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Encyclopedia > Radha
A Rajastani style painting of Sri Radha

Radha (Devanagari: राधा) is the principal paramour of Krishna in the Srimad Bhagavatam, and the Gita Govinda of the Hindu religion. Within some Vaishnava traditions of Hinduism, Radha is regarded as a primary deity, often worshiped as an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi. Radha is almost always depicted alongside Krishna and features prominently within the theology of today's Gaudiya Vaishnava religion, which regards Radha as the original Goddess or Shakti. Radha's relationship with Krishna is given in further detail within texts such as the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Garga Samhita and Brihad Gautamiya tantra. Radha is also the principal object of worship in the Nimbarka Sampradaya, as Nimbarka, the founder of the tradition, declared that Radha and Krishna together constitute the absolute truth.[1] Image File history File links Radharani3. ... Image File history File links Radharani3. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... The Gita Govinda or the Song of the Shri Krishna is a work composed in the 12th century by Jayadeva Goswami. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Garga Samhita (The narrations of Garga) is a book written by the sage Garga and deals with the life of Krishna. ... The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST ÅšrÄ« Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ...


Radha is often referred to as Radharani in speech, prefixed with the respectful term 'Srimati' by devout followers.

Contents

Radha the Gopi

In the story of Krishna, as told in the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata Purana, he spends much of his youth in the company of young cow-herd girls, called Gopis in the village of Vrindavan. The Mahabharata does not describe Krishna's earlier life in Vrindavan in much detail, and focuses more on the later battle of Kurukshetra but within the Bhagavata Purana the child-hood pastimes of Krishna are described very vividly. Within the Bhagavata Purana, Radha is not mentioned by name but is alluded to within the tenth chapter of the text as one of the gopis who Krishna plays with during his upbringing as a young boy. It is in later texts such as the Gita Govinda where we find the story of Radha given in more detail. This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Gopis as depicted in portrait at the Smithsonian Institute Gopi is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning cow-herd girl. In Hinduism specifically the name gopi (somtimes gopika) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cow herding girls famous within Vaishnava Theology for their unconditional devotion (bhakti... Kurukshetra  (Hindi: कुरुक्षेत्र) is the name of a city in the present-day Indian state of Haryana हरियाणा. The name literally means Land of the Kaurava after the Kuru clan. ... The Gita Govinda or the Song of the Shri Krishna is a work composed in the 12th century by Jayadeva Goswami. ...


Within Vaishnavism

Radha with Krishna, as painted by Raja Ravi Varma
Radha with Krishna, as painted by Raja Ravi Varma

In the Vaishnava devotional or bhakti traditions of Hinduism that focus on Krishna, Radha is Krishna's consort. For some of the adherents of these traditions, her importance approaches or even exceeds that of Krishna. She is considered to be his original shakti, the supreme goddess in both the Nimbarka Sampradaya and following the advent of Chaitanya also within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. Other gopis are usually considered to be her maidservants, with Radha having the prominent position of Krishna's favour. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (592 × 796 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (592 × 796 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906) was an Indian King and painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes from the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST Śrī Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... Gopis as depicted in portrait at the Smithsonian Institute Gopi is a word of Sanskrit (गोपी) origin meaning cow-herd girl. In Hinduism specifically the name gopi (sometimes gopika) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cow herding girls famous within Vaishnava Theology for their unconditional devotion (bhakti...


Her connection to Krishna is of two types: svakiya-rasa (married relationship) and parakiya-rasa (a relationship signified with eternal love).


In the Nimbarka Sampradaya, Radha's relationship with Krishna is characterised by the svakiya-rasa, based on texts in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana and the Garga Samhita describing the wedding of Radha and Krishna. The Gaudiya tradition focuses upon parakiya-rasa as the highest form of love, wherein Radha and Krishna share loving exchanges through separation. The love the gopis feel for Krishna is also described in this esoteric manner as the highest platform of spontaneous love of God, and not of a mundane sexual nature. Proponents of the Gaudiya and Nimbarka schools of Vaishnavism give the highly esoteric nature of Radha's relationship to Krishna as the reason why her story is not mentioned in detail in the earlier Puranic texts.[citation needed] The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST Śrī Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Garga Samhita (The narrations of Garga) is a book written by the sage Garga and deals with the life of Krishna. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which...


Birth

Vaishnava tradition states that Radha was born in either Varshana, or Rawal, a village about 8 kilometers from Vrindavan, near present day New Delhi in India.[2] There are a number of accounts of her parentage. According to one of the common ones, her father is the leader (sometimes regarded as king) of cowherds called Vrishabhanu, and her mother is called Kamalavati, or Kirtida. Barsana is a village near Mathura (a part of Mathura District) which was a playground for ancient gods. ... , Vrindavan   (alternate spellings Vrindaban or Brindavan), or Vraj in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh, India is a town on the site of an ancient forest which is believed to have been the region where the famous cowherd boy, Krishna, from Hindu scriptures spent his childhood days. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ...


Her worship is especially prominent in Vrindavan, the place where Krishna is said to have lived over 5000 years ago. Wherein Her importance surpasses even the importance of Krishna. Radha's love for Krishna is held within Gaudiya Vaishnavism as the most perfect primarily because of its endless and unconditional nature. Thus she is the most important consort of Krishna, 'His heart and soul', and His 'hladini-shakti' (spiritual pleasure potency). , Vrindavan   (alternate spellings Vrindaban or Brindavan), or Vraj in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh, India is a town on the site of an ancient forest which is believed to have been the region where the famous cowherd boy, Krishna, from Hindu scriptures spent his childhood days. ...


In the Brihad-Gautamiya Tantra, Radharani is described as follows: "The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord." For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ...


Nimbarka

Nimbarka was the first Vaishnava acharya to disseminate teachings about Radha.[3][4] Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ...


Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

The Bengali saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 - 1534) is believed by many (see especially the modern-day ISKCON movement) to be an incarnation of both Radha and Krishna, simultaneously in one form. Throughout his life, Chaitanya lived as a devotee of Vaishnava tradition, not openly claiming to be any form of avatar, but in his biographies it is claimed that he revealed his divine form to some of his closer associates.[5] Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bengali ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Vaishnava monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal[1], (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh) and Orissa in India[2]. Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ...


Festivals

Radha (right) with Krishna at Krishna-Balarama Temple in Vrindavan
Radha (right) with Krishna at Krishna-Balarama Temple in Vrindavan

Radha's birthday is celebrated as Radhastami.During this time devotees are allowed special sanctions not normally allowed. For example, Radha's name is normally not chanted due to the possibility of committing offenses towards her. Neither are all devotees qualified to enter into her kunda, or lake, which is considered holy. On the festival day of the appearance of Radha Kunda (Radharani's lake), devotees wait up until midnight in order to bathe there. And there is much recitation of her holy names on her "appearance day" or "birthday". She is said to "appear" because she does not take birth or die, being an eternal associate of Krishna, both of whom are liberated. She is the most chaste woman, "married" to Krishna. Image of Radha and Krishna in Krishna-Balaram Mandir, Vrindavan, India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image of Radha and Krishna in Krishna-Balaram Mandir, Vrindavan, India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The foremost of the Gopis

The Padma Purana describes 18,000 cowherd-girls (gopis) among whom it says 108 are the most important. Among those 108, eight are considered more important still, and among the eight, two have a special position - Chandravali and Radharani. Of the two, Radha is considered the foremost. Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... 108 is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109. ...


Names & Worship

Temple in Varsana, dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna
Temple in Varsana, dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna

Radha has many epithets describing her qualities and characteristics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (756 × 1008 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A temple dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna, in Varsana, India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (756 × 1008 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A temple dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna, in Varsana, India. ... , Temple in Barsana, dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna Barsana (Hindi: ) or Varsana (alt. ...

  • Gandharvi - expert singer[6]
  • Govinda-nandini - She who gives pleasure to Govinda (Krishna)
  • Govinda-mohini - She who mystifies Govinda
  • Govinda-sarvasva - the all-in-all of Govinda
  • Sarva-kanta Shiromani - the crown jewel of all Krishna's consorts
  • Krishnamayi - the one who sees Krishna both within and without
  • Radhika - Her worship of the Krishna consists of fulfilling His desires
  • Madan-Mohan-Mohini - Within Gaudiya tradition Krishna (as the Supreme Person) is believed to be the enchanter of all living beings, including even Kamadeva (Madan) - the god of attraction. Because Radha has the unique position of being able to enchant even Krishna she is therefore know as Madan-Mohan-Mohini: the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid.
  • Aradhana - The root name of Radharani, meaning one who excels in worshiping Krishna
  • Sarva-lakshmi - The original source of all the goddesses of fortune
  • Vrshabhanu-nandini - daughter of Vrishabanu
  • Vrndavaneshvari - Queen of Vrindavana
  • Lalita-Sakhi - friend of the gopi Lalita
  • Gokula-Taruni - She whom all young girls of Gokul worship
  • Damodara Rati - She who dresses herself to please Damodara (Krishna)
  • Radharani – Radha the queen

One of her names, Hara (mentioned in Narada-pancaratra 5.5.59), in vocative Hare, forms a part of the Hare Krishna 'Maha-Mantra', one of the most popular Vedic mantras, especially amongst Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Radharani's names hold a place of prime importance within Gaudiya Vaishnava religious practices. Krsnas name is Govinda. ... pela pali is must humanbenigs part Kāmadeva (Sanskrit: कामदेव) is the Hindu god of love. ... Vrindavana is the name of a mythic forest or forested region in Northern India, in which the Hindu deity Krishna spent his childhood. ... Gokul is a village 15 kms south-east of Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Damodar can refer to: Damodar River in India Damodar (name of Krishna) Category: ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas).[1] It is believed by practitioners... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ...


Temples dedicated to Radha

Temple Deities in India and abroad are generally named in order of Radharani first and then Krishna. Krishna is approachable through the mercy of Srimati Radharani and no one else. So for example, if one were to enter the Govindaji temple in Vrindavan the Deities are named Radha Govinda and devotees of Krishna would pray to Radha and Govinda not just Krishna. This is because Krishna is controlled by Radharani's love. Barsana is a village near Mathura (a part of Mathura District) which was a playground for ancient gods. ... , Vrindavan   (alternate spellings Vrindaban or Brindavan), or Vraj in Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh, India is a town on the site of an ancient forest which is believed to have been the region where the famous cowherd boy, Krishna, from Hindu scriptures spent his childhood days. ... Mathura District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... Barsana Dham is the first Hindu temple of Austin, Texas. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Krsnas name is Govinda. ...


Quotations about Radha

  • "Although the effulgence of the moon is brilliant initially at night, in the daytime it fades away. Similarly, although the lotus is beautiful during the daytime, at night it closes. But, O My friend, the face of My most dear Srimati Radharani is always bright and beautiful, both day and night. Therefore, to what can Her face be compared?" (Vidagdha-madhava 5.20)
  • "When Srimati Radharani smiles, waves of joy overtake Her cheeks, and Her arched eyebrows dance like the bow of Cupid. Her glance is so enchanting that it is like a dancing bumblebee, moving unsteadily due to intoxication. That bee has bitten the whorl of My heart." (Vidagdha-madhava 2.51)
  • "Just as Srimati Radharani is most dear to Krishna, Her bathing pond is similarly dear. Of all the gopis, She is the most beloved of the Lord." (Padma Purana)
  • "The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord." (Brihad-gautamiya-tantra)
  • "Among all persons, it is Sri Radha in whose company Lord Madhava is especially glorious, as She is especially glorious in His." (Rig-parisishta)

Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was born Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal. ...

Husband of Radha

In a number of versions of her story, although Radha's first love is Krishna (whom she knows through her childhood) she is later forced to marry Abhimanyu, the son of Jatila. One source for this information is Sri Sri Camatkara Candrika by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. Other traditions give the name of the husband of Radha as 'Chandrasena' Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura (1626? - 1708?) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya born in the village of Deva-gram within Nadia district, West Bengal, India. ...


See also

Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas).[1] It is believed by practitioners... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bengali ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Vaishnava monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal[1], (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh) and Orissa in India[2]. Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning... The Sri Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST Śrī Nimbārka Sampradāya; Sanskrit श्रीनिम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya, Sanakādi Sampradāya etc, is one of the four authorised Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas (philosophical schools characterised by leaders in disciplic succession) as... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Krsna: The Supreme Personality of Godhead (ISBN 0-89213-354-6) by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
  • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-0379-5) by David Kinsley
  • Hawley J.S. & D.M. Wulff (ed.) (1986) The Divine Consort: Radha and the Goddesses of India, Beacon Press, Boston, ISBN 0-8070-1303-X.

Footnotes

  1. ^ H.Wilson, Brahmavaivarta Purana with English Translation]], Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, 1990 reprint.
  2. ^ Bimanbehari Majumdar (1969). Kṛṣṇa in History and Legend. India: University of Calcutta, 307. pp.85-86
  3. ^ Singh, K.B. (2004). "Manipur Vaishnavism: A Sociological Interpretat1on". Sociology of Religion in India. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. 
  4. ^ Kinsley, D. (1972). "Without Krsna There Is No Song". History of Religions 12 (2): 149. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. "Nimbarka seems to have been the first well-known religious leader to regard Radha as central to his cult (thirteenth century)"
  5. ^ Chaitanya Charitamrita Madhya-lila 8.282
  6. ^ Gopala Tapani Upanishad 2.12,28,118
  7. ^ Radhavallabh Temple
  8. ^ University Newsletter

Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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General Information

Festivals

Names of Radha

  • Sri Radha's name in Srimad Bhagavatam
  • The Names of Srimati Radharani

Further Resources

Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... In the Hindu religion, SatÄ« (Devanagari: सती, the feminine of sat true) or Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Kali (Sanskrit ) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Mahavidyas (Great Wisdoms) are aspects of Devi in Hinduism. ... Navadurga, which literally means nine Durgas, constitute, according to Hindu mythology, the manifestation of Durga in nine different forms. ... Matrikas, that is, the mothers, are a band of divinities, which always appear in a group. ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ... Murugan (also Murugan) (Tamil: ) is a popular Hindu deity amongst Tamil Hindus. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ...

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