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Encyclopedia > Radeon R300
Radeon R300 (Radeon 9000 Series)
Codename Khan
Created 2002
Entry-Level GPU Radeon 9550, X300
Mid-Range GPU Radeon 9500, 9600, X550, X600
High-End GPU Radeon 9700, 9800
Direct3D Version 9.0, Shader Model 2.0

The Radeon R300 (introduced August 2002) is the third generation of Radeon graphics chips from ATI Technologies. The line features 3D acceleration based upon Direct3D 9.0 and OpenGL 2.x, a major improvement in features and performance compared to the preceding Radeon R200 design. R300 was the world's first fully Direct3D 9-capable consumer graphics chip. The processors also include 2D GUI acceleration, video acceleration, and multiple display outputs. "R300" refers to the development codename of the initially released GPU of the generation. R300 and its derivatives would form the basis for ATI's consumer and professional product lines for over 3 years. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2025x1875, 637 KB) Summary ATI Radeon 9700 logo Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... 3D computer graphics are different from 2D computer graphics in that a three-dimensional representation of geometric data is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 3D computer graphics (and 2D computer graphics as well). ... The Radeon 8500 (a. ... 2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. ... Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ...


The integrated graphics processor based upon R300 is called Xpress 200. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Ati Radeon 200 Logo The Xpress 200 is a computer chipset released by ATi. ...

Contents

Development

ATI had held the lead for a while with the Radeon 8500 but NVIDIA retook the performance crown with the launch of the GeForce 4 Ti line. A new high-end refresh part, the 8500XT (R250) was supposedly in the works, ready to compete against NVIDIA’s high-end offerings, particularly the top line Ti 4600. Pre-release information listed a 300 MHz core and RAM clock speed for the "R250" chip. ATI, perhaps mindful of what had happened to 3dfx when they took focus off their "Rampage" processor, abandoned it in favor of finishing off their next-generation R300 card. The Radeon 8500 (a. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is the worlds largest GPU company and a worldwide leader in GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ... A GeForce 4 (codenames below) is a fourth-generation graphics processing unit (GPU) manufactured by NVIDIA which forms the basis of many computer graphics cards. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... 3dfx Interactive was a company which specialized in the manufacturing of cutting-edge 3D graphics processing units and, later, graphics cards. ...


The R3xx chip was designed by ATI's west coast team (formerly ArtX Inc.), and the first product to use it was the Radeon 9700 PRO (internal ATI code name: R300 - internal ArtX codename: Khan), launched in August 2002. The architecture of R300 was quite different from its predecessor, Radeon 8500 ("R200"), in nearly every way. The core of 9700 PRO was manufactured on a 150 nm chip fabrication process, similar to the Radeon 8500. However, refined design and manufacturing techniques enabled a doubling of transistor count and a significant clock speed gain. One major change with the manufacturing of the core was the use of the flip chip packaging, a technology not used previously on video cards. Flip chip packaging allows far better cooling of the die by flipping it and exposing it directly to the cooling solution, and thus enables higher clock speeds to be easier achieved. Radeon 9700 PRO was launched clocked at 325 MHz, ahead of the originally projected 300 MHz. With a transistor count of 110 million, it was the largest and most complex GPU of the time. A slower chip, the 9700, was launched a few months later, differing only by lower core and memory speeds. Surprisingly, the Radeon 9700 PRO was clocked significantly higher than the Matrox Parhelia 512, a card released but months before R300 and considered to be the pinnacle of graphics chip manufacturing (with 80 million transistors at 220 MHz), up until R300's arrival. ArtX was a company formed in 1997 by a group of engineers from Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA or FCPGA) is a form of pin grid array processor architecture package in which the die faces downwards on the top of the CPU with the back of the die exposed. ... A video card, (also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms), is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thermal management of electronic devices and systems. ... Parhelia-512 for PCI-X Parhelia GPU The Matrox Parhelia 512 was a 512-bit graphics card launched in 2002 with full support for DirectX 8. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier. ...


Architecture

The chip adopted an architecture consisting of 8 pixel pipelines, each with 1 texture mapping unit (an 8x1 design). While this differed from the older chips using 2 texture units per pipeline, this did not mean "R300" could not perform multitexturing as efficiently as older chips. Its texture units could perform a new "loopback" operation which allowed them to sample up to 16 textures per geometry pass. The textures can be any combination of one, two, or three dimensions with bilinear, trilinear, or anisotropic filtering. This was part of the new DirectX 9 specification, along with more flexible floating-point-based Shader Model 2.0+ pixel shaders and vertex shaders. Equipped with 4 vertex shader units, "R300" possessed over twice the geometry processing capability of its predecessor and the GeForce4 Ti 4600, in addition to the greater feature-set offered compared to DirectX 8 shaders. Texture mapping units are also known as graphical pipelines is a small stage in a video card that preforms a small task quickly. ... A zoomed small portion of a bitmap of a cat, using nearest neighbor filtering (left) and bicubic filtering (right). ... Trilinear filtering is an extension of the bilinear texture filtering method, which also performs linear interpolation between mipmaps. ... An illustration of texture filtering methods showing trilinear MIP map texture on the left and enhanced with anisotropic texture filtering on the right. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are computer programs that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are shaders that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are shaders that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ... Geometry Processing is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation and transmission of complex 3D models. ... A GeForce4 (codenames below) is a fourth-generation graphics processing unit (GPU) manufactured by NVIDIA which forms the basis of many computer graphics cards. ...


A noteworthy limitation is that all "R300"-generation chips were designed for a maximum floating point precision of 96-bit, or FP24, instead of DirectX 9's maximum of 128-bit FP32. DirectX 9.0 specified FP24 as a minimum level for conforming to the specification for full precision. This tradeoff in precision offered the best combination of transistor usage and image quality for the manufacturing process at the time. It did cause a usually visibly-imperceptible loss of quality when doing heavy blending. ATI's Radeon chips did not go above FP24 until R520. ATI demonstrated part of what was capable with pixel shader PS2.0 with their Rendering with Natural Light demo. The demo was a real-time implementation of noted 3D graphics researcher Paul Debevec's paper on the topic of high dynamic range rendering.[1] A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... ATIs R520 core (codenamed Fudo) is the foundation for a line of DirectX 9c 3D accelerator x1000 video cards. ... Paul Debevec is a researcher in computer graphics at the University of Southern California. ... High dynamic range rendering (HDRR or HDR Rendering), also known as high dynamic range lighting, is the rendering of 3D computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in a larger dynamic range. ...

ATI's Rendering with Natural Light promo demo

The "R300" was the first board to truly take advantage of a 256-bit memory bus. Matrox had released their Parhelia 512 several months earlier, but this board did not show great gains with its 256-bit bus. ATI, however, had not only doubled their bus to 256-bit, but also integrated an advanced crossbar memory controller, somewhat similar to NVIDIA's memory technology. Utilizing four individual load-balanced 64-bit memory controllers, ATI's memory implementation was quite capable of achieving high bandwidth efficiency by maintaining adequate granularity of memory transactions and thus working around memory latency limitations. "R300" was also given the latest refinement of ATI's innovative HyperZ memory bandwidth and fillrate saving technology, HyperZ III. The demands of the 8x1 architecture required more bandwidth than the 128-bit bus designs of the previous generation due to having double the texture and pixel fillrate. Image File history File links ATI-9700-nl-lg. ... Image File history File links ATI-9700-nl-lg. ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is the worlds largest GPU company and a worldwide leader in GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ... RAM Latency is the amount of wait time that a computer experiences when trying to access data in its RAM. RAM latency is measured in front side bus clock cycles. ... HyperZ is the name of a set of computer graphics processing techniques used by ATI Technologies in their Radeon video cards. ...


Radeon 9700 introduced ATI's multi-sample gamma-corrected anti-aliasing scheme. The chip offered sparse-sampling in modes including 2X, 4X, and 6X. Multi-sampling offered vastly superior performance over the supersampling method on older Radeons, and superior image quality compared to NVIDIA's offerings at the time. Anti-aliasing was, for the first time, a fully usable option even in the newest and most demanding titles of the day. "R300" also offered advanced anisotropic filtering which incurred a much smaller performance hit than the anisotropic solution of the GeForce4 and other competitors' cards, while offering significantly improved quality over Radeon 8500's anisotropic filtering implementation which was highly angle dependent. Gamma correction is the name of an internal adjustment made in the rendering of images through photography, television, and computer imaging. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing (jagged or blocky patterns) when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... Supersampling is an antialiasing technique, the process of eliminating jagged and pixelated edges (aliasing). ...


Performance

Radeon 9700's advanced architecture was very efficient and, of course, more powerful compared to its older peers of 2002. Under normal conditions it beat the GeForce4 Ti 4600, the previous top-end card, by 15-20%. However, when anti-aliasing (AA) and/or anisotropic filtering (AF) were enabled it would beat the Ti 4600 by anywhere from 40-100%. At the time, this was quite astonishing, and resulted in the widespread acceptance of AA and AF as critical, truly usable features. A GeForce4 (codenames below) is a fourth-generation graphics processing unit (GPU) manufactured by NVIDIA which forms the basis of many computer graphics cards. ...


Besides advanced architecture, reviewers also took note of ATI's change in strategy. The 9700 would be the first of ATI's chips to be shipped to third-party manufacturers instead of ATI producing all of its graphics cards (ATI would still produce cards off of its highest-end chips). This freed up engineering resources that were channelled towards driver improvements, and the 9700 performed phenomenally well at launch because of this. Radeon is a brand of graphics processing units (GPU) that has been manufactured by ATI Technologies since 2000 and the successor to their Rage line. ...


The performance and quality increases offered by the R300 GPU is considered to be one of the greatest in the history of 3D graphics, alongside the achievements GeForce 256 and Voodoo Graphics. Furthermore, NVIDIA’s response in the form of the GeForce FX 5800 was both late to market and somewhat unimpressive, especially when pixel shading was used. R300 would become one of the GPUs with the longest useful lifetime in history, allowing playable performance in new games at least 3 years after its launch.[2] The GeForce 256 (codenamed NV10), often known simply as the GeForce, was the first of NVIDIAs GeForce product-line. ... 3dfx Interactive was a company which specialized in the manufacturing of cutting-edge 3D graphics processing units and, later, graphics cards. ... NVIDIA GeForce FX logo The famous Dawn demo was released by NVIDIA to showcase pixel and vertex shaders effects of the GeForce FX Series The GeForce FX (codenamed NV30) is a graphics card in the GeForce line, from the manufacturer NVIDIA. // Overview NVIDIAs GeForce FX series is the fifth...


Further Releases

A few months later, the 9500 and 9500 PRO were launched. The 9500 PRO had half the memory bus width of the 9700 PRO, and the 9500 "non pro" was also missing (disabled) half the pixel processing units and the hierarchical Z-buffer optimization unit (part of HyperZ III). With its full 8 pipelines and efficient architecture, the 9500 PRO outperformed all of NVIDIA’s products (save the Ti 4600). Meanwhile, the 9500 also became popular because it could in some cases be modified into the much more powerful 9700 non-PRO (np). ATI only intended for the 9500 series to be a temporary solution to fill the gap for the 2002 Christmas season, prior to the release of the 9600. Since all of the "R300" chips were based on the same physical die, ATI's margins on 9500 products were low. Radeon 9500 was one of the shortest-lived product of ATI, later replaced by the Radeon 9600 series. The logo and box package of the 9500 was "resurrected" in 2004 to market the unrelated and slower Radeon 9550 (which is a derivative of the 9600).


Refreshed

Radeon 9600 XT
Radeon 9800 XT

In early 2003, the 9700 cards were replaced by the 9800 (a.k.a. R350). These were R300s with higher clock speeds, and improvements to the shader units and memory controller which enhanced anti-aliasing performance. They were designed to maintain a performance lead over the newly launched GeForce FX 5900 Ultra, which it managed to do without difficulty. The 9800 still held its own against the revised 5900, primarily (and significantly) in tasks involving heavy SM2.0 pixel shading. A later version with 256 MiB of memory used GDDR2. The other two variants were the 9800 "non-pro" , which was simply a lower-clocked '9800 Pro, and the 9800 SE, which had half the pixel processing units disabled (could sometimes be enabled again). Official ATI specs dictate a 256-bit memory bus for the 9800 SE, but most of the manufacturers used a 128-bit bus. Usually, the 9800 SE with 256-bit memory bus was called "9800 SE Ultra" or "9800 SE Golden Version". Image File history File linksMetadata R9600xt_board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata R9600xt_board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata R9800xt_board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata R9800xt_board. ... NVIDIA GeForce FX logo The famous Dawn demo was released by NVIDIA to showcase pixel and vertex shaders effects of the GeForce FX Series The GeForce FX (codenamed NV30) is a graphics card in the GeForce line, from the manufacturer NVIDIA. // Overview NVIDIAs GeForce FX series is the fifth... The three-letter acronym MIB may refer to any of several concepts: Management information base, a computing information repository used (for example) by SNMP In marbles, any marble, but esp. ... DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Two Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a computer memory technology that, as of 2005, is becoming the mainstream standard for personal computer memory. ...


Alongside the 9800, the 9600 (a.k.a. RV350) series was rolled out in early 2003, and while the 9600 PRO didn't outperform the 9500 PRO that it was supposed to replace, it was much more economical for ATI to produce by way of a 130nm process (all ATI's cards since the 7500/8500 had been 150nm) and a simplified design. Radeon 9600's "RV350" core was basically a 9800 PRO cut in half, with exactly half of the same functional units, making it a 4x1 architecture with 2 vertex shaders. It also lost part of HyperZ III with the removal of the hierarchical z-buffer optimization unit, the same as Radeon 9500. Using a 130nm process was also good for pushing up the core clock speed. The 9600 series, all with high default clocking, was shown to have quite a bit of headroom by overclockers (achieving over 500 MHz, from 400 MHz on the Pro model). While the 9600 series was less powerful than the 9500 and 9500 PRO it replaced, it did largely manage to maintain the 9500's lead over NVIDIA’s GeForce FX 5600 Ultra, and it was ATI's cost-effective answer to the long-time mainstream performance board, GeForce4 Ti 4200. A GeForce4 (codenames below) is a fourth-generation graphics processing unit (GPU) manufactured by NVIDIA which forms the basis of many computer graphics cards. ...


During the summer of 2003, the Mobility Radeon 9600 was launched, based upon the RV350 core. Being the first laptop chip to offer DirectX 9.0 shaders, it enjoyed the same success of the previous Mobility Radeons. The Mobility Radeon 9600 was originally planned to use a RAM technology called GDDR2-M. The company developing that memory went bankrupt and the RAM never arrived, so ATI was forced to use regular DDR SDRAM. Undoubtedly there would have been power usage savings, and perhaps performance gains with GDDR2-M. In fall 2004, a slightly faster variant, the Mobility Radeon 9700 was launched (which was still based upon the RV350, and not the older R300 of the desktop Radeon 9700 despite the naming similarity).


Later in 2003, three new cards were launched - the 9800 XT (R360), the 9600 XT (RV360), and the 9600 SE (RV350). The 9800 XT was slightly faster than the 9800 PRO had been, while the 9600 XT competed well with the newly launched GeForce FX 5700 Ultra.[3] The "RV360" chip on 9600 XT was the first graphics chip by ATI that utilized Low-K chip fabrication and allowed even higher clocking of the 9600 core (500 MHz default). The 9600 SE was ATI's answer to NVIDIA’s GeForce FX 5200 Ultra, managing to outperform the 5200 while also being cheaper. Another "RV350" board followed in early 2004, on the Radeon 9550, which was a Radeon 9600 with a lower core clock (though an identical memory clock and bus width). A Low-K dielectric is one with a small dielectric constant. ...


Worthy of note regarding the R300-based generation is that the entire lineup utilized single-slot cooling solutions. It was not until the R420 generation's Radeon X850 XT Platinum Edition, in December 2004, that ATI would adopt an official dual-slot cooling design.[4] The Radeon R420 core from ATI Technologies was their 3rd-generation DirectX 9. ... For more background on this topic, see Radeon. ...


New Interface

Also in 2004, ATI released the Radeon X300 and X600 boards. These were based on the "RV370" and "RV380" GPU respectively. They were nearly identical to the chips used in Radeon 9550 and 9600, only differing in that they were native PCI Express offerings. These were very popular for Dell and other OEM companies to sell in various configurations; connectors: DVI vs. DMS-59, card height: full-height vs. half-height. Image File history File linksMetadata RadeonX600Pro. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... For other meanings of DVI, please see DVI (disambiguation). ... DMS-59 connector. ...


Models

Desktop Graphics Boards
Board
Name
Core
Type
Die Process Clocks (MHz) Core/RAM Core
Config1
Fillrate2
(MTex/s)
Geometry3
(MTri/s)
Memory
Interface
Memory
Bandwidth
Notes
9500 R300 150 nm 275/270 4:4 1100 275 128-bit 8.6 GB/s Hierarchical-Z disabled.
9500 PRO R300 150 nm 275/270 8:4 2200 275 128-bit 8.6 GB/s Core identical to 9700.
9700 R300 150 nm 275/270 8:4 2200 275 256-bit 17.3 GB/s
9700 PRO R300 150 nm 325/310 8:4 2600 325 256-bit 19.8 GB/s
9800 SE R350 150 nm 325/270 4:4 1300 325 128-bit 8.6 GB/s
9800 SE R360 150 nm 325/290 4:4 1300 380 256-bit 18.6 GB/s
9800 R350 150 nm 325/290 8:4 2600 325 256-bit 18.6 GB/s
9800 XL R350 150 nm 350/310 8:4 2800 350 256-bit 19.8 GB/s Cost reduced model produced for OEMs like Medion.
9800 PRO R350, R360 150 nm 380/340 8:4 3040 380 256-bit 21.8 GB/s 340 MHz 128 MiB DDR or 350 MHz 256 MiB GDDR2.
9800 XXL R360 150 nm 390/337.5 8:4 3120 390 256-bit 21.6 GB/s Higher clocked version of 9800 XL.
9800 XT R360 150 nm 412/365 8:4 3296 412 256-bit 23.4 GB/s 256 MiB GDDR2
9550 SE RV350 130 nm 250/200 4:2 1000 125 64-bit 3.2 GB/s
9550 RV350 130 nm 250/200 4:2 1000 125 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
9600 SE RV350 130 nm 325/200 4:2 1300 163 64-bit 3.2 GB/s
9600 RV350 130 nm 325/200 4:2 1300 163 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
9600 PRO RV350 130 nm 400/300 4:2 1600 200 128-bit 9.6 GB/s
9600 XT RV360 130 nm 500/300 4:2 2000 250 128-bit 9.6 GB/s first Low-K 130 nm.
X300 SE RV370 110 nm 325/300 4:2 1300 163 64-bit 4.8 GB/s RV370 is PCIe native. HyperMemory model avail.
X300 LE RV370 110 nm 325/200 4:2 1300 163 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
X300 RV370 110 nm 325/200 4:2 1300 163 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
X550 RV370 110 nm 400/250 4:2 1600 200 128-bit 8.0 GB/s
X600 PRO RV380 130 nm 400/300 4:2 1600 200 128-bit 9.6 GB/s RV380 is PCIe native
X600 XT RV380 130 nm 500/370 4:2 2000 250 128-bit 11.8 GB/s
X1050 RV370 110 nm 325/200 4:4:4:2 1300 165 128-bit 6.4 GB/s renamed Radeon X300, SM2.0 support
Mobility Radeons and Integrated Graphics Processors
MR9550 32 MB M10 130 nm 300/200 4:2 1200 150 64-bit 3.2 GB/s Mobile RV350. Powerplay power management.
MR9550 M10 130 nm 300/200 4:2 1200 150 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
MR9600 32 MB M10 130 nm 300/200 4:2 1200 150 64-bit 3.2 GB/s
MR9600 M10 130 nm 300/200 4:2 1200 150 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
MR9600 PRO M10 130 nm 333/200 4:2 1332 167 128-bit 6.4 GB/s
MR9600 PRO Turbo M10 130 nm 333/240 4:2 1332 167 128-bit 7.7 GB/s
MR9700 M11 130 nm 450/260 4:2 1800 225 128-bit 8.3 GB/s Low-K. RV360-based
Xpress 200 RS480 130 nm 300/266 2:0 666  ? 64/128-bit NA Based on X300. Mostly host based vertex processing w/ support for VS 2.0. Hypermemory-like memory set up. 0 MiB - 128 MiB local RAM. Uses system RAM as well. SurroundView 3-display (with separate ATI card).
  • Bold rows designate initial showings of the major core types.
  • 1 (# of Pixel pipelines) : (# of vertex shaders). All chips of this generation have 1 texture mapping unit (TMU) per pixel pipeline.
  • 2 MTex/s = Million Texels per second, a measure of texturing fillrate. All chips of this generation have equal texture and pixel fillrates because of having only a single TMU per pipeline.
  • 3 MTri/s = Million triangles per second, a measure of the core's geometric calculation capabilities. Related to core speed and the number of vertex shaders.

NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... In computer architecture, 128-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are at most 128 bits wide. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale, meaning a thousand million) bytes. ... HyperZ is the name of a set of computer graphics processing techniques used by ATI Technologies in their Radeon video cards. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... A Low-K dielectric is one with a small dielectric constant. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... HyperMemory is ATI Technologies method of using a PCs main system RAM as part of or all of the video cards framebuffer memory on their line of Radeon video cards and motherboard chipsets. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale, meaning a thousand million) bytes. ... The ATi Radeon X Series is the latest offering from graphics card manufacturer ATi Technologies. ... The High Level Shader Language (HLSL) is a proprietory shading language developed by Microsoft for use with their Microsoft Direct3D only. ... A Low-K dielectric is one with a small dielectric constant. ... HyperMemory is ATI Technologies method of using a PCs main system RAM as part of or all of the video cards framebuffer memory on their line of Radeon video cards and motherboard chipsets. ... A pixel pipeline is a video card part that transfers pixel information. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are shaders that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ... Texture mapping units are also known as graphical pipelines is a small stage in a video card that preforms a small task quickly. ... ...

References

  1. ^ Debevec, Paul. Rendering with Natural Light, Author's web page, 1998
  2. ^ Weinand, Lars. VGA Charts VII: AGP Update Summer 2005, Tom's Hardware, July 5, 2005.
  3. ^ Gasior, Geoff. NVIDIA's GeForce FX 5700 Ultra GPU: Third time's the charm?, The Tech Report, October 23, 2003.
  4. ^ Wasson, Scott. ATI's Radeon X850 XT graphics cards: Canadian double-wide?, The Tech Report, December 1, 2004.
ATI graphics processors
2D Chips: Mach
Direct3D 3-6: Rage
Direct3D 7.0: Radeon R100
Direct3D 8.0: Radeon R200
Direct3D 9.0: Radeon R300R420R520
Direct3D 10: Radeon R600R700
Other ATI technologies
Chipsets: IGP3xx9000/9100 IGPXpress 200Xpress 3200580X690GRD700
Multi-GPU: Multi-renderingCrossFire
Professional graphics: FireGLFireMV
Consumer electronics: ImageonXilleon
Misc: HyperMemoryAVIVO • "Universal Video Decoder" • PowerPlay
Game consoles: GameCube (Flipper) • Xbox 360 (Xenos) • Wii (Hollywood)

 
 

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