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Encyclopedia > Racing bicycle
An aluminum racing bicycle made by Raleigh and built using Shimano components. It uses a semi-aerodynamic wheelset with low spoke count.
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An aluminum racing bicycle made by Raleigh and built using Shimano components. It uses a semi-aerodynamic wheelset with low spoke count.
A racing bicycle made by Cyfac using shaped aluminum and dual carbon fiber chain- and seat-stays. It uses Campagnolo components.
A racing bicycle made by Cyfac using shaped aluminum and dual carbon fiber chain- and seat-stays. It uses Campagnolo components.

A racing bicycle is a bicycle designed for road cycling according to the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). The UCI rules were altered in 1934 to exclude recumbent bicycles. I took this picture March 30, 2004--only modification is cropping. ... I took this picture March 30, 2004--only modification is cropping. ... Raleigh is a British bicycle manufacturer based in Nottingham in central England. ... Shimano (OTCBB: SHMDF, FWB:SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. ... A road racing bicycle, using a mix of shaped aluminum tubing and carbon fiber parts, made by Cyfac. ... A road racing bicycle, using a mix of shaped aluminum tubing and carbon fiber parts, made by Cyfac. ... Cyfac is a manufacturer of road cycling racing frames based in La Fuye, France. ... Campagnolo Ergopower lever Campagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle components with headquarters in Vicenza, Italy, historically regarded as the most prestigious brand name. ... This racing bicycle is built using lightweight, shaped aluminium tubing and carbon fiber stays and forks. ... Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on the road (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE Two short-wheelbase recumbents in an amateur HPV race A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ...


The two most important things about a racing bicycle are its light weight and the aerodynamic efficiency of the rider's position. The drop handlebars are positioned lower than the saddle in order to put the rider in a more aerodynamic posture. The front and back wheels are close together so the bicycle has quick handling. The derailleur gear ratios are closely-spaced so that the rider can pedal at his or her optimum cadence. Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... Handlebars usually refer to the steering mechanism for bicycles and motorcycles; the equivalent of a steering wheel, though used in conjunction with the riders balance or centre of gravity to steer. ... See: A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to a horses back. ... Mountain bicycle with Derailleur gears 9x multiple sprockets of a Derailleur gear Derailleur gears are a gear system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ... Look up Cadence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cadence has the following meanings. ...

Contents

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Distinction between road racing bicycles and others

Bicycles for racing on velodromes are track bicycles; bicycles for racing offroad are mountain bicycles, cyclo-cross bicycles or cycle speedway bicycles; bicycles that race according to the rules of the International Human Powered Vehicle Association include recumbent bicycles which are the fastest bicycles in the world. Recumbents were excluded from the definition of a bicycle on 1 April 1934. Bicycle racing on a velodrome A velodrome is a sporting arena purpose-built for track cycling, i. ... A track bicycle made by Cyfac. ... A mountain bike in the forest Freeriding on a Hardtail freeride bicycle A full suspension Mountain Bike A rider during a Cross Country race A mountain bike, mountain bicycle or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle) is a bicycle designed for riding off-road, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments... Photograph of Simon Zahners Ridley X-Night cyclo-cross bicycle. ... Cycle speedway is a form of bicycle racing which takes place on short oval outdoor dirt tracks, typically around 70-90 metres in length. ... The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association dedicated to promoting the design and development of human powered vehicles. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE Two short-wheelbase recumbents in an amateur HPV race A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Time trial bicycles are a subset of racing bicycles that are designed for time trial events. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In many racing sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes) will compete in a time trial against the clock to secure the fastest time. ...

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Racing wheels and tires

The wheels greatly affect the performance of a racing bike. The wheels rotate at high speeds; consequently their moment of inertia matters a lot. The rim of the wheel can be shaped for greater aerodynamic efficiency making a triangular cross-section to form a teardrop with the tire. For hillclimbs, however, effects from weight overcome those from aerodynamics, and the traditional box-sectioned rim is often used. The front wheel from a racing bicycle made using a Mavic rim A bicycle wheel is a wheel designed for a bicycle. ... Moment of inertia, also called mass moment of inertia and, sometimes, the angular mass, (SI units kg m2, English units ft lb s2) quantifies the rotational inertia of an object, i. ...


For aerodynamics and rotating weight, it is generally better to reduce the number of spokes in the wheel. For high-end wheelsets, the spokes can be shaped to have a bladed cross-section, further reducing wind resistance. A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...


The most common material for a wheel rim is aluminium alloy. Using a molded carbon fiber rim reduces weight compared to a metal rim. Using exotic materials, race-grade wheelsets are very expensive. Riders who race often choose to own at least two pairs of wheels. A heavier, more durable, and cheaper wheelset for training, and a lighter, more aerodynamic wheelset for racing. General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a strong, light and very expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ...


To reduce both air resistance and rolling resistance on the road, tires or tyres are lightweight, narrow, and have a thin, smooth tread. They are inflated to a high pressure, typically around 8 bar (820kPa/120psi); track racing tires can be inflated up to c.14 bar. Until recently, most racing bikes used "tubular/single/sew-up" tires which have no beads: they are sewn around the tube and glued to the rim. These tires provide an advantage in weight (lacking the relatively heavy wire bead), rolling resistance and grip, but their greatest advantage lies in the ability to use a very lightweight simple box-section rim, rather than the U-shaped clincher rim. A U-shaped clincher rim must use relatively heavier gauge to prevent the tire pressure from spreading the inherently weak U shape and allowing the tire to come off the rim. Advances in tire technology, however, have seen the far more practical clincher (beaded) tire close the gap. Some manufacturers create Tubular-Clincher tires, where the tires are sewn around the tubes and have a bead, there is some debate as to the effectiveness of a tubular-clincher tire. Some say that it has all the advantages of a Tubular tire made to fit a clincher rim. Other would argue that you have all the disadvantages to both systems---the rim weight is still high, the tire is more expensive than a standard clincher tire, and repairing a puncture on a tubular clincher is as inconvenient as it is with a standard tubular tire. The one benefit of a tubular-clincher is that the risk of pinch flats is very low (like the tubular tire) and one would get to use the more popular clincher style wheels. Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction, is the resistance that occurs when an object (e. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... {{dablink|The abbreviation psi has multiple meanings; see // Definition At 1 lbf/in2, a force of one pound-force is applied to an area of one square inch. ...

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Racing components

A racing bicycle with carbon frames and cranks. It has a drop handlebar and components made by Campagnolo, except for the cranks.
A racing bicycle with carbon frames and cranks. It has a drop handlebar and components made by Campagnolo, except for the cranks.

Race bike components (excluding frame, fork, wheelset, bars, stem, pedals, saddle and seatpost) are collectively referred to as the groupset. The quality of the groupset determines how refined the bike feels, how much maintenance it requires, and contributes to the performance of the bike. The two major groupset manufacturers of complete groupsets for racing bicycles are Shimano and Campagnolo. In 2006 SRAM introduced their Force and Rival racing groupsets [1]. The companies have different design philosophies, and some cyclists have great brand loyalty for one or the other. Another company that produces individual components, but not whole groupsets is Full Speed Ahead (FSA). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1803x1584, 452 KB) Summary A bicycle, annotated. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1803x1584, 452 KB) Summary A bicycle, annotated. ... A groupset is a bicycle component manufacturers organized collection of mechanical parts. ... Shimano (OTCBB: SHMDF, FWB:SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. ... Campagnolo Ergopower lever Campagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle components with headquarters in Vicenza, Italy, historically regarded as the most prestigious brand name. ... SRAM Corporation is a bicycle component manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois, incorporating the former bicycle division of Fichtel and Sachs, Sachs-Huret and recently acquiring Rock Shox, Avid and Truvativ, making it much more competitive against the industry giant Shimano. ... These are companies that manufacture or did manufacture bicycles or bicycle components. ...


In the early 1990s, Shimano introduced dual-control a system called Shimano Total Integration (STI). STI is characterized by its combined brake and shift levers, or "brifters". Previously, the shifters were mounted on the stem or the down tube of the frame. Dual control addressed the problem of having to reposition a hand to change gears. STI was followed by the competing Campagnolo/Sachs Ergolever. Other than this, the general design of a racing bicycle has changed little since the development of derailleurs. Shimano (OTCBB: SHMDF, FWB:SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. ... Shimano Total Integration (STI) is a gearshift system designed by Shimano for racing bicycles. ... A twist-style seven-speed indexed shifter made by SRAM A bicycle shifter or gear control or gear levers is a component used to control the gearing mechanisms and select the desired gear ratio. ... Campagnolo Ergopower lever Campagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle components with headquarters in Vicenza, Italy, historically regarded as the most prestigious brand name. ... Ergo Shifting, also referred to as Ergopower or Ergolevers, is the dual-control shifting component design by Campagnolo for operation of the derailleurs on racing bicycles. ...


The road groupset levels that these companies offer are as follows, from highest to lowest level. The number in the brackets indicates the number of cogs on the freewheel. Shimano: Dura-Ace (10s), Ultegra (10s), 105 (10s), Tiagra (9s), SORA (8s), 2200 (8s). Campagnolo: record (10s), Chorus (10s), Centaur (10s), Veloce (10s), mirage (10s), Xenon (10s). SRAM: Force (10s), Rival (10s).


In the mid 1990s Mavic, known for their wheelsets, introduced an electronic shifting system which was pioneered in the Tour de France by American Greg LeMond and later on by Briton Chris Boardman, who liked the fact that the system allowed him to shift from his aerobars and his brake levers. The system did not catch on due to technological hurdles, but it has been rumored that Campagnolo has been developing an electronic groupset and has been field tested as recently as the 2005 Giro d'Italia. In early March of 2006, some pro riders were seen riding with Shimano electronic shifting groupsets as well. Bicycle with Mavic CXP 14 rims Mavic is a French bicycle parts manufacturer whose name is an acronym for Manufacture dArticles Vélocipédiques Idoux et Chanel founded by Charles Idoux and Lucien Chanel. ... Le Tour de France (Tour of France), often referred to as La Grande Boucle, Le Tour or The Tour, is the most famous and prestigious road bicycle race in the world. ... LeMond at the start of the last stage in the 1990 Tour de France. ... Chris Boardman (born August 26, 1968) is a former English racing cyclist who won a gold medal at the 1992 Olympic Games. ... The Giro dItalia, also simply known as the Giro, is a long distance road bicycle race for professional cyclists held over three weeks in May or early June in and around Italy. ...


Carbon fiber has also become more popular for components. Campagnolo has introduced carbon fiber for their high-end shifters and brake levers, cranks, and parts of their derailleurs. Carbon fiber stems, handlebars, shoe soles, forks and seatposts are also more commonplace, including integrated stem/handlebar combinations. The advantages of carbon fiber are low weight as well as increased vibration dampening leading to a more comfortable ride. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic or (CFRP or CRP), is a strong, light and very expensive composite material or fiber reinforced plastic. ... Mountain bicycle with Derailleur gears 9x multiple sprockets of a Derailleur gear Derailleur gears are a gear system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ...

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Maintenance

For recreational cycling, the racing bicycle is less popular than the mountain bike. Mountain bikes, through mass production and popularity, are less expensive. A new entry-level mountain bike starts around half the price of an entry-level racing bike. ...


Racing bikes are less durable and less strong than mountain bikes. But unless a rider intends riding on rough tracks a racing bike is more efficient for everyday use. Cyclo-cross bikes, which are ridden off-road, are closer to racing bikes than to mountain bikes. They have wider, treaded tires and cantilever brakes instead of caliper brakes but are still less efficient than racing bikes for use on the roads. Cyclo-cross bikes, because of their more rugged frame construction, can make very dependable and durable road racing bikes for a beginner with only limited modification -- usually just a change of tires and gearing. A cyclo-cross racer carrying his bicycle up a steep slope after overcoming a barrier at the bottom (not shown). ...

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UCI rules

The UCI rules (rewritten in 1934 to exclude recumbent bikes which had recently captured the world speed record) specify[2] that a racing bicycle have the following characteristics, :

  • be a vehicle with a front wheel steered by a handlebar and a rear wheel driven by a system comprising pedals and a chain by the legs moving in a circular movement
  • wheels must be of equal diameter, between 70 cm and 55 cm, and must have minimum 12 spokes
  • maximum length 185 cm
  • maximum width 50 cm
  • the peak of the saddle must be at least 5 cm behind a vertical plane passing through the bottom bracket spindle
  • the saddle must be between 24 cm and 30 cm in length
  • the distance between the bottom bracket spindle and the ground must be between 24 cm and 30 cm
  • the distance between the vertical passing through the lower bracket spindle and the front wheel spindle must be between 54 cm and 65 cm
  • the distance between the vertical passing through the bottom bracket spindle and the rear wheel spindle must be between 35 cm and 50 cm
  • the maximum internal distance between the front fork ends is 10.5 cm, and of the rear stays 13.5 cm
  • minimum mass 6.8 kg (~15 lbs weight)
  • frame must be built around a main triangle, constructed of tubular elements (that may have non-circular cross-sections) such that the form of each encloses a straight line

Note that the regulations regarding the dimensions of the bike are allowed exception, given that the rider can demonstrate a morphological need for the exception based on limb size or other factors. Handlebars usually refer to the steering mechanism for bicycles and motorcycles; the equivalent of a steering wheel, though used in conjunction with the riders balance or centre of gravity to steer. ... A bicycle pedal provides the connection between the cyclists foot or shoe and the crankarm allowing the leg to be used to turn the crank. ... Roller chain and sprocket A bicycle chain is a chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it. ... A square-taper bottom bracket. ... bicycle fork A bicycle fork is the portion of a bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ...

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See also

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This racing bicycle is built using lightweight, shaped aluminium tubing and carbon fiber stays and forks. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Road cycling is the most widespread and popular form of bicycle riding. ... Bicycle racing encompasses many forms in which bicycles are used for competition. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Early History of the Racing Bicycle (429 words)
The Foundations of Bicycle Racing and the Golden Age of the
In Europe, track racing was popular, but it was road racing that captured the imagination of the people.
Frames of prewar racing bicycles were made of lightweight butted tubing using lugged construction.
Racing bicycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1523 words)
A racing bicycle is a bicycle designed for road cycling according to the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI).
Bicycles for racing on velodromes are track bicycles; bicycles for racing offroad are mountain bicycles, cyclo-cross bicycles or cycle speedway bicycles; bicycles that race according to the rules of the International Human Powered Vehicle Association include recumbent bicycles which are the fastest bicycles in the world.
Race bike components (excluding frame, fork, wheelset, bars, stem, pedals, saddle and seatpost) are collectively referred to as the groupset.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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