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Encyclopedia > Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. Historically, the country has been dominated by a settler society of religiously and ethnically diverse whites. Major racially structured institutions include slavery, settlement, Indian reservations, segregation, residential schools (for American Indians), and internment camps. Racial stratification has occurred in employment, housing, education and government. Racial discrimination was largely criminalized in the mid-20th century, and it became socially unacceptable or morally repugnant as well, but major inequalities still persist and racial politics remain a major phenomena. A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ...


The heaviest burdens of racism in the country have fallen upon Native Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, Latin Americans and some other immigrant groups and their descendants. Racist attitudes, or prejudice, are still held by moderate portions of the U.S population. Members of every American ethnic group have perceived racism in their dealings with other groups.[1][2] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

Contents

History by targeted racial group

Racism against Native Americans

Hundreds of native peoples made up of millions of individuals occupied the lands that would become the United States of America. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of Indian Wars were fought with the primary objective of obtaining much of North America as territory of the U.S. Through wars, massacre, forced displacement (such as in the Trail of Tears), restriction of food rights, and the imposition of treaties, land was taken and numerous hardships imposed. Ideologies justifying the context included stereotypes of Native Americans as "merciless Indian savages" (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) and the quasi-religious doctrine of Manifest Destiny which asserted divine blessing for U.S. conquest of all lands west of the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific. The most rapid invasion occurred in the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of tens of thousands of Indians. Following the 1848 American invasion, Native Californians were enslaved in the new state from statehood in 1850 to 1867.[3] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Indian slavery was the practice of using indigenous peoples of the Americas as slaves, which existed with the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ...


Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law.


Discrimination, marginalization

Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state. [4][verification needed] Many Native Americans were relegated to reservations--constituting just 4% of U.S. territory--and the treaties signed with them violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy--to "kill the Indian, sav[ing] the man."[5] Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Further dispossession continued through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land through legislation such as the Allotment Act. These concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $10-40 billion.[6] The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[7] The Worldwatch Institute is an environmental research organisation in the United States. ... Western Shoshone is a Native American tribe that is endemic to the Great Basin and have lands identified in the Treaty of Ruby Valley 1863 In Idaho, Nevada, California and Utah. ...


While formal equality has been legally granted, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, and suffer from high levels of alcoholism and suicide.[original research?] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... A Pacific Islander or Pacific Person (plural: Pacific People) is a term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe people of a certain heritage In New Zealand, it is applied to a person who has emigrated from one of the smaller islands of...


Racism against African Americans

African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ...

Slavery and emancipation

In colonial America, before slavery became completely based on racial lines, thousands of African slaves served European colonists, alongside other Europeans serving a term of indentured servitude.[8] In some cases for African slaves, a term of service meant freedom and a land grant afterward, but these were rarely awarded, and few former slaves became landowners this way.[citation needed] In a precursor to the American Revolution, Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt in 1676 against the Governor of Virginia and the system of exploitation he represented: exploitation of poorer colonists by the increasingly wealthy landowners where poorer people, regardless of skin color, fought side by side. However, Bacon died, probably of dysentery; hundreds of participants in the revolt were lured to disarm by a promised amnesty; and the revolt lost steam.[9] Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Nathaniel Bacon, engraving Nathaniel Bacon (c. ... Bacons Rebellion or the Virginia Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces and is typically the result of unsanitary water containing micro-organisms which damage the intestinal lining. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Slaves were primarily used for agricultural labor, notably in the production of cotton and tobacco. Black slavery in the Northeast was common until the early 19th century, when many Northeastern states abolished slavery. Slaves were used as a labor force in agricultural production, shipyards, docks, and as domestic servants. In both regions, only the wealthiest Americans owned slaves.[citation needed] In contrast, poor whites recognized that slavery devalued their own labor. The social rift along color lines soon became ingrained in every aspect of colonial American culture.[citation needed] Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of approximately 1.5 million white families.[10] For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Although the Constitution had banned the importation of new African slaves in 1808, and in 1820 slave trade was equated with piracy, punishable by death,[11] the practice of chattel slavery still existed for the next half century. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control of the United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued on January 1, 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln.[12] It should be noted that the Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union, thus the document only freed slaves where the Union still had not regained the legitimacy to do so. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until the passage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[13] Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[14] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.[15] Despite this, post-emancipation America was not free from racism; discriminatory practices continued in the United States with the existence of Jim Crow laws, educational disparities and widespread criminal acts against people of color. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Slave redirects here. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Nadir of American race relations

The circus-style lynching of Will James, Cairo, Illinois, 1909.
The circus-style lynching of Will James, Cairo, Illinois, 1909.

The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, acts of terror (often perpetuated by groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South but nationwide following the Hayes election at the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909. The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. ... Mass racial violence in the United States, often described using the term race riots, includes such disparate events as: attacks on Irish Catholics and other early immigrants in the 19th century massacres of black people in the period after Reconstruction. ... The lynching of Will James, 1909, Cairo, Illinois File links The following pages link to this file: Lynching Categories: Public domain images ... The lynching of Will James, 1909, Cairo, Illinois File links The following pages link to this file: Lynching Categories: Public domain images ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ...


This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism in the United States was worse during this time than at any period before or since. Segregation, racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including lynchings and race riots. The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... A race riot or racial riot is an outbreak of violent civil unrest in which race is a key factor. ...


In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto the national consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from their roots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities such as Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). In northern cities, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchings--mob-directed hangings, usually racially motivated--increased dramatically in the 1920s. The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...


American Civil Rights movement

Civil Rights marchers at the Lincoln Memorial
Civil Rights marchers at the Lincoln Memorial

Prominent African American politicians, entertainers and activists pushed for civil rights throughout the twentieth century, quite noticeably during the 1930s and 1940s with noted allies including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who facilitated singer Marian Anderson's famous 1939 Easter concert when segregated venues would not accommodate her.[16] The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_lincoln_memorial. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_lincoln_memorial. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993),[1] was an American contralto, perhaps best remembered for her performance on Easter Sunday, 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. // Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Activists, particularly A. Philip Randolph agitated for civil rights throughout the Great Depression and World War II years, organizing protest marches and seeking government concessions. The efforts of civil rights activists began to bear fruit with the issuance of wartime Executive Order 8802, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941 to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. [17] This was followed by Executive Order 9981 by President Harry S. Truman in July 1948, which banned racial segregation in the American armed forces, and the creation of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in 1957. The 1950s and 1960s saw the peaking of the American Civil Rights Movement and the desegregation of schools under the 1954 Supreme Court case Brown v. Board and the organizing of widespread protests across the nation under a younger generation of leaders.[18] Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the United States. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Executive Order 8802 (also known as the Fair Employment Act) was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941 to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... A defense contractor (sometimes called a military contractor) is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a defense department of a government. ... The Chicago Defender announces Executive Order 9981. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) is an independent federal agency of the United States government. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... For specific national Supreme Courts, see Category:National supreme courts. ... George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit, congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision declaring segregation unconstitutional Brown v. ...


The pastor and activist Martin Luther King, Jr. was the catalyst for many nonviolent protests in the 1960s which led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[19] This signified a change in the social acceptance of legislative racism in America and a profound increase in the number of opportunities available for people of color in the United States.[19] While substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and public employment, black poverty and lack of education[20] deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[18] Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ...


Discrimination against Latin Americans

Americans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as "Hispanic") come from a wide variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds; however, Latin Americans have often been viewed as a monolithic group by other Americans. Latinos are often portrayed as passionate, hypersexual, violent, lazy, or macho in literature, films, television and music. Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Hypersexuality describes human sexual behavior at levels high enough to be considered clinically significant. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Furthermore, recent increases in legal Hispanic immigration have spurred anti-Latino sentiment, particularly in areas of the United States that have previously seen few Hispanic immigrants. The immigration debate has generated negative feelings of nativism and racist claims that Latin Americans are taking over white Anglo-American society, especially in the Southwestern United States, home to most American Latinos. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ...


Due to the diversity of backgrounds encountered in the Hispanic population of the United States, racist policies have varied widely. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo granted Mexicans in the territories acquired after the Mexican-American War access to United States citizenship and legal status. Puerto Ricans began arriving on the mainland after the Spanish-American War when the U.S. acquired the island territory from Spain, but the migration peaked between 1930 and 1960. The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000...


Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority. For example, Leander Perez's ancestors were mainly Isleños who immigrated to the New Orleans area in the late 1700s, yet Leander had the appearance of, and was considered by almost everyone, to be a white man. Many Cuban Americans, particularly those from the exile generation that arrived immediately after the Communist domination of the island, are also largely integrated into American society. Leander Henry Perez, Sr. ... Isleños (from the Spanish, meaning islanders) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi Valley of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...


West Coast racism

In the Pacific States, racism was primarily directed against the resident Indian and Latino peoples, Asian immigrants, and black (African-American) populations. Several immigration laws discriminated against the Asians, and at different points the ethnic Chinese or other groups were banned from entering the United States.[21] Nonwhites were prohibited from testifying against whites, a prohibition extended to the Chinese by People v. Hall.[22] The Chinese were generally subject to harder labor on the First Transcontinental Railroad and often performed the more dangerous tasks such as using dynamite to make pathways through the mountains.[23] The San Francisco Vigilance Movement, although ostensibly a response to crime and corruption, also systematically victimized Irish immigrants, and later this was transformed into mob violence against Chinese immigrants.[citation needed] Legal discrimination of Asian minorities was furthered with the passages of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which banned the entrance of virtually all ethnic Chinese immigrants into the United States until 1943. During World War II, the United States created internment camps for Japanese American citizens in fear that they would be used as spies for the Japanese. This was also done with Italian American and German American [24] populations in the East. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The People of the State of California v. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... Charles Cora and James Casey are lynched by the Committee of Vigilance, San Francisco, 1856. ... This article is about the former U.S. law. ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ...

See also: History of Oregon#Racial discrimination

A variety of laws were enacted to prevent African American migration to the Pacific Northwest. While slavery was criminalized in the Oregon Territory in 1844, a so-called lash law required that all blacks (slave or free) be whipped twice annually was enacted in June of that year. An exclusion law, barring African Americans from entering the territory was passed in 1847, repealed in 1854, and added to the new Oregon state constitution in 1857. While African Americans have been present at some level since 1805, the demographic reverberations of these laws remain today.[25] Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Seal of the Oregon Territory. ...


The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos in Los Angeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the dense neighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several days of non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican American youths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among that group.[26] The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days before based commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits to servicemen.[27] Zoot Suit riots, June 1943 For the swing album by Cherry Poppin Daddies, see Zoot Suit Riot (album) The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youths, who... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For alternate meanings, see Zoot Suit (disambiguation). ...


The Pacific and Western states were often portrayed to those on the East Coast as more liberal in terms of race relations in the 1960s and 1970s, but California legally allowed racial segregation of public facilities until the 1950s and other forms of racism were felt there as well. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Hate crimes

Most hate crimes in the United States target victims on the basis of race or ethnicity (for Federal purposes, crimes targeting Hispanics based on that identity are considered based on ethnicity). Leading forms of bias cited in the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, based on law enforcement agency filings are: anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-white, anti-homosexual, and anti-Hispanic bias in that order in both 2004 and 2005.[28] There are more hate crimes against whites than against Hispanics, Asians, American-Indians and multiple-race groups - a statistically expected trend given that there far more whites than other ethnic groups put together. By contrast, the National Criminal Victimization Survey, finds that per capita rates of hate crime victimization varied little by race or ethnicity, and the differences are not statistically significant.[29]


The New Century Foundation, a white nationalist organization founded by Jared Taylor, argues that blacks are more likely than whites to commit hate crimes, and that FBI figures inflate the number of hate crimes committed by whites by counting Hispanics as "white".[30] Other analysts are sharply critical of the NCF's findings, referring to the criminological mainstream view that "Racial and ethnic data must be treated with caution. ... Existing research on crime has generally shown that racial or ethnic identity is not predictive of criminal behavior with data which has been controlled for social and economic factors."[31] NCF's methodology and statistics are further sharply criticized as flawed and deceptive by anti-racist activists Tim Wise and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[32][33] The New Century Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization founded in 1994 to study immigration and race relations so as to better understand the consequences of America’s increasing diversity. ... White nationalism is the attempt to create racial identity groups which advance the social and economic interests of White or Caucasian people. ... Jared Taylor Samuel Jared Taylor (b. ...


Antisemitism

Main article: Antisemitism

Antisemitism has also played a role in America. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, hundreds of thousands of Ashkenazi Jews were escaping the pogroms of Russia and Eastern Europe. They boarded boats from ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[34] Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... For the island in Australia, see Ellis Island, Queensland. ... This article is about the state. ...


It is thought by Leo Rosten, in his book, 'The Joys of Yiddish', that as soon as they left the boat, they were subject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term 'kike' was adopted when referring to Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles - or kikel in Yiddish).[35] Leo Calvin Rosten (April 11, 1908–February 19, 1997) was born on 11 April 1908 in Lodz, Russian Empire (now Poland) and died on 19 February 1997 in New York. ... The Joys of Yiddish is a lexicon of common words and phrases in the Yiddish language, primarily focusing on those words that had become known to speakers of American English due to the influence of American Jews. ... Look up Kike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used 'The Jewish Banker' in their propaganda. In 1915, Texas-born, New York Jew Leo Frank was lynched by the newly re-formed Klan, after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[36] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... For other persons named Leo Frank, see Leo Frank (disambiguation). ...


The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from America. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin, a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading America into the war.[37] He preached in weekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, in which he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[38] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... Father Coughlin Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979) was a Canadian-born Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigans National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin, see Protocols of Zion (film). ...


A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade.[39] The Jewish Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleges that NOI Health Minister, Abdul Alim Muhammad, has accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[40] an allegation that Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad has denied. The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Anti-White racism

In the United States, there have been crimes committed against European Americans on the basis of their ethnicity. According to FBI statistics from 1995-2002, Whites are the second most targeted group for racially motivated hate crime.[41] These crimes are often localized and occur in areas where European Americans are a racial minority.[citation needed] They do not receive the same media attention as other racially motivated crimes.[citation needed] European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


The Nation of Islam, a religious and social/political organization with the self-proclaimed goal of improving the condition of the Black people in America, is regarded as racist, antisemitic[42] and anti-white.[43] The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


Racism against Middle Easterners and Muslims

Main articles: Anti-Arabism and Islamophobia
An Assyrian church vandalized in Detroit (2007). Assyrians, although not Arabs and mostly Christians, often face backlash in the US for their Middle Eastern background.
An Assyrian church vandalized in Detroit (2007). Assyrians, although not Arabs and mostly Christians, often face backlash in the US for their Middle Eastern background.[44]

Racism against Arab Americans[45] may rise concomittantly with tensions between the American government and the Arab world. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against Arab Americans and many other religious and cultural groups.[46] Public opinion polls and think tank observers also note a "backlash" against Muslims and Arabs since 2001, with 34% of Americans reporting recently hearing prejudiced remarks about Islam and 25% assessing themselves as prejudiced against Arabs.[47] Anti-Arabism or Arabophobia is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people of Arabic origin. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Iraqis in particular were demonized which led to hatred towards Arabs and Iranians living in the United States and elsewhere in the western world.[48][49] There have been attacks against Arabs not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been attacked based on their appearances.[50]In addition, non-Arabs who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived "similarities in appearance" have been collateral victims of anti-Arabism. Persian people (who constitute a completely different set of ethnic groups than Arabs), as well as South Asians of different ethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as "Arabs". The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for "looking like an Arab terrorist" (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus being attacked for "being Muslims" have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[51][52] Occident redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ... Balbir Singh Sodhi (1949 - September 15, 2001) was a Phoenix, Arizona gas station owner who was murdered in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ...


Parts of Hollywood are regarded as using a disproportionate number of Arabs as villains and of depicting Arabs negatively and stereotypically. According to Godfrey Cheshire, a critic on the New York Press, "the only vicious racial stereotype that's not only still permitted but actively endorsed by Hollywood" is that of Arabs as crazed terrorists.[53] Hussein Ibish, former Communications Director of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, writes that all Hollywood portrayals of Arabs fall under one of "the three B's": bombers, belly dancers, or billionaires. In Hollywood, Arabs have been portrayed as terrorists and women abusers, and Arabs as extremist people.[54] ... Hussein Yusuf Kamal Ibish was born in Beirut, Lebanon in 1963. ... The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) is a grassroots civil rights organization open to all regardless of background, faith and ethnicity committed to defending the rights of people of Middle Eastearn descent and promoting their rich cultural heritage. ...


Some western movies portray Arab Muslims similar to how Nazi-inspired movies portrayed Jews. Like the image of Jews in fascist Germany, the image of Arabs is that of "money-grubbing caricatures that sought world domination, worshipped a different God, killed innocents, and lusted after blond virgins." [55]


The 2000 film Rules of Engagement drew criticism from Arab groups, described as "probably the most racist film ever made against Arabs by Hollywood" by the ADC.[53] Paul Clinton of the Boston Globe wrote "at its worst, it's blatantly racist, using Arabs as cartoon-cutout bad guys".[53] Rules of Engagement is a 2000 American movie starring Samuel L. Jackson and Tommy Lee Jones, directed by William Friedkin. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ...


Jack Shaheen, in his book Reel Bad Arabs,[56] surveyed more than 900 film appearances of Arab characters. Of those, only a dozen were positive and 50 were balanced. Shaheen writes that "[Arab] stereotypes are deeply ingrained in American cinema. From 1896 until today, filmmakers have collectively indicted all Arabs as Public Enemy #1 – brutal, heartless, uncivilized religious fanatics and money-mad cultural "others" bent on terrorizing civilized Westerners, especially [Christians] and [Jews]. Much has happened since 1896… Throughout it all, Hollywood's caricature of the [Arab] has prowled the silver screen. He is there to this day – repulsive and unrepresentative as ever."[57]. Jack G. Shaheen (born 1935) is Professor Emeritus of Mass Communication at Southern Illinois University. ... Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People (ISBN 1-56656-388-7, Olive Branch Press) is a 2001 book by Jack Shaheen where he surveyed more than 900 film appearances of Arab characters. ...


Some feel the obese oil sheik has become the new fat, grotesque Jewish banker or merchant as a negative stereotype in Western media[58]


According to Newsweek columnist Meg Greenfield, anti-Arab sentiment presently cause misconceptions about Arabs, and hinder genuine peace in the Middle East.[55]


During the 1991 Gulf war, anti-Arab sentiments increased in the United States.[59] Arab Americans have experienced backlash as result of many terrorist attacks, including events where Arabs were not involved, like the Oklahoma City bombing, the Iranian hostage crisis, and the explosion of TWA Flight 800.[60] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[60] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States. ... Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800 was a scheduled international passenger flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), New York, New York, to Charles de Gaulle International Airport (CDG), Paris, France and then to Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport (FCO) in Rome, Italy; the Boeing 747-131 used for... Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit, membership organization and advocacy group based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab Americans nationwide. ...


According to a 2001 poll of Arab Americans conducted by the Arab American Institute, "32% of Arab Americans reported having been subjected to some form of ethnic-based discrimination during their lifetimes, 20% reported having experienced an instance of ethnic-based discrimination since September 11. Of special concern, for example, is the fact that 45% of students and 37% of Arab Americans of the Muslim faith report being targeted by discrimination since September 11.[60] Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit, membership organization and advocacy group based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab Americans nationwide. ...


According to the FBI and Arab groups, the number of attacks against Arabs, Muslims, and others mistaken as such rose considerably after the 9/11 attacks.[61] Hate crimes against people of Middle Eastern origin or descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000, to 1,501 attacks in 2001.[59] Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country"[60] and four immigrants shot and killed by a man named Larme Price who confessed to killing them as a "revenge" for the 9/11 attacks.[62] Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. A hate crime (bias crime), loosely defined, is a crime committed because of the perpetrators prejudices. ...


Eric Boehlert has accused the US media, in particular Fox News, of "pandering to anti-Arab hysteria" by "fudging the facts and ignoring the most rudimentary tenets of journalism in their haste to better tell a sinister story about lurking Middle Eastern dangers".[63] John F. Sugg has accused prominent media terrorism expert Steve Emerson of persistent anti-Arab prejudice and of rushing to accuse Arab-Americans after the Oklahoma City bombing.[64] Eric Boehlert is an American journalist. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Steve Emerson is an American author, counter terrorism expert. ... The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


Prominent conservative commentators in the United States have voiced hostility towards Arabs. Bill O'Reilly has described Iraqis as a "pre-historic" and "primitive" group.[65] Michael Savage described Arabs as "non-humans" and "racist, fascist bigots" and advocated a nuclear attack on a "major Arab capital".[66] It has been suggested that Bill OReilly political beliefs and points of view be merged into this article or section. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Michael Savage is the pseudonym of Michael Alan Weiner (born March 31, 1942), a controversial[1] American conservative talk radio host, author, and political pundit. ... For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ...


Earl Krugel and Irv Rubin, two members of the Jewish Defense League, classified by the Department of Homeland Security as a terrorist organization,[67] planned to bomb Arab-American Congressman Darrell Issa's office and the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California. The two were arrested as part of a sting operation when they received a shipment of explosives at Krugel's home in L.A. and both met their end in prison.[68] The group was also suspected in the 1985 bombing of ADC leader Alex Odeh, though no arrests were made.[69] Earl Leslie Krugel (1942/43? – November 4, 2005) was the West Coast coordinator of the Jewish Defense League (JDL). ... Irving David Rubin (April 12, 1945 – November 13, 2002) was chairman of the militant Jewish Defense League from 1985 to 2002. ... JDL logo. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... Darrell E. Issa (pronounced Eye-suh) (born November 1, 1953) is an American politician and former CEO of a consumer electronics company. ... Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ... Alex Odeh was an Arab-American leader who was killed in a October 11, 1985 bombing at his office in Santa Ana, California. ...


Stephen E. Herbits, the Secretary-General of the New York-based World Jewish Congress made several racist remarks and ethnic slurs in an internal memo against the president of the European Jewish Congress Pierre Besnainou: "He is French. Don’t discount this. He cannot be trusted, ... He is Tunisian. Do not discount this either. He works like an Arab." [70] The World Jewish Congress in Israel has condemned the statements as both hateful and racist. "It appears that the struggle in the World Jewish Congress has now turned racist, said MK Shai Hermesh (Kadima), who heads the Israeli board of the WJC. Instead of creating unity among the Jewish people, this organization is just creating division and hatred."[71] The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shai Hermesh (Heb. ...


UNHCR estimates that over 4.2 million Iraqis have been displaced since the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003,[72][73] with nearly 100,000 fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[74] A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[75] Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


Racism against Iranians

Main article: Anti-Iranian sentiment
A man holding a sign that reads "deport all Iranians" and "get the hell out of my country" during a protest of the Iran hostage crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979.
A man holding a sign that reads "deport all Iranians" and "get the hell out of my country" during a protest of the Iran hostage crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979.

The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iranian sentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals and immigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of 1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselves from their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[76] A man exemplifying anti-Iranian sentiment during a 1979 Washington, D.C. student protest of the Iran hostage crisis. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4677x3117, 1708 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Iran Hostage Crisis student demonstration, Washington, D.C.] CALL NUMBER: LC-U9- 38450-29 [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-09800 (digital file from original negative) No known restrictions on publication. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4677x3117, 1708 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Iran Hostage Crisis student demonstration, Washington, D.C.] CALL NUMBER: LC-U9- 38450-29 [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ppmsca-09800 (digital file from original negative) No known restrictions on publication. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Ann Coulter called Iranians "ragheads."[77] Brent Scowcroft called the Iranian people "rug merchants."[citation needed] Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...


Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s Hollywood's depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.[78] Hollywood network productions such as 24 [79], John Doe, On Wings of Eagles (1986)[80], Escape From Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981)[81], and JAG almost regularly host Persian speaking villains in their storylines. On May 9, 1997, CBS aired an episode of JAG in which several Hamas terrorists take a Washington hospital under siege. According to the film, they spoke in fluent "Persian", not "Arabic".[citation needed] 24 is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American action drama television series. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see JAG (disambiguation). ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... For other uses, see JAG (disambiguation). ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ...


Some of Hollywood's "stereotypical"[82] and anti-Iranian movies include: The Peacemaker (in which a character, apparently without any context, says "fuck Iran"), The Hitman (in which several mobs join together to demolish an Iranian mob operating in Canada), MadHouse (partially centering upon a wealthy Iranian who is in the process of divorcing his American wife. In one scene, the wife, speaking to her Iranian husband utters "you goddamn towel heads, sand rats"), The Naked Gun, Under Siege, The Delta Force, Into the Night, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Threads, The Final Options, and Silver Bears. The Peacemaker is a 1997 thriller and action movie starring George Clooney and Nicole Kidman. ... The Hitman is a 1991 action/adventure crime film starring Chuck Norris. ... Madhouse is a 1990 film starring Kirstie Alley and John Larroquette as a successful married couple whose idyllic California life is ruined when their house is overrun by unwelcome houseguests. ... The Naked Gun is the name of a series of comedy movies starring Leslie Nielsen, Priscilla Presley and OJ Simpson. ... Under Siege is a 1992 action film in the Die Hard mold. ... The Delta Force is a 1986 action film starring Chuck Norris and Lee Marvin as leaders of an elite squad of special forces troops based on the real life U.S. Army Delta Force unit. ... Down and Out in Beverly Hills is a 1986 American comedy motion picture starring Nick Nolte, Bette Midler and Richard Dreyfuss. ... For other uses, see Thread. ... Who Dares Wins is a 1982 British movie starring Lewis Collins, Judy Davis and Edward Woodward. ...


Racism as a motivator in U.S. foreign policy

United States foreign policy making was influenced from its early decades by racial concerns. While pursuing a series of expansionist wars (see "Racism against Native Americans" above), American leaders embraced and ideology of white racial supremacy. George Washington predicted at the end of the U.S. Revolutionary War, “The gradual extension of our settlements will as certainly cause the savage, as the wolf, to retire; both being beasts of prey, tho' they differ in shape."[83] The successful slave revolution in Haiti alarmed the United States leadership, and the country refused diplomatic recognition for decades. The United States conquest of Florida and the Seminole Wars were fought in part to confront the danger of "mingled hordes of lawless Indians and negroes," in the words of President John Quincy Adams.[84] President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ...


Armed conflict against predominatly Muslim areas was launched by the administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. In 1801, Jefferson sent a group of frigates to defend American interests in the Mediterranean. On March 3, 1815, the US Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, and a force of ten ships was dispatched under the command of Commodores Stephen Decatur, Jr. and William Bainbridge. The states along the Barbary Coast, Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, were collectively known as the Barbary States. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... William Bainbridge (1774-1833). ...


Early 20th-century President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "The most ultimately righteous of all wars is a war with savages" and openly spoke of cementing the rule of "dominant world races."[84] In line with the concepts of the "Manifest Destiny" of white Anglo-Americans to conquer lands inhabited by "inferior" races of Native Americans and Mexicans and the "White Man's Burden" of Europeans' obligation to introduce civilization to the "primitive" people of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, American foreign policy in the early 20th century had racial overtones of a "superior" race destined to rule the world. For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...


Critics such as Gore Vidal and Noam Chomsky have suggested that racism has played a significant role in U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East and its treatment of the Arabs. Various critics have suggested that racism along with strategic and financial interests motivated the Bush Administration to attack Iraq even though the Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein did not possess weapons of mass destruction nor had any ties to Al Qaida.[85][86][87] On the other hand, some scholars believe that the United States has softened racial restrictions based on foreign policy concerns. For example, Congress eliminated racial bars on Asian immigration during World War II and the Vietnam War to recognize American allies.[88] When the Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, the government argued that the Supreme Court should rule against racial segregation to counter Communist propaganda and improve America's image overseas.[89] Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Baath Party of Iraq Baath son of Magog of Milesian tradition This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For specific national Supreme Courts, see Category:National supreme courts. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ...


Conflicts between racial and ethnic minorities

Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[90] Racist thinking, or prejudice, among and between minority groups does occur, for example conflicts between blacks and Koreans (notably in the 1992 Los Angeles Riots) or between blacks and Jews (such as the riots in Crown Heights in 1991[91]) in various urban environments, new immigrant groups (such as Latinos[92]) or towards whites.[93] There has been a long running racial tension between African Americans and Mexican Americans.[94][95][96] There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[97][98] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by Mexican Americans, and vice versa.[99][100][101] There had also been cases in the late 1920s California in which Filipino immigrants have been victimized for moving into a predominantly white neighbourhood, or for working in an overwhelmingly white workplace.[102] Recently there has also been an increase in racial violence between whites and Hispanic immigrants[103] and between African immigrants and American blacks.[104] Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For other uses, see Los Angeles riots (disambiguation). ... The Crown Heights Riot was a three-day riot in the Crown Heights neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... Africans in the United States, in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from continental Africa and their descendants. ...


According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a "green light" on all blacks. A sort of gang-life fatwah, this amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[4]-1... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Prison gang is a term used to denote any type of gang activity in prisons and correctional facilities. ...


Historians pointed out two ethnic and racial groups can band together in solidarity: for example, the Irish-American and Italian-American groups once held aminousity against each other later merged and also with Polish-Americans, German-Americans and French-Canadians in the U.S. because of the commonality as "ethnics" and Roman Catholics in the early 20th century. Polish-American refers to American citizens of Polish descent. ... German Americans are common in the US. Light blue indicates counties that are predominately German ancestry. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Stereotypes and prejudice

This racist postcard from the 1900s shows the casual denigration of black women. It states "I know you're not particular to a fault / Though I'm not sure you'll never be sued for assault / You're so fond of women that even a wench / Attracts your gross fancy despite her strong stench"
This racist postcard from the 1900s shows the casual denigration of black women. It states "I know you're not particular to a fault / Though I'm not sure you'll never be sued for assault / You're so fond of women that even a wench / Attracts your gross fancy despite her strong stench"

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (543x751, 84 KB) A racist postcard from the 1900s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (543x751, 84 KB) A racist postcard from the 1900s. ... For the computer diagnostic tool, see POST card. ...

Stereotypical images in the entertainment media

Popular culture (songs, theater) for European-American audiences in the nineteenth century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African-Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, is an indigenous form of American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, usually performed by white people in blackface. ...


Contemporary images and protests

Increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos utilize African-American performers commonly enacting tropes of scantilly clothed women and men as thugs or pimps. Church organized groups have protested outside the residence of Phillipe Dauman (Upper East Side (New York, NY)) (president and chief executive officer of Viacom) and the residence of Debra L. Lee (Northwest Washington DC) (chairman and chief executive of Black Entertainment Television, a unit of Viacom). Rev. Donald Coates, leader of a protest organization formed around the issue of the videos, "Enough is Enough!" said, “In the wake of the Imus affair, I began to think that the African-American community must be consistent in its outrage.” The Clifton, Maryland ministered has also said, “Why are these corporations making these images normative and mainstream?” . . . . “I can talk about this in the church until I am blue in the face, but we need to take it outside.” The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videos and on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[105][106][107][108] Hip hop music is a style of popular music. ... A trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... Viacom (NYSE: VIA) (NYSE: VIAb) is an American media conglomerate with various worldwide interests in cable and satellite television networks (MTV Networks and BET), and movie production and distribution (the Paramount Pictures and DreamWorks movie studios). ... BET redirects here. ... John Donald Don Imus, Jr. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Julian Bond, 2005 Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940) is an American leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. ...


In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the culture of working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better.[109] Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used in academic sociology and in ordinary conversation. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... We Got to Do Better, originally titled Hot Ghetto Mess, is an American television series on Black Entertainment Television. ...


Congressional hearing

In September, 2007 Rep. Bobby Rush (Democrat-Illinois) initiated a Congressional hearing on African-American images in the media, “From Imus to Industry: The Business of Stereotypes and Degrading Images.” [110] Bobby Lee Rush (born November 23, 1946) has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 1st District of Illinois (map). ...


Segregation and integration

Racial segregation in the United States is the racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ...

History

The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, like trains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. (These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800-66 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans.) State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act; none were in effect at the end of the 1960s. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Historic Southern United States. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Bleeding Kansas  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Union territories that permitted slavery The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...


Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration from suggest that in the mid-twentieth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[111] Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[112] access to health care,[113] or even supermarkets[114] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[115] areas. Although in the United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, the practice called "redlining" began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The practice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and later through the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[116] Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms. For the automotive term, see redline. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is one of the largest New York based life insurance companies Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... The National Housing Act of 1934 was passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. ... The FHAs logo The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. ... President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The Community Reinvestment Act (or CRA, Pub. ...


Contemporary issues

Black-White segregation is declining fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas and cities. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[117] Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which Blacks and Whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[118][119]


Some researchers suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. Thomas LaVeis (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist's studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities in mortality.[120] Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.[121] Racial segregation in the United States is the racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ...


Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[122] Rates of heart disease among African Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang et al. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.[123] Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in the US.[124]


Laws regarding race

Race legislation in the United States has known several historical phases. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Court cases regarding race

Institutional racism

Institutional racism is the theory that aspects of the structure, pervasive attitudes, and established institutions of society disadvantage some racial groups, although not by an overtly discriminatory mechanism.[125] There are several factors that play into institutional racism, including but not limited to: accumulated wealth/benefits from racial groups that have benefited from past discrimination, educational and occupational disadvantages faced by non-native English speakers in the United States, ingrained stereotypical images that still remain in the society (e.g. black men are likely to be criminals).[126] Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) refers to a form of racism which occurs specifically in institutions such as public bodies, corporations, and universities. ...


Some established societal institutions are taking steps to combat the alleged structural disadvantages in modern American society, particularly in the case of non-native English speakers or those raised in homes that spoke broken or pidgin English.[original research?] Several states are attempting to reduce these educational disadvantages by developing a more multiculturally-aware curriculum. For example, the 2005 California 6th grade statewide examination contained the question Patio comes from the Spanish word meaning what?. Including questions such as these provide opportunities for non-native speakers of English to have greater educational access.[original research?] This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Immigration

Access to United States citizenship was restricted by race, beginning with the Naturalization Act of 1790 which refused naturalization to "non-whites." Many in the modern United States forget the institutionalized prejudice against white followers of Roman Catholicism who immigrated from Ireland, Germany, Italy and France.[127] Other efforts include the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the 1924 National Origins Act.[128][129] The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s. While officially prohibited, U.S. officials continue to differentially apply laws on illegal immigration depending on national origin (essentially declining to enforce immigration laws against citizens of rich countries who overstay their visas) and personal economy (differentially awarding visas to foreign nationals based on bank accounts, properties and so on). Citizen redirects here. ... The original United States naturalization law of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 passed in the United States in 1882 banning Chinese from entering American soil. ... The United States Immigration Act of 1924, also known as the National Origins Act or the Johnson-Reed Act, limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of person from that country who were already living in the United States in... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


Wealth creation

Massive racial differentials in account of wealth remain in the United States: betweens whites and African Americans, the gap is a factor of ten.[130] An analyst of the phenomenon, Thomas Shapiro, professor of law and social policy at Brandeis University argues, “The wealth gap is not just a story of merit and achievement, it’s also a story of the historical legacy of race in the United Sates.”[131] Some of the institutions of wealth creation amongst American citizens were open exclusively to whites, notably land distributed under the Homestead Act and other settlement efforts in the West. Similar differentials applied to the Social Security Act (which excluded agricultural workers, a sector that then included most black workers), rewards to military officers, and the educational benefits offered returning soldiers after World War II. Pre-existing disparities in wealth are exacerbated by tax policies that reward investment over waged income, subsidize mortgages, and subsidize private sector developers.[132] The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Impact on health

See also: Race and health

In the US racial differences in health and quality of life often persist even at equivalent socioeconomics levels. Individual and institutional discrimination, along with the stigma of inferiority, can adversely affect health. Residence in poor neighborhoods, racial bias in medical care, the stress of experiences of discrimination and the acceptance of the societal stigma of inferiority can have deleterious consequences for health.[133] Using The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination. Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[134] A study on racist events in the lives of African American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being.[135] The physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer on what they term "stereotype threat."[136] Kennedy et al found that both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with white mortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[137] Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... Psychometrics of racism is an emerging field that aims to measure the incidence and impacts of racism on the psychological well-being of people of all races. ... Claude Mason Steele is an American psychology professor known for his work on stereotype threat. ... The effect of Stereotype threat. ...


Health care inequality

See also: Race and health

They are major racial differences in access to health care and in the quality of health care provided. A study published in the American Journal of Public Health estimated that: "over 886,000 deaths could have been prevented from 1991 to 2000 if African Americans had received the same care as whites." The key differences they cited were lack of insurance, inadequate insurance, poor service, and reluctance to seek care.[138] A history of government-sponsored experimentation, such as the notorious Tuskegee Syphilis Study has left of legacy of African American distrust of the medical system.[139] Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The term health insurance is generally used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses. ... // The Pelkola Syphilis Study (1932–1972), also known as the Public Health Service Syphilis Study or the Tuskegee Experiment(s) was a clinical study, conducted around Tuskegee, Alabama, where 399 (plus 200 control group without syphilis) poor -- and mostly illiterate -- African American sharecroppers became part of a study on the...


Inequalities in health care may also reflect a systemic bias in the way medical procedures and treatments are prescribed for different ethnic groups. Raj Bhopal writes that the history of racism in science and medicine shows that people and institutions behave according to the ethos of their times and warns of dangers to avoid in the future.[140] Nancy Krieger contended that much modern research supported the assumptions needed to justify racism. Racism she writes underlies unexplained inequities in health care, including treatment for heart disease,[141] renal failure,[142] bladder cancer,[143] and pneumonia.[144] Raj Bhopal writes that these inequalities have been documented in numerous studies. The consistent and repeated findings that black Americans receive less health care than white Americans—particularly where this involves expensive new technology.[145] Systemic bias is the inherent tendency of a process to favor particular outcomes. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ...


Affirmative action

Affirmative action is a policy or program intended to promote access to education or employment for minority groups and women. Motivation for affirmative action policies is to redress the effects of past discrimination and to encourage public institutions such as universities, hospitals, and police forces to be more representative of the population. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Affirmative action programs may include targeted recruitment efforts, preferential treatment given to applicants from historically disadvantaged groups, and in some cases the use of quotas. Most American universities and some employers practice affirmative action.[citation needed]


Some opponents of affirmative action view the greater access by women and minority groups to be at the expense of groups considered dominant (typically white men). In their view, these policies demonstrate an overt preference for applicants from particular backgrounds over equally-qualified (or better-qualified) candidates from other backgrounds. Some opponents of affirmative action believe the only consideration in choosing between applicants should be merit. Some also criticize affirmative action because they believe it perpetuates racial division instead of minimizing the importance of race in American society.[146]


Supporters of affirmative action believe that the perceived injustice to the dominant group is not supported by facts. They point to statistics that suggest that affirmative action has not resulted in fewer opportunities for white people. For example, white enrollment in universities has increased along with minority enrollment. In 1973, 30% of white high school graduates attended universities; in 1993, after wide-spread implementation of affirmative action policies, that number had risen to 42%.[147] Some supporters of affirmative action point out that, even in the absence of affirmative action, college admissions rarely are purely merit-based: athletes, musicians, and legacy students (children of alumni) have always been given preferential treatment. For example, Harvard University admits 35-40% of legacy applicants,[147] and a rejected white applicant is more likely to have been displaced by a legacy student than by one who benefited from affirmative action.[citation needed] Legacy preferences or legacy admission is a type of preference given by educational institutions to certain applicants on the basis of their familial relationship to alumni of that institution. ... Old girl redirects here. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Current hate groups

Main article: Hate groups

Supremacist, separatist, racist, and hate groups still operate in the United States. The Ku Klux Klan, the National Alliance, National Socialist Movement (United States), Aryan Nations, Westboro Baptist Church, Nation of Islam, New Black Panther Party, Nation of Aztlán, Nation of Yahweh, Jewish Task Force, the Jewish Defense League, and the White Order of Thule are among the institutions most commonly identified in this way. The Southern Poverty Law Center's Intelligence Project counted 844 active hate groups in the United States in 2006.[148] A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ... This article refers to the American National Socialist Movement; for other organizations see National Socialist Movement. ... Aryan Nations flag Aryan Nations (AN) is an international white supremacist, Neo-Nazi organization that is affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan. ... WBC member Jael Phelps (right) and an unidentified Westboro Baptist child protesting near the Boston Avenue United Methodist Church in Tulsa, Oklahoma The Westboro Baptist Church (WBC) is a religious organization headed by Fred Phelps and based in Topeka, Kansas, United States. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... The New Black Panthers shot the sherrif, formally known as the New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is a group formed by breakaway members of the Nation of Islam. ... The Nation of Aztlán is an Hispanic nationalist and separatist organization headquartered in Whittier, California, United States. ... Nation of Yahweh is a radical offshoot of the Black Hebrew Israelites line of thought created by Yahweh ben Yahweh. ... The Jewish Task Force (Hebrew: הימין האמיתי, HaYamin HaAmiti, lit. ... JDL logo. ... The White Order of Thule (WOT), created in the mid-1990s, was a loosely knit group of individuals who believed in the superiority of the Aryan race as represented by Norse, Viking and other ancient Nordic cultures. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ...


Anti-racism

Main article: Anti-racism

Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ...

Counter-racist organizations

Further information: NAACPCongress of Racial Equality, and Anti-Racist Action

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... ARA Logo, featuring a masked activist smashing a Swastika The Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of militant anti-fascist and anti-racists in North America. ...

See also

Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Italian American Internment in the United States during World War II is less known than the internment of Japanese-Americans in the same period, and although there are emotional and common-sense similarities, there are important differences that must be observed. ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... This is a list of race riots by country. ... This is a list of topics related to racism: Affirmative action Afrocentrism Anti-Arabism Anti-Italianism Anti-Japanese sentiment Anti-racism Anti-Semitism Apartheid Aryan Nations[1] Asian pride The Bell Curve Black Hebrew Israelites[2] Black Panther Party Black power Black supremacy Blackface British National Party[3] Bumiputra Caste... Whether there is a relationship between race and crime is a subject of debate. ... Mass racial violence in the United States, often described using the term race riots, includes such disparate events as: attacks on Irish Catholics and other early immigrants in the 19th century massacres of black people in the period after Reconstruction. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... The Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) is an independent federal agency of the United States government. ... White Privilege is the concept that White people are inherently more deserving of consideration than non-white people. ... The article describes the state of race relations and racism in a number of countries. ...

External links

  • From Imus to Industry: The Business of Stereotypes and Degrading Images -Reprint of Lisa Fager testimony on stereotyping in media

References

  1. ^ AFP: US minorities don't trust each other
  2. ^ Deep Divisions, Shared Destiny - A Poll of Black, Hispanic, and Asian Americans on Race Relations
  3. ^ Castillo, Edward D. (1998). Short Overview of California Indian History", California Native American Heritage Commission.
  4. ^ Our Daily Bleed... (html). Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  5. ^ Ward Churchill, Kill the Indian, Save the Man, 2006.
  6. ^ United States Senate, Oversight Hearing on Trust Fund Litigation, Cobell v. Kempthorne. See also, Cobell v. Norton.
  7. ^ Winona LaDuke, All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life, 1999, p. 2-3.
  8. ^ The curse of Cromwell
  9. ^ "Bacon, Nathaniel". The World Book Encyclopedia. (1992). World Book. 18. ISBN 0-7166-0092-7. 
  10. ^ Alonzo L. Hamby, George Clack, and Mildred Sola Neely. Outline of US History. A publication of the US Department of State.
  11. ^ The legal and diplomatic background to the seizure of foreign vessels
  12. ^ Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
  13. ^ XIII - Slavery Abolished The Avalon Project
  14. ^ James McPherson, Drawn with the Sword, page 15
  15. ^ The Deadliest War
  16. ^ "February 26, 1939 Eleanor Roosevelt Resigns from the Daughters of the American Revolution," Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum.
  17. ^ Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1993), 397.
  18. ^ a b Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1993), 400-414.
  19. ^ a b Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Vintage Books, 1979 [1977]), ch. 4.
  20. ^ JBHE Statistical Shocker of the Year
  21. ^ Immigration...Chinese:Exclusion
  22. ^ Text of People v. Hall decision
  23. ^ Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1993), 196-98.
  24. ^ Internment of German Americans in the United States during World War II
  25. ^ Timeline of Black History in the Pacific Northwest
  26. ^ Richard Griswold del Castillo, "The Los Angeles "Zoot Suit Riots" Revisited: Mexican and Latin American Perspectives," Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, Vol. 16, No. 2. (Summer, 2000), pp. 367-391.
  27. ^ Arthur C. Verge, "The Impact of the Second World War on Los Angeles," The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 63, No. 3, Fortress California at War: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, and San Diego, 1941-1945. (Aug., 1994), pp. 306-7.
  28. ^ Hate Crime Statistics, 2004. Hate Crime Statistics, 2005.
  29. ^ [www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/hcrvp.pdf Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police], Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, November 2005, NCJ 209911.
  30. ^ The Color of Crime, 1999.
  31. ^ Preface to Minnesota's official crime data reports, quoted in Southern Poverty Law Center, Coloring Crime.
  32. ^ Tim Wise, "The Color of Deception: Race, Crime and Sloppy Social Science," 2004.
  33. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center, Coloring Crime.
  34. ^ Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1993), 277-283.
  35. ^ Rosten, Leo (1968) "The Joys of Yiddish"
  36. ^ Phagan, 1987, p. 27, states that "everyone knew the identity of the lynchers" (putting the words in her father's mouth). Oney, 2003, p. 526, quotes Carl Abernathy as saying, "They'd go to a man's office and talk to him or ... see a man on the job and talk to him," and an unidentified lyncher as saying "The organization of the body was more open than mysterious."
  37. ^ Father Charles Edward Coughlin (1891-1971) By Richard Sanders, Editor, Press for Conversion!
  38. ^ Mary Christine Athans, "A New Perspective on Father Charles E. Coughlin," Church History, Vol. 56, No. 2. (Jun., 1987), pp. 224-235.
  39. ^ H-ANTISEMITISM OCCASIONAL PAPERS, NO. 1M
  40. ^ Nation of Islam
  41. ^ What factors lead to cross-sectional variation in anti-White hate crime on the community district level?, American Society of Criminology (ASC)
  42. ^ H-ANTISEMITISM OCCASIONAL PAPERS, NO. 1M
  43. ^ Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2006. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  44. ^ "Arab American Institute Still Deliberately Claiming Assyrians Are Arabs", Assyrian International News Agency. Retrieved on 2008-02-09. (English) 
  45. ^ Leonard, Karen. University of California, Irvine. Western Knight Center. "American Muslims:South Asian Contributions to the Mix." 2005. July 28, 2007. [1]
  46. ^ United States
  47. ^ Claudia Deane and Darryl Fears, "Negative Perception Of Islam Increasing," Washington Post, March 9, 2006. Note that the Arab prejudice statistic is in the accompanying poll data.
  48. ^ The Free Press - Independent News Media - War in Iraq
  49. ^ Demonization of Muslims Caused the Iraq Abuse
  50. ^ Attacks on Arab Americans (PBS)
  51. ^ Hindu Beaten Because He's Muslim, Mistaken Anti-Islam Thugs Pummel, Hogtie And Stab Deliveryman - CBS News
  52. ^ http://www.adl.org/presrele/hatcr_51/4277_51.asp
  53. ^ a b c Whitaker, Brian. "The 'towel-heads' take on Hollywood", The Guardian, 2000-08-11. 
  54. ^ American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee: New Book: Civil Rights in Peril-The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims
  55. ^ a b Shaheen, Jack G. (2000). "Hollywood's Muslim Arabs". The Muslim World 90 (1–2): 22–42. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2000.tb03680.x. ISSN 0027-4909. 
  56. ^ Shaheen, Jack G. (2001). Reel Bad Arabs. Interlink Publishing Group. ISBN 1-56656-388-7. 
  57. ^ Levesque, John. "Arabs suffer in the hands of Hollywood", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2002-03-21. 
  58. ^ Zogby, James J.. "The Other Anti-Semitism", Sojourners Magazine, November–December 1998. 
  59. ^ a b Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x. 
  60. ^ a b c d Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights (PDF). Arab American Institute.
  61. ^ Terrorism - Council on Foreign Relations
  62. ^ http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read03_31_03ny.htm
  63. ^ Boehlert, Eric (2002-01-19). The prime-time smearing of Sami Al-Arian. Salon.com.
  64. ^ Sugg, John F. (January/February 1999). Steven Emerson's Crusade. FAIR.
  65. ^ O'Reilly: Iraqi people are "primitive," "prehistoric group". Media Matters for America (2004-06-18).
  66. ^ Savage: Arabs are "non-humans" and "racist, fascist bigots". Media Matters for America (2004-05-14).
  67. ^ SPLCenter.org: Hate Groups Map
  68. ^ "Jewish extremist killed in jail", BBC, 2005-11-06. 
  69. ^ "JDL chairman Rubin dies", Associated Press via CNN, 2002-11-14. 
  70. ^ Ratner, Lizzy and Anna Schneider-Mayerson. Memo from Old Rumsfeld Aide May Sink Bronfman Heir. Matthew Bronfman's bid to lead the World Jewish Congress is turning into a big mess. New York Observer, May 7, 2007, Available: http://www.observer.com/2007/memo-old-rumsfeld-aide-may-sink-bronfman-heir
  71. ^ Lefkovits, Etgar. Top WJC official makes Arab jibe at EJC chief. Jerusalem Post. May 4, 2007, Available: http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull&cid=1178198609617
  72. ^ UN warns of five million Iraqi refugees
  73. ^ Iraq: Refugee Crisis Could Become Regional Security Threat
  74. ^ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006
  75. ^ Ann McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no refuge in America. Seattle Post-Intelligencer May 25, 2007
  76. ^ Bozorgmehr, Mehdi. "No solidarity: Iranians in the U.S.", The Iranian, 2001-05-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-02. 
  77. ^ Ann Coulter 'Raghead' Comments Spark Blogger Blacklash - 02/13/2006
  78. ^ See detailed analysis in: The U.S. Media and the Middle East: Image and Perception. Praeger, 1997; Greenwood, 1995.
  79. ^ Media Matters - Conservatives continue to use Fox's 24 to support hawkish policies
  80. ^ Tv View; 'On Wings Of Eagles' Plods To Superficial Heights - New York Times
  81. ^ Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981) (TV)
  82. ^ Iranian.com | Archive Pages
  83. ^ Quoted in Noam Chomsky, Year 501: The Conquest Continues, (Boston: South End Press, 1993), 22.
  84. ^ a b Quoted in Noam Chomsky, Year 501: The Conquest Continues, (Boston: South End Press, 1993), 24.
  85. ^ MERIP Interventions: Behind the Battles Over US Middle East Studies, by Zachary Lockman
  86. ^ Racism in Reporting, Jingoism as Foreign Policy (by Kristen Schurr) - Media Monitors Network
  87. ^ [2]
  88. ^ Gabriel J. Chin, The Civil Rights Revolution Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, 75 North Carolina Law Review 273 (1996)
  89. ^ Mary L. Dudziak, "Desegregation as a Cold War Imperative," 41 Stanford Law Review 61 (1988)
  90. ^ For example, Catherine A. Hansman, Leon Spencer, Dale Grant, Mary Jackson, "Beyond Diversity: Dismantling Barriers in Education," Journal of Instructional Psychology, March 1999
  91. ^ [3]
  92. ^ SPLCenter.org: The Rift
  93. ^ http://www.michnews.com/artman/publish/article_12516.shtml
  94. ^ Race relations | Where black and brown collide | Economist.com
  95. ^ Riot Breaks Out At Calif. High School, Melee Involving 500 People Erupts At Southern California School
  96. ^ California Prisons on Alert After Weekend Violence : NPR
  97. ^ JURIST - Paper Chase: Race riot put down at California state prison
  98. ^ Racial segregation continues in California prisons
  99. ^ A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles
  100. ^ The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  101. ^ FrontPage Magazine
  102. ^ Filipino Migrant Workers in California
  103. ^ Late-night snack soured by racially motivated violence
  104. ^ African immigrants face bias from blacks
  105. ^ Felicia R. Lee, "Protesting Demeaning Images in Media" "New York Times" November 5, 2007 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/arts/05enou.html
  106. ^ Marissa Newhall, "Channeling Their Discontent, 500 Gather at Executive's D.C. Home to Protest Stereotypes," Washington Post, September 16, 2007
  107. ^ Enough is Enough! website: http://www.enoughisenoughcampaign.com/
  108. ^ What About Our Daughters?
  109. ^ Felicia R. Lee, "Protesting Demeaning Images in Media" "New York Times" November 5, 2007 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/arts/05enou.html
  110. ^ Felicia R. Lee, "Protesting Demeaning Images in Media" "New York Times" November 5, 2007 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/arts/05enou.html
  111. ^ The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Vigdor The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 455-506
  112. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  113. ^ See: Race and health
  114. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  115. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  116. ^ Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529. Published 2002. Page 114.

    The goal was not to relax lending restrictions but rather to get banks to apply the same criteria in the inner-city as in the suburbs. 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cobell v. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... 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Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jack G. Shaheen (born 1935) is Professor Emeritus of Mass Communication at Southern Illinois University. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Jack G. Shaheen (born 1935) is Professor Emeritus of Mass Communication at Southern Illinois University. ... Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People (ISBN 1-56656-388-7, Olive Branch Press) is a 2001 book by Jack Shaheen where he surveyed more than 900 film appearances of Arab characters. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sojourners Magazine, a bimonthly publication of Sojourners Fellowship, was first published in 1971 under the original title of The Post-American. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit, membership organization and advocacy group based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab Americans nationwide. ... Eric Boehlert is an American journalist. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salon. ... Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), is a media criticism organization based in New York, New York, founded in 1986. ... Screenshot from Media Matters for America (Jan 6, 2006) Media Matters for America (or MMfA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in 2004 by journalist and author David Brock. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot from Media Matters for America (Jan 6, 2006) Media Matters for America (or MMfA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in 2004 by journalist and author David Brock. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Observer is a weekly newspaper first published in New York City on September 22, 1987 by Arthur L. Carter, a very successful former investment banker with publishing interests. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1980. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...

  117. ^ Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan - Journal of Political Economy, 2004
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  119. ^ Inequality and Segregation Rajiv Sethi and Rohini Somanathan Journal of Political Economy, volume 112 (2004), pages 1296–1321
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  125. ^ What is Institutional and Structural Racism? ERASE RACISM
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  147. ^ a b Myths and Fact about Affirmative Action
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Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863, Hudson River School Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Union Jack. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today,the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Description: Colored Waiting Room sign from segregationist era United States Medium: Black_and_white photograph Location: Rome GA, United States Date: September 1943 Author: Esther Bubley Source: Library of Congress Provider: Images of American Political History at the College of New Jersey [1] License: Public domain Misc: Borders cropped with with GIMP... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Black Supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that black people are superior to other races and is sometimes manifested in bigotry towards persons not of African ancestry, particularly white and Jewish people. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) refers to a form of racism which occurs specifically in institutions such as public bodies, corporations, and universities. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... The article describes the state of race relations and racism in a number of countries. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... Slave redirects here. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Wise American Indian chief from the movie Drums Across the River This article discusses the various stereotypes of Native Americans present in Western societies. ... Anti-Arabism or Arabophobia is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people of Arabic origin. ... This article discusses stereotypes of blacks of African descent present in American culture. ... Anti-Iranian sentiments (ایرانی ستیزی also ایران ستیزی) are feelings of hostility, hatred, or prejudice against Iran, its citizens, or the Persian people. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Youths supporting Grey Wolves movement. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Anti-Fascist Action (or AFA) is a British left-wing organisation founded in 1986. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... Searchlight is a British anti-fascist magazine, founded in 1975, which publishes exposés about racism, antisemitism, and fascism in the UK. Searchlights main focus is on the British National Party (BNP), Combat 18, and other sections of the far right, although it has also published criticism of the...

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United States People - MSN Encarta (3776 words)
Large numbers of Europeans migrated to the United States in the early national period, drawn by the promise of freedom, cheap land in the West, and jobs in the first factories of the emerging industrial age.
The insecure status of even free African Americans in the middle decades of the 19th century caused thousands of fls to emigrate from the United States to Canada, especially after the Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850.
Racism in both the North and the South confined African Americans to second-class citizenship in which political and civil rights were ignored.
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