. Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ...


Of the 100 million curies (4 exabecquerels) of radioactive material, the short lived radioactive isotopes such as 131I Chernobyl released were initially the most dangerous. Due to their short half-lives of 5 and 8 days they have now decayed, leaving the more long-lived 137Cs (with a half-life of 30.07 years) and 90Sr (with a half-life of 28.78 years) as main dangers. The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... For other uses, see Becquerel (disambiguation). ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ...


Other accidents

Improper handling of radioactive and nuclear materials lead to radiation release and radiation poisoning. The most serious of these, due to improper disposal of a medical device containing a radioactive source (teletherapy), occurred in Goiânia, Brazil in 1987. It is noteworthy that while the majority of accidents involve smaller industrial radioactive sources (typically used for radiography) a large number of the deaths which have occurred have been due to exposure to the larger sources used for medical purposes. Here is a link to the Therac-25. The Goiânia accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in central Brazil that killed several people and injured many others. ... External beam radiotherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy where a patient lies on a couch and an external source of X-rays is pointed at a particular part of the body. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Goiás. ... A radiograph of a right elbow-joint Radiography is the use of certain types of electromagnetic radiation—usually ionizing—to view objects. ... Therac-25 was a radiation therapy machine produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. ...


Ingestion and inhalation

When radioactive compounds enter the human body, the effects are different from those resulting from exposure to an external radiation source. Especially in the case of alpha radiation, which normally does not penetrate the skin, the exposure can be much more damaging after ingestion or inhalation. The radiation exposure is normally expressed as a committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The Committed effective dose equivalent or CEDE is an estimate of the radiation dose to a person resulting from inhalation or ingestion of a given amount of radioactive substance. ...


Deliberate poisoning

See also: Alexander Litvinenko poisoning

On November 23, 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died due to suspected deliberate poisoning with polonium-210. His is the first case of confirmed death due to such a cause, although it is also known that there have been other cases of attempted assassination such as in the cases of KGB defector Nikolay Khokhlov and journalist Yuri Shchekochikhin where radioactive thallium was used. In addition, an incident occurred in 1990 at Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station where several employees acquired small doses of radiation due to the contamination of water in the office watercooler with tritium contaminated heavy water. On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Nikolai Khoklov (1922-) was a KGB officer and hitman who defected to the United States in 1953. ... Yuri Petrovich Shchekochikhin (Ю́рий Петро́вич Щекочи́хин) (June 9, 1950, Kirovabad - July 3, 2003, Moscow) was a Russian journalist, writer, and liberal lawmaker. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located in Point Lepreau, New Brunswick. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ...


Prevention

The best prevention for radiation sickness is to minimize the dose suffered by the human, or to reduce the dose rate.


Time

The longer that the humans are subjected to radiation the larger the dose will be. The advice in the nuclear war manual entitled "Nuclear War Survival Skills" published by Cresson Kearny in the U.S. was that if one needed to leave the shelter then this should be done as rapidly as possible to minimize exposure. The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Nuclear War Survival Skills or NWSS by Cresson Kearny is a civil defense manual. ... Cresson Henry Kearny was born on January 7, 1914 in San Antonio, Texas and died on December 18, 2003. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


In chapter 12 he states that "Quickly putting or dumping wastes outside is not hazardous once fallout is no longer being deposited. For example, assume the shelter is in an area of heavy fallout and the dose rate outside is 400 R/hr enough to give a potentially fatal dose in about an hour to a person exposed in the open. If a person needs to be exposed for only 10 seconds to dump a bucket, in this 1/360th of an hour he will receive a dose of only about 1 R. Under war conditions, an additional 1-R dose is of little concern."


In peacetime radiation workers are taught to work as quickly as possible when performing a task which exposes them to irradiation. For instance, the recovery of a lost radiography source should be done as quickly as possible. A radiograph of a right elbow-joint Radiography is the use of certain types of electromagnetic radiation—usually ionizing—to view objects. ...

 text{Dose} propto t

Distance

The radiation due to any point source will obey the inverse square law: by doubling the distance the dose rate is quartered. This is why radiation workers are always taught to pick up a gamma source with a pair of tongs rather than their hand. In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that some quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from a point. ... Tongs used for cooking or serving food Tongs are gripping and lifting tools, of which there are many forms adapted to their specific use. ...

 text{Dose} propto frac{1}{r^2}

Shielding

By placing a layer of a material which will absorb the radiation between the source and the human, the dose and dose rate can be reduced. For instance, in the event of a nuclear war, it would be a good idea to shelter within a building with thick stone walls (Fallout shelter). During the height of the cold war, fallout shelters were identified in many urban areas. It is interesting to note that, under some conditions, shielding can increase the dose rate. For instance, if the electrons from a high energy beta source (such as 32P) strike a lead surface, X-ray photons will be generated (radiation produced in this way is known as bremsstrahlung). It is best for this reason to cover any high Z materials (such as lead or tungsten) with a low Z material such as aluminium, wood, plastic. This effect can be significant if a person wearing lead-containing gloves picks up a strong beta source. Also, gamma photons can induce the emission of electrons from very dense materials by the photoelectric effect; again, by covering the high Z material with a low Z material, this potential additional source of exposure to humans can be avoided. Furthermore, gamma rays can scatter off a dense object; this enables gamma rays to "go around corners" to a small degree. Hence, to obtain a very high protection factor, the path in/out of the shielded enclosure should have several 90 degree turns rather than just one. A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as visible light or ultraviolet radiation. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ...


Reduction of incorporation into the human body

Potassium iodide (KI), administered orally immediately after exposure, may be used to protect the thyroid from ingested radioactive iodine in the event of an accident or terrorist attack at a nuclear power plant, or the detonation of a nuclear explosive. KI would not be effective against a dirty bomb unless the bomb happened to contain radioactive iodine, and even then it would only help to prevent thyroid cancer. R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Radioiodine is the common name for iodine-131, a radioisotope of iodine. ... A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ...


Fractionation of dose

While Devair Alves Ferreira received a large dose during the Goiânia accident of 7.0 Gy, he lived while his wife received a dose of 5.7 Gy and died. The most likely explanation is that his dose was fractionated into many smaller doses which were absorbed over a length of time, while his wife stayed in the house more and was subjected to continuous irradiation without a break, giving her body less time to repair some of the damage done by the radiation. In the same way, some of the people who worked in the basement of the wrecked Chernobyl plant received doses of 10 Gy, but in small fractions, so the acute effects were avoided. The Goiânia accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in central Brazil that killed several people and injured many others. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ...


It has been found in radiation biology experiments that if a group of cells are irradiated, then as the dose increases, the number of cells which survive decreases. It has also been found that if a population of cells is given a dose before being set aside (without being irradiated) for a length of time before being irradiated again, then the radiation causes less cell death. The human body contains many types of cells and the human can be killed by the loss of a single type of cells in a vital organ. For many short term radiation deaths (3 days to 30 days), the loss of cells forming blood cells (bone marrow) and the cells in the digestive system (microvilli which form part of the wall of the intestines are constantly being regenerated in a healthy human) causes death. Radiation biology is the interdisciplinary field of science that studies the biological effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation of the whole electromagnetic spectrum, including radioactivity (alpha, beta and gamma), x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, microwaves, radio wave, low-frequency radiation (such as used in alternate electric transmission, ultrasound... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Villus (Latin: shaggy hair[1], plural villi) can refer to: Intestinal villus. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


In the graph below, dose/survival curves for a hypothetical group of cells have been drawn, with and without a rest time for the cells to recover. Other than the recovery time partway through the irradiation, the cells would have been treated identically. A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 8 KB) Summary The effect of self repair on the ability of gamma rays to kill cells. ...

Treatment

Treatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


There are also a number of substances used to mitigate the prolonged effects of radiation poisoning, by eliminating the remaining radioactive materials, post exposure.


Whole body vs. part of body exposure

In the case of a person who has had only part of their body irradiated then the treatment is easier, as the human body can tolerate very large exposures to the non-vital parts such as hands and feet, without having a global effect on the entire body. For instance, if the hands get a 100 Sv dose which results in the body receiving a dose (averaged over your entire body of 5 Sv) then the hands may be lost but Radiation poisoning would not occur. The resulting injury would be described as localized radiation burn. Alternate meanings: Hand (disambiguation) A human left hand The hand (med. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. ...


Experimental treatments designed to mitigate the effect on bone marrow

Neumune, an androstenediol, was introduced as a radiation countermeasure by the US Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, and was under joint development with Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals until March, 2007. Neumune is in Investigational New Drug (IND) status and Phase I trials have been performed. Neumune® (HE2100) is a radiation countermeasure being developed by Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome. ... Androstenediol is a term used to refer to two different steroids with molecular weights of 290. ... The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a triservice laboratory chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961, conducts research in the field of radiobiology and related matters essential to the operational and medical support of the U.S. Department of Defense and the military services. ... The Food and Drug Administrations Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ...


Some work has been published in which Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine has been used to protect the bone marrow and digestive systems of mice from whole body irradation.[5] Vegetable caterpillars are the result of infection of large underground caterpillars by a fungus of the genus Cordyceps. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ...


Table of exposure levels and symptoms

Dose-equivalents are presently stated in sieverts: The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ...


0.05–0.2 Sv (5–20 REM)

No symptoms. Potential for cancer and mutation of genetic material, according to the LNT model: this is disputed (Note: see hormesis). A few researchers contend that low dose radiation may be beneficial.[6][7][8] 50 mSv is the yearly federal limit for radiation workers in the United States. In the UK the yearly limit for a classified radiation worker is 20 mSv. In Canada, the single-year maximum is 50 mSv, but the maximum 5-year dose is only 100 mSv. Company limits are usually stricter so as not to violate federal limits.[9] The Röntgen equivalent man or rem (symbol rem) is an obsolete unit of radiation dose. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The linear no-threshold model or LNTM is a model of the damage cased by ionizing radiation, and particularly the increased risk of cancer. ... Radiation hormesis is the theory that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


0.2–0.5 Sv (20–50 REM)

No noticeable symptoms. Red blood cell count decreases temporarily. “Red cell” redirects here. ...


0.5–1 Sv (50–100 REM)

Mild radiation sickness with headache and increased risk of infection due to disruption of immunity cells. Temporary male sterility is possible.


1–2 Sv (100–200 REM)

Light radiation poisoning, 10% fatality after 30 days (LD 10/30). Typical symptoms include mild to moderate nausea (50% probability at 2 Sv), with occasional vomiting, beginning 3 to 6 hours after irradiation and lasting for up to one day. This is followed by a 10 to 14 day latent phase, after which light symptoms like general illness and fatigue appear (50% probability at 2 Sv). The immune system is depressed, with convalescence extended and increased risk of infection. Temporary male sterility is common. Spontaneous abortion or stillbirth will occur in pregnant women. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... Emesis redirects here. ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Miscarriage is the lay term for the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


2–3 Sv (200–300 REM)

Moderate radiation poisoning, 35% fatality after 30 days (LD 35/30). Nausea is common (100% at 3 Sv), with 50% risk of vomiting at 2.8 Sv. Symptoms onset at 1 to 6 hours after irradiation and last for 1 to 2 days. After that, there is a 7 to 14 day latent phase, after which the following symptoms appear: loss of hair all over the body (50% probability at 3 Sv), fatigue and general illness. There is a massive loss of leukocytes (white blood cells), greatly increasing the risk of infection. Permanent female sterility is possible. Convalescence takes one to several months. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ...


3–4 Sv (300–400 REM)

Severe radiation poisoning, 50% fatality after 30 days (LD 50/30). Other symptoms are similar to the 2–3 Sv dose, with uncontrollable bleeding in the mouth, under the skin and in the kidneys (50% probability at 4 Sv) after the latent phase. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ...


4–6 Sv (400–600 REM)

Acute radiation poisoning, 60% fatality after 30 days (LD 60/30). Fatality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv to 90% at 6 Sv (unless there is intense medical care). Symptoms start half an hour to two hours after irradiation and last for up to 2 days. After that, there is a 7 to 14 day latent phase, after which generally the same symptoms appear as with 3-4 Sv irradiation, with increased intensity. Female sterility is common at this point. Convalescence takes several months to a year. The primary causes of death (in general 2 to 12 weeks after irradiation) are infections and internal bleeding. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


6–10 Sv (600–1,000 REM)

Acute radiation poisoning, near 100% fatality after 14 days (LD 100/14). Survival depends on intense medical care. Bone marrow is nearly or completely destroyed, so a bone marrow transplant is required. Gastric and intestinal tissue are severely damaged. Symptoms start 15 to 30 minutes after irradiation and last for up to 2 days. Subsequently, there is a 5 to 10 day latent phase, after which the person dies of infection or internal bleeding. Recovery would take several years and probably would never be complete. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Bone marrow transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Devair Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv (700 REM) during the Goiânia accident and survived, partially due to his fractionated exposure. The Goiânia accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in central Brazil that killed several people and injured many others. ... Experiments in radiation biology have found that as the absorbed dose of radiation increases, the number of cells which survive decreases. ...


10–50 Sv (1,000–5,000 REM)

The mouth of a man who has suffered a 10 to 20 Gy dose 21 days after the exposure, note that damage to normal skin, the lips and the tongue can be seen
The mouth of a man who has suffered a 10 to 20 Gy dose 21 days after the exposure, note that damage to normal skin, the lips and the tongue can be seen

Acute radiation poisoning, 100% fatality after 7 days (LD 100/7). An exposure this high leads to spontaneous symptoms after 5 to 30 minutes. After powerful fatigue and immediate nausea caused by direct activation of chemical receptors in the brain by the irradiation, there is a period of several days of comparative well-being, called the latent (or "walking ghost") phase.[citation needed] After that, cell death in the gastric and intestinal tissue, causing massive diarrhea, intestinal bleeding and loss of water, leads to water-electrolyte imbalance. Death sets in with delirium and coma due to breakdown of circulation. Death is currently inevitable; the only treatment that can be offered is pain therapy. Image File history File links 10to20Gygammadoseat21days. ... Image File history File links 10to20Gygammadoseat21days. ... A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... The walking ghost, or latent, phase of radiation poisoning is a period of apparent health, lasting for hours or days, following a dose of 10-50 sieverts of radiation. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... Pain therapy is treatment given to patients experiencing chronic or acute pain. ...


Louis Slotin was exposed to approximately 21 Sv in a criticality accident on 21 May 1946, and died nine days later on 30 May. A sketch used by doctors to determine the amount of radiation to which each person in the room had been exposed during the excursion. ... A criticality accident (also sometimes referred to as an excursion or power excursion) occurs when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as enriched uranium or plutonium. ...


More than 50 Sv (>5,000 REM)

A worker receiving 100 Sv (10,000 REM) in an accident at Wood River, Rhode Island, USA on 24 July 1964 survived for 49 hours after exposure, and an operator receiving between 60 and 180 Sv (18,000 REM) to his upper body in an accident at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA on 30 December 1958 survived for 36 hours; details of this accident can be found on page 16 (page 30 in the PDF version) of Los Alamos' 2000 Review of Criticality Accidents.[10] is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


References

  1. ^ Acute Radiation Syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-05-20).
  2. ^ Acute Radiation Syndrome, National Center for Environmental Health/Radiation Studies Branch, 2002-04-09, <http://www.umt.edu/research/Eh/pdf/AcuteRadiationSyndrome.pdf>
  3. ^ Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Fact Sheet for Physicians. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-03-18).
  4. ^ Wynn, Volkert & Hoffman, Timothy (1999), "Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals", Chemical Reviews 99 (9): 2269-2292, doi:10.1021/cr9804386, <http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/article.cgi/chreay/1999/99/i09/pdf/cr9804386.pdf>
  5. ^ Liu, Wei-Chung; Wang, Shu-Chi & Tsai, Min-Lung et al. (2006-12), "Protection against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine", Radiation Research 166 (6): 900-907, DOI 10.1667/RR0670.1
  6. ^ Luan, Yuan-Chi. Chronic Radiation Is Beneficial to Human Beings. The Science Advisory Board.
  7. ^ Information on hormesis. Health PHysics Society.[dead link – history]
  8. ^ Luckey, Thomas (1999-05). "Nurture With Ionizing Radiation: A Provocative Hypothesis". Nutrition and Cancer 34 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1207/S15327914NC340101. 
  9. ^ 10 CFR 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults.. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1991-05-21).
  10. ^ A Review of Criticality Accidents, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2000, <http://www.orau.org/ptp/Library/accidents/la-13638.pdf>

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1955), ISBN 0-8078-4547-7.
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Vintage, 1946, 1985 new chapter), ISBN 0-679-72103-7.
  • Ibuse Masuji, Black Rain (1969) ISBN 0-87011-364-X
  • Ernest J. Sternglass, Secret Fallout: low-level radiation from Hiroshima to Three-Mile Island (1981) ISBN 0-07-061242-0 (online)
  • Norman Solomon, Harvey Wasserman Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America's Experience with Atomic Radiation, 1945-1982, New York: Dell, 1982. ISBN 0-385-28537-X, ISBN 0-385-28536-1, ISBN 0-440-04567-3 (online)

Michihiko Hachiya (1903-1980) was a Japanese medical practitioner who survived the Hiroshima bombing in 1945 and kept a diary of his experience. ... John Hersey, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1958 John Richard Hersey (June 17, 1914 – March 24, 1993) was an American writer and journalist. ... Hiroshima (ISBN 0-679-72103-7) is the title of a magazine article written by Pulitzer Prize winner John Hersey that appeared in The New Yorker in August 1946, exactly one year after the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a. ... Ernest J. Sternglass (b. ... Norman Solomon (1952 - ) is a Jewish American journalist and antiwar activist from Maryland who writes frequently about media and politics. ... Harvey Wasserman is the author and co-author of a dozen books, and a safe energy activist and journalist/historian, fighting for a renewable green future and the restoration of democracy to the United States of America. ...

See also

A victim of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, she suffered severe burns; the pattern on her skin is from the kimono she was wearing at the time of the bombing. ... Radioactive quackery refers to various products sold during the early 20th century, after the discovery of radioactivity, which promised radioactivity as a cure for various ills. ... This article lists notable military accidents involving nuclear material. ... This article lists notable civilian accidents involving nuclear material. ...

External links

Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Arthus reaction is a type III hypersensitivity reaction. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... An air embolism, or more WITCH generally gas embolism, is a medical condition caused by gas bubbles in the bloodstream (embolism in a medical context refers to any large moving mass or defect in the blood stream). ... A fat embolism is a type of embolism that is often (but not always) caused by physical trauma. ... Crush syndrome: is a reperfusion injury as a result of traumatic rhabdomyolysis causing a severe systemic manifestation of trauma and dead tissues ( ischemia –from lack of O2 getting to the tissues there by destroying the tissue) involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. ... Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Compartment syndrome is characterized by increased pressure within one or more fascial compartments so that vascular perfusion is compromised. ... Volkmanns contrature, also known as Volkmanns ischaemic contracture, is a permanent flexion contracture of the hand at the wrist, resulting in a claw-like deformity of the hand and fingers. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... See also Healing, North East Lincolnshire Healing is the process where the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... Serum sickness is a reaction to an antiserum derived from an animal source. ... Malignant hyperthermia (MH or MHS for malignant hyperthermia syndrome, or malignant hyperpyrexia due to anesthesia) is a rare life-threatening condition that is triggered by exposure to drugs used for general anaesthesia, such as volatile anaesthetics or the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium chloride. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the human body. ... Argyria (ISV from Greek: αργύρος argyros silver + -ia) is an extremely rare condition caused by the ingestion of elemental silver, silver dust or silver compounds. ... Arsenic poisoning kills by allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic enzymes, leading to death from multi-system organ failure. ... Manganism or manganese poisoning is a toxic condition resulting from chronic exposure to manganese and first identified in 1837 by J. Couper. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Many organophosphates are potent neurotoxins, functioning by inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in nerve cells. ... Cyanide poisoning occurs when a living organism injests cyanide. ... In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, fluoride compounds are toxic. ... Pesticide poisonings, where chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) is one of the four recognised symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurologic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. ... Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is one of the four recognised syndromes of shellfish poisoning (the others being neurotoxic shellfish poisoning [1], diarrhetic shellfish poisoning [2] and paralytic shellfish poisoning). ... Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin CTX1B Ciguatera is a foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as ciguatoxin, which is present in many micro-organisms (particularly, the micro-algae Gambierdiscus toxicus) living in tropical waters. ... Scombroid fish poisoning is an illness that results from eating spoiled (decayed) fish. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Thanks to the Grasspea Flour, an aquatint print by Goya showing the effects of Lathyrism Lathyrism or Neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of humans and domestic animals, caused by eating certain legumes of the genus Lathyrus. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism. ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer Health - Radiation Sickness (Radiation Poisoning) (603 words)
Radiation sickness is illness and symptoms resulting from excessive exposure to radiation, whether that exposure is accidental or intentional (as in radiation therapy).
Radiation sickness is generally associated with acute exposure and has a characteristic set of symptoms that appear in an orderly fashion.
Because it is difficult to determine the amount of radiation exposure from accidents, the best indications of the severity of the exposure are: the length of time between the exposure and the onset of symptoms, the severity of symptoms, and severity of changes in white blood cells.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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