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Encyclopedia > Radiant energy
Light (a form of radiant energy) observed in a forest
Light (a form of radiant energy) observed in a forest

Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves, or sometimes of other forms of radiation.[1] The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time and, like all forms of energy, its SI unit is the joule. The term is used particularly when radiation is emitted by a source into the surrounding environment. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of integrals in calculus. ... Luminous flux or luminous power is the measure of the perceived power of light. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...

Contents

Terminology use and history

The term "radiant energy" is most commonly used in the fields of radiometry, solar energy, heating and lighting, but is also sometimes used in other fields (such as telecommunications). Radiant energy may or may not affect the eye and produce vision.[2] In modern applications involving transmission of power from one location to another, "radiant energy" is sometimes used to refer to the electromagnetic waves themselves, rather than their energy (a property of the waves). In the past, the term "electro-radiant energy" has also been used.[3] In telecommunication and physics, radiometry is the science of radiation measurement. ... Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


Historically, the propagation of electromagnetic radiation was presumed to rely on a medium filling all space, known as the aether.[4][5][6] Electromagnetic waves were presumed to propagate through this medium by inducing transverse electric and magnetic stresses and strains, analogous to those induced by shear waves propagating through a physical medium.[7] In modern times, the propagation of electromagnetic waves has been shown not to require any physical medium, although some interpretations of general relativity can be viewed as implying that space acts as a kind of non-physical "medium" for light.[8][9] The Aether of classical elements is a concept, historically, used in science and in philosophy. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...


Analysis

Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor.
Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor.

Because electromagnetic (EM) radiation can be conceptualized as a stream of photons, radiant energy can be viewed as the energy carried by these photons. Alternatively, EM radiation can be viewed as an electromagnetic wave, which carries energy in its oscillating electric and magnetic fields. These two views are completely equivalent and are reconciled to one another in quantum field theory (see wave-particle duality). Image File history File links TrigaReactorCore. ... Image File history File links TrigaReactorCore. ... Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor Cherenkov radiation (also spelled Cerenkov or sometimes ÄŒerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. ... TRIGA is a class of small nuclear reactor designed and manufactured by General Atomics of the USA. TRIGA is an acronym of Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics. This type of reactor can be installed without a containment building, and is designed for use by scientific institutions and universities for purposes... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ...


EM radiation can have various frequencies. The bands of frequency present in a given EM signal may be sharply defined, as is seen in atomic spectra, or may be broad, as in blackbody radiation. In the photon picture, the energy carried by each photon is proportional to its frequency. In the wave picture, the energy of a monochromatic wave is proportional to its intensity. This implies that if two EM waves have the same intensity, but different frequencies, the one with the higher frequency "contains" fewer photons, since each photon is more energetic. For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... An elements emission spectrum is the relative intensity of electromagnetic radiation of each frequency it emits when it is heated (or more generally when it is excited). ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... In physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged energy flux. ...


When EM waves are absorbed by an object, the energy of the waves is typically converted to heat. This is a very familiar effect, since sunlight warms surfaces that it irradiates. Often this phenomenon is associated particularly with infrared radiation, but any kind of electromagnetic radiation will warm an object that absorbs it. EM waves can also be reflected or scattered, in which case their energy is redirected or redistributed as well. Absorption, in optics, is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make a transition between two electronic energy levels. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ...


Open systems

Radiant energy is one of the mechanisms by which energy can enter or leave an open system.[10][11][12] Such a system can be man-made, such as a solar energy collector, or natural, such as the Earth's atmosphere. In geophysics, transparent greenhouse gases trap the sun's radiant energy (at certain wavelengths), allowing it to penetrate deep into the atmosphere or all the way to the Earth's surface, where they are re-emitted as longer wavelength radiation (chiefly infrared radiation). Radiant energy is produced in the sun as a result of nuclear fusion.[13] This article is about systems theory. ... Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... Air redirects here. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ...


Applications

Radiant energy, as well as convective energy and conductive energy, is used for radiant heating.[14] It can be generated electrically by infrared lamps, or can be absorbed from sunlight and used to heat water. The heat energy is emitted from a warm element (floor, wall, overhead panel) and warms people and other objects in rooms rather than directly heating the air. The internal air temperature for radiant heated buildings may be lower than for a conventionally heated building to achieve the same level of body comfort (the perceived temperature is actually the same). Convection is the transfer of heat by the motion of or within a fluid. ... En [ [ ciencia ] ] y [ [ ingeniería ] ], los conductores son los materiales de los cuales contenga las cargas movibles [ [ electricidad ] ]. Cuando una diferencia potencial eléctrica se impresiona a través de puntos separados en un conductor, las cargas móviles dentro del conductor se fuerzan para moverse, y una corriente eléctrica entre esos puntos aparece... Radiant heating is a heating system which heats a building through radiant heat, rather than other conventional methods including convection heating. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ...

Photoelectric motor, US685957
Radiant energy falling on a insulated conductor connected to a capacitor: the capacitor charges electrically.

Various other applications of radiant energy have been devised.[15] These include: photoelectric_effect - Tesla patent - small PNG See also: Image:PhotoelectricEffect(Tesla-small). ... photoelectric_effect - Tesla patent - small PNG See also: Image:PhotoelectricEffect(Tesla-small). ...

  • Treatment and inspection
  • Separating and sorting
  • Medium of control
  • Medium of communication

Many of these applications involve a source of radiant energy and a detector that responds to that radiation and provides a signal representing some characteristic of the radiation. Radiant energy detectors produce responses to incident radiant energy either as an increase or decrease in electric potential or current flow or some other perceivable change, such as exposure of photographic film. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


One of the earliest wireless telephones to be based on radiant energy was invented by Nikola Tesla. The device used transmitters and receivers whose resonances were tuned to the same frequency, allowing communication between them. In 1916, he recounted an experiment he had done in 1896.[16] He recalled that "Whenever I received the effects of a transmitter, one of the simplest ways [to detect the wireless transmissions] was to apply a magnetic field to currents generated in a conductor, and when I did so, the low frequency gave audible notes." For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. ...


SI radiometry units

[edit]

SI radiometry units
Quantity Symbol SI unit Abbr. Notes
Radiant energy Q joule J energy
Radiant flux Φ watt W radiant energy per unit time, also called radiant power
Radiant intensity I watt per steradian W·sr−1 power per unit solid angle
Radiance L watt per steradian per square metre W·sr−1·m−2 power per unit solid angle per unit projected source area.

Sometimes confusingly called "intensity". Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Luminous flux or luminous power is the measure of the perceived power of light. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... In physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged energy flux. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The steradian (ste from Greek stereos, solid) is the SI derived unit of solid angle, and the 3-dimensional equivalent of the radian. ... Radiance and spectral radiance are radiometric measures that describe the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle in a specified direction. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ...

Irradiance E watt per square metre W·m−2 power incident on a surface.

Sometimes confusingly called "intensity". Irradiance, radiant emittance, and radiant exitance are radiometry terms for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. ... In physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged energy flux. ...

Radiant exitance / Radiant emittance M watt per square metre W·m−2 power emitted from a surface.
Radiosity J or Jλ watt per square metre W·m−2 emitted plus reflected power leaving a surface
Spectral radiance Lλ
or
Lν
watt per steradian per metre3 or

watt per steradian per square metre per hertz Irradiance, radiant emittance, and radiant exitance are radiometry terms for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. ... Radiance and spectral radiance are radiometric measures that describe the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle in a specified direction. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...

W·sr−1·m−3
or

W·sr−1·m−2·Hz−1

commonly measured in W·sr−1·m−2·nm−1
Spectral irradiance Eλ
or
Eν
watt per metre3 or
watt per square metre per hertz
W·m−3
or
W·m−2·Hz−1
commonly measured in W·m−2·nm−1

Irradiance, radiant emittance, and radiant exitance are radiometry terms for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. ...

See also

Energy Portal
Main concepts
Luminous energy, Power, Radiometry, Federal Standard 1037C, Transmission, Electrostatics, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation
Science
Photoelectric effect, Open system, Cosmic microwave background radiation
Photonic devices
Photodetector, Photocell, Photoelectric cell

Although some radiations are marked as N for no in the diagram, some waves do in fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other radiations The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Visible light redirects here. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Electromagnetic waves sent at terahertz frequencies, known as terahertz radiation, terahertz waves, terahertz light, T-rays, T-light, T-lux and THz, are in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 300 gigahertz (3x1011 Hz) and 3 terahertz (3x1012 Hz), corresponding to the wavelength range starting at submillimeter (<1 millimeter... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... Visible light redirects here. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ... This article is about the colour. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... The W band of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges from 75 to 111 GHz. ... The V band (vee-band) of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 50 to 75 GHz. ... The Ka band (kurz-above band) is a portion of the K band of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... K band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging between 12 to 63 GHz. ... The Ku band (kay-yoo kurz-under band) is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 11 to 18 GHz. ... The X band (3-cm radar spot-band) of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum roughly ranges from 5. ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ... The S band ranges from 2 to 4 GHz. ... L band (20-cm radar long-band) is a portion of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging roughly from 0. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... Extremely high frequency is the highest radio frequency band. ... Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... Medium frequency (MF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 300 kHz to 3000 kHz. ... Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) is the frequency range between 300 hertz and 3000 hertz. ... Super Low Frequency (SLF) is the frequency range between 30 hertz and 300 hertz. ... Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the band of radio frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than... Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Radiant energy". Federal standard 1037C
  2. ^ George Frederick Barker, Physics: Advanced Course, page 367
  3. ^ Examples: US patent 1005338 "Transmitting apparatus", US patent 1018555 "Signaling by electroradiant energy", and US patent 1597901 "Radio apparatus".
  4. ^ Thomas Preston, "The Theory of Light". Macmillan, 1901. Page 542.
  5. ^ George Frederick Barker, Physics: Advanced Course, page 365.
  6. ^ Frederick Booth, Radiant Energy and the Ophthalmic Lens.
  7. ^ Bell, Louis (1901). Electric Power Transmission; a Practical Treatise for Practical Men. Electrical World and Engineer, p. 10. Retrieved on 2007-02-15. 
  8. ^ Albert Einstein said that space is "endowed with physical quantities," but that "this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media [...] The idea of motion may not be applied to it." (from "Ether and the Theory of Relativity", an address delivered 1920-05-05 at the University of Leyden).
  9. ^ P.A.M. Dirac, "Is there an ether?" Nature, 168, 906 (1951). Dirac wrote, "We have now the velocity at all points of space-time, playing a fundamental part in electrodynamics. It is natural to regard it as the velocity of some real physical thing. Thus with the new theory of electrodynamics we are rather forced to have an ether."
  10. ^ Moran, M.J. and Shapiro, H.N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Chapter 4. "Mass Conservation for an Open System", 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471274712.
  11. ^ Robert W. Christopherson, Elemental Geosystems, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall, 2003. Pages 608. ISBN 0131015532
  12. ^ James Grier Miller and Jessie L. Miller, The Earth as a System.
  13. ^ Energy transformation. assets.cambridge.org. (excerpt)
  14. ^ US patent 1317883 "Method of generating radiant energy and projecting same through free air for producing heat"
  15. ^ Class 250, Radiant Energy, USPTO. March 2006.
  16. ^ Anderson, Leland I. (editor), Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony and Transmission of Power, 2002, ISBN 1-893817-01-6.

Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ...

References and further reading

General Information

  • Patents > Guidance, Tools, and Manuals >> Classification >>> Class Definition : Class 250, Radiant Energy, USPTO. March 2006.
  • Finke, R. C., "Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications". In R and D Associates Proc. of the AFOSR Spec. Conf. on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Vol. 2 22 p (SEE N83-15860 06-44). 1982.
  • Lang, K. R. (1999). Astrophysical formulae. Astronomy and astrophysics library. Berlin: Springer.
  • Whittaker, E. T. (1910). A history of the theories of aether and electricity from the age of Descartes to the close of the nineteenth century. Dublin University Press series. London: Longmans, Green and Company.
  • Caverly, Donald Philip, "Primer of electronics and radiant energy" New York, McGraw-Hill, 1952.
  • Hardis, Jonathan E., "Visibility of Radiant Energy". PDF.
  • Lighting Design Knowledgebase
  • Sir Joseph Larmor, Aether and Matter: A Development of the Dynamical Relations of the Aether to Material Systems on the Basis of the Atomic Constitution of Matter. University press, 1900. 365 pages.
  • Philosophical magazine. (1798). London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Hegeler, E. C., & Carus, P. (1890). The Monist. La Salle, Ill. [etc.]: Published by Open Court for the Hegeler Institute.
  • George Frederick Barker, Physics: Advanced Course. Henry Holt and Company, 1893. 902 pages.
  • Frederick Booth, Radiant Energy and the Ophthalmic Lens. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1921. 226 pages.
  • Thomas O'Conor Sloane, Electricity Simplified: The Practice and Theory of Electricity. The N.W. Henley publishing co., 1905. 172 pages.
  • "Hermann von Helmholtz" (Obiturary). Royal Society (Great Britain). (1854). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. London: Printed by Taylor and Francis.
  • Whittaker, E. T., What Is Energy?. The Mathematical Gazette, 1929.
  • Peter Michael Harman, George Basalla, and Owen Hannaway, "Energy, Force and Matter: The Conceptual Development of Nineteenth-century Physics". Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • U. Fano, Atomic Theory of Electromagnetic Interactions in Dense Materials. 8 May 1956.
  • JM Dawson, Particle simulation of plasmas. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1983.
  • Glenn R. Elion, Electro-Optics Handbook. CRC Press Technology & Industrial Arts, 1979. ISBN 0824768795
  • Draper, J. W. (1878). Scientific memoirs, being experimental contributions to a knowledge of radiant energy. New York: Harper.

“PDF” redirects here. ...

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 0,341,213  - Transmitting and recording sound by radiant energy - Alexander Graham Bell (Filed May 3, 1884; Issued May 4, 1886.)
  • U.S. Patent 0,685,957  - Apparatus for the utilization of radiant energy - N. Tesla
  • U.S. Patent 0,685,958  - Method of utilizing of radiant energy - N. Tesla
  • U.S. Patent 0,710,122  - Wireless Telegraphy System - Harry Shoemaker (Filed Jan 11, 1902; Issued Sep 30, 1902
  • U.S. Patent 1,005,338  - Transmitting apparatus - Harry Shoemaker (Filed Jun 17, 1905; Issued Oct 10, 1911)
  • U.S. Patent 1,018,555  - Signaling by electroradiant energy - C. D. Ehret (Filed Dec 2, 1903)
  • U.S. Patent 1,317,883  - Method of generating radiant energy and projecting same through free air for producing heat - William M. Meacham (Filed Apr 12, 1915; Issued Oct 7, 1915.)
  • U.S. Patent 1,379,166  - Radiant energy signalling system case - Theodore Case (Filed Jan 22, 1918; Issued May 24, 1921.)20, 1925.)
  • U.S. Patent 1,418,792  - System for control of moving bodies by radiant energy - John Hays Hammond Jr. (Filed Aug 6, 1914; Issued Jun 6, 1922)
  • U.S. Patent 1,425,523  - Transmission system for radiant energy - John Hays Hammond Jr. (Filed Jun 22, 1917; Issued Aug 15, 1922)
  • U.S. Patent 1,424,641  - Marine trailer for radiant energy receiving systems - John Hays Hammond Jr. (Filed Dec 23, 1918; Issued Aug 1, 1922)
  • U.S. Patent 1,523,798  - Perception of radiant energy - E. Benson (Filed Apr 13, 1918; Issued Jan
  • U.S. Patent 1,597,901  - Radio apparatus - Arthur Atwater Kent (Filed Nov 29, 1922; Issued Aug 31, 1926.)
  • U.S. Patent 2,298,272  - Electromagnetic horn - W. L. Barrow (Filed Sep 19, 1938; Issued Oct 13, 1942)
  • U.S. Patent 2,425,102  - Radiant energy receiver - Gilbert C. Larson (Filed Sep 20, 1943; Issued Sep 10, 1846.)
  • U.S. Patent 3,971,938  - Method of generating electricity from radiant energy called variable polarizability capacity generator - L. R. O'Hare
  • U.S. Patent 7,053,576  - Energy conversion systems - Paulo N. Correa and Alexandra N. Correa (Filed Oct 15, 2002; Issued May 30, 2006)
Arthur Atwater Kent (1873–1949) was a thrifty New Englander born in Vermont, educated at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts, who invented the closely timed ignition system, and operated the Atwater Kent radio factory in Pennsylvania (the worlds largest at the time). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Energy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2589 words)
Energy of an object can be in several forms, potential—due to the position of the object relative to other objects; kinetic—energy because of its motion; chemical—due to chemical bonds between atoms that make up the substance; electrical—due to its charge; thermal—due to its heat; and nuclear—due to the instability of the nuclei of its atoms.
In contrast to kinetic energy, which is the energy of a system due to its motion, or the internal motion of its particles, the potential energy of a system is the energy associated with the spatial configuration of its components and their interaction with each other.
Internal energy is the kinetic energy associated with the motion of molecules, and the potential energy associated with the rotational, vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules.
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