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Encyclopedia > Racial segregation
Part of a series of articles on
Racial segregation


White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
Zionism and Racism The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
Racial steering
Gentrification
White flight
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Indian Reservations
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Ghettos
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...

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Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.[1] Segregation may be mandated by law or exist through social norms. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence such as lynchings; a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. Legal segregation in both South Africa and the U.S. was required and came with "anti-miscegenation laws" (prohibitions against interracial marriage) and laws against hiring people of the race that is the object of discrimination in any but menial positions. For other uses, see Race. ... The race debate refers to the discussion and controversy surrounding modern definitions of race. ... In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... // Origins of modern humans see also single-origin hypothesis, multiregional hypothesis. ... The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution, temperament, and mental abilities. ... Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... // Main article: Racial demographics of the United States The United States is a diverse country racially. ... Brazil is a racially diverse and multiracial country. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This is a list of topics related to racism: Affirmative action Afrocentrism Anti-Arabism Anti-Italianism Anti-Japanese sentiment Anti-racism Anti-Semitism Apartheid Aryan Nations[1] Asian pride The Bell Curve Black Hebrew Israelites[2] Black Panther Party Black power Black supremacy Blackface British National Party[3] Bumiputra Caste... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vigilante (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ...


Segregation in hiring practices contributes to economic imbalance between the races. Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and/or mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races. Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...

Contents

Overview

Racial segregation differs from racial discrimination in a number of ways. Discrimination ranges from individual actions, to socially enforced discriminatory behavior, to legally mandated differences in status between members of different races. Segregation has, typically, harshly reinforced discrimination: if people of different races live in separate neighborhoods, attend different schools, receive different social services, etc., then people of the favored races can be largely insulated from societal neglect of people of other races.


Historical cases

Chargers arte in "If the whole of Sanskrit literature, sacred or profane, makes one thing clear, it is that there is one line no Hindu could cross, and that was the line which separated the Aryan in India from the non-Aryan. The two ethnic nouns even acquired moral connotations: to be Arya was to be noble and honourable, and to be Anarya was to be base and dishonourable. The non-Aryans were beyond the pale of Hindu society, and therefore untouchable. The Aryan Hindus regarded them with fear, hatred, contempt and disgust..." (Nirad C. Chaudhuri, "Hinduism and the Aboriginals", Hinduism: A Religion to Live By, Oxford University Press, USA; New Edition, 1997, p. 97). Nirad C. Chaudhuri (Bangla: নীরদ চন্দ্র চৌধুরী Nirod Chôndro Choudhuri) (23 November 1897 – 1 August 1999) was a Bengali Indian writer and a commentator on culture. ...


Ancient Sparta

The Indo-European Dorian conquerors of Sparta established one of the harshest racially-based states in history. A tiny minority of Spartan masters lorded it over a large population of enserfed aboriginal Helots, who had virtually no civil or political rights. "Once a year, the Spartans declared war on the helots, so that their young men could kill any who seemed insubordinate without incurring the legal guilt of homicide" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, Simon and Schuster, 1972, p. 95). Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... [[Im Category: ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... The Helots (in Classical Greek / Heílôtes) were the serfs of Sparta. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


Nazi Germany (1933-1945)

A ban of interracial marriage was part of the Nuremberg Laws enacted by the Nazis in Germany against the German Jewish community during the 1930s. The laws prohibited marriages between Jews and Aryan Germans, which were classified as different races. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the population was divided into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed strips in the cities, public transportation, and assigned The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...

During the 1930s and 40s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, and were, along with Romas (Gypsies) discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors and professors were not allowed to treat Aryan (effectively, gentile) patients or teach Aryan pupils, respectively. The Jews were also not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, and would only be able to shop from 3-5 in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht ("The Night of Broken Glass"), the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "racial" groups in the Holocaust). During German occupation of Poland in World War II, attempts to divide the Polish nation by the new rulers led to the postulation of a separate ethnicity called Goralenvolk. Derived from the Polish word Górale (Mountain People or Highlanders), it designated the population of the region of Podhale in... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Kaschobenvolk was an attempt to divide Polish nation, carried out among Kashubians during World War II by Germans. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... SS redirects here. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Rhodesia (20th century)

The British colony of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), under Ian Smith, leader of the white minority government, declared unilateral independence in 1965. For the next 15 years, Rhodesia operated under white minority rule until international sanctions forced Smith to hold multiracial elections, after a brief period of British rule in 1979. This article is about a type of political territory. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November...


Laws enforcing segregation had been around before 1965, although many institutions simply ignored them. One highly publicized legal battle occurred in 1960 involving the opening of a new Theatre that was to be open to all races, this incident was nicknamed "The Battle of the Toilets". Front view of Reps Theatre Reps Theatre (also known as The Repertory Players or simply Reps) is a multi-racial Zimbabwe theatre and theatrical company based in the capital city of Harare. ... Front view of Reps Theatre Reps Theatre (also known as The Repertory Players or simply Reps) is a multi-racial Zimbabwe theatre and theatrical company based in the capital city of Harare. ...


South Africa (20th century)

"Petty apartheid": sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu languages
"Petty apartheid": sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu languages

Apartheid was a system which existed in South Africa for over forty years, although the term itself had a history going back to the 1910s and unofficially before that for many years. It was formalized in the years following the victory of the National Party in the all-white national election of 1948, increased in dominancy under the rule of Prime Minister Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd and remained law until 1994. Examples of apartheid policy introduced are the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1951, which made it illegal for marriage between races. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x800, 59 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x800, 59 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Hendrik Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 – Cape Town, 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966. ... Apartheid (ap-ar-taet) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and enforced by White minority governments in South Africa from 1948 till 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. ...


Apartheid was abolished following a rapid change in public perception of racial segregation throughout the world, and an economic boycott against South Africa which had crippled and threatened to destroy its economy. For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


United States (19th-21st century)

After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in America, racial discrimination became regulated by the so-called Jim Crow laws, which mandated strict segregation of the races. Though such laws were instituted shortly after fighting ended in many cases, they only became formalized after the end of Republican-enforced Reconstruction in the 1870s and 80s during a period known as the nadir of American race relations. This legalized segregation lasted up to the 1960s, primarily through the deep and extensive power of Southern Democrats. Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Thirteenth Amendment may refer to the: Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - outlaws slavery. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... GOP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ...


While the majority in 1896 Plessy overtly upheld only "separate but equal" facilities (specifically, transportation facilities), Justice John Marshall Harlan in his dissent protested that the decision was an expression of white supremacy; he predicted that segregation would "stimulate aggressions … upon the admitted rights of colored citizens," "arouse race hate" and "perpetuate a feeling of distrust between [the] races."[2] Plessy v. ... This is about the pre-World-War-I US Supreme Court justice; for his grandson, the mid-20th-century holder of the same position, see John Marshall Harlan II. John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was an American Supreme Court associate justice. ... A dissenting opinion is an opinion of one or more judges in an appellate court expressing disagreement with the majority opinion. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ...

A segregated facility in Dallas, Texas. Note the sign "Colored Waiting Room" at the top.
A segregated facility in Dallas, Texas. Note the sign "Colored Waiting Room" at the top.

Institutionalized racial segregation was ended as an official practice by the efforts of such civil rights activists as Clarence Mitchell, Jr., Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., working during the period from the end of World War II through the passage of the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Many of their efforts were acts of non-violent civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the black part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding sit-ins at all-white diners. Image File history File links Segregation_Dallas. ... Image File history File links Segregation_Dallas. ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... President Lyndon Johnson with Mitchell in 1964. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. ...


By 1968 all forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and by the 1970s, support for formal legal segregation had dissolved. Formal racial discrimination was illegal in school systems, businesses, American military and government. Separate bathrooms, water fountains and schools all disappeared and the civil rights movement had the public's support.[3] Pretorian Guards, Roman Soldiers Military has two broad meanings. ...


Since then, African-Americans have played a significant role as mayors, governors, and state officials in both Southern and Northern states and on the national level have been on the Supreme Court, in the House of Representatives and the Senate, in presidential cabinets, and as head of the joint chiefs of staff.[4]

Governor George Wallace attempts to block the enrollment of black students at the University of Alabama.
Governor George Wallace attempts to block the enrollment of black students at the University of Alabama.

Not all racial segregation laws have been repealed in the United States, although Supreme Court rulings have rendered them unenforceable and illegal to carry out. For instance, the Alabama Constitution still mandates that Separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children, and no child of either race shall be permitted to attend a school of the other race.[5] A proposal to repeal this provision was narrowly defeated in 2004. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4239x3337, 929 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Governor George Wallace attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama] CALL NUMBER: USN&WR COLL - Job no. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4239x3337, 929 KB) Information from LOC TITLE: [Governor George Wallace attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama] CALL NUMBER: USN&WR COLL - Job no. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship school of the University of Alabama System. ... The Alabama Constitution is the basic governing document of the U.S. state of Alabama. ...


Over the next twenty years, a succession of further court decisions and federal laws, including the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and measure to end mortgage discrimination in 1975, would completely invalidate de jure racial segregation and discrimination in the U.S., although de facto segregation and discrimination have proven more resilient. According to the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, the actual de facto desegregation of U.S. public schools peaked in the late 1980s; since that time, the schools have, in fact, become more segregated mainly due to the ethnic segregation of the nation with whites dominating the suburbs and minorities the urban centers. As of 2005, the present proportion of black students at majority white schools "are a level lower than in any year since 1968." HMDA redirects here. ... Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Contemporary segregation

Dominican Republic

None of Haitian illegal inmigrants live without recognition of Dominican Nationality, where they do not have access to education and economic services based on their lack of legality in the country. According to multiple New York Times, Human Rights Groups [1] and Amnesty International reports, birth certificates are not issued to children born to both parents of Haitian nationality and without legal residence in the Dominican Republic.[6] Human rights worker Solange Pierre won the 2006 Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award for fighting to end this problem.[7] Tensions between both nationals in the Dominican Republic have been reported as well as periodic fights and acts of violence by Dominicans against the Haitians.[8] The practice of what is described as Antihaitianismo has been another factor, due to the tension between the Dominican Republic and its neighboring nation.[9] [10] The documentary "The Price of Sugar" documents the current situation for Haitian workers living in the Dominican Republic. [11] In Europe there have been calls for a travel and economic boycott of the Dominican Republic. Smaller Non-Governmental organizations have called for similar boycotts in the United States. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Solange Pierre (born 1963), known as Sonia Pierre, is a controversial human rights advocate in the Dominican Republic who works to end antihaitianismo, which is bias against individuals from Haiti. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... A racial prejudice instituted by the Spanish inhabitants of the colony of Santo Domingo (present day Dominican Republic). ...


Yet the president of Haiti and his ambassadors to the Dominican Republic and France have denied the accusations leveled by the film makers as propaganda. Since they have exposed that poor Dominicans of no Haitian ancestry or race live under the same conditions or worse than the Haitians at the Bateyes in the Dominican Republic.[12]


The film has been exposed as an orchestrated and manipulated tool to force the Dominican government to provide Citizenship to the over one million Haitians and their children that illegaly crossed the border looking for work and a better life to that they have in the impoverished Haiti. Since the Dominican government itself doesn't own any Sugar Mills anymore.


So far the Dominican government has provided the issuance of Birth Certificates that will allow the Haitian parents to properly register the birth of the children in the Haitian consulate at the country as well as allow the children to attend State funded public schools at the expense of the Dominican tax payer.


Fiji

Two military coups in Fiji in 1987 removed from power a government that was led by an ethnic Fijian, but was supported principally by the Indo-Fijian (ethnic Indian) electorate. A new constitution was promulgated in 1990, establishing Fiji as a republic, with the offices of President, Prime Minister, two-thirds of the Senate, and a clear majority of the House of Representatives reserved for ethnic Fijians, Ethnic Fijian ownership of the land was also entrenched in the constitution. Fiji Coups of 1987 refers to the 1987 overthrow of the government of Fiji by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces. ... Indigenous Fijians are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands. ... Indo-Fijians are people born in Fiji, but are ethnically Indian. ... Fiji became a republic in 1987, when Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom formally abdicated as Queen of Fiji, following two military coups led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka. ... Fiji received its independence in 1970. ... The Senate of Fiji is the upper chamber of Parliament. ... Overview The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Fijis Parliament. ...


Fiji's has a long complex history with more than 3500 years as a divided Tribal nation. Unification under the British rule as a Colony for 96 years bought other racial groups, particularly immigrants from the Indian sub-continent, to Fiji in large numbers.


Independent Fiji's young democracy has been troubled by the tension between the entitlement to the governance of Fiji by indigenous Fijians, felt by some especially in the armed services, as compared to the democratic rights of Indo-Fijians to participate equally in public life as fellow citizens.


Some Fijians see this as an indigenous race trying to maintain and Govern the Land of their ancestors while finding its place as a modern democracy. Others see it as undemocratic and racist segregation that explicitly targets and prevents Indo-Fijians from living as equal citizens in Fiji.


Malaysia

Malaysia has an article in its constitution which distinctly segregates the Malays and other indigeneous peoples of Malaysia, or bumiputra, from the non-Malays under the social contract, giving the indigeneous population special rights and privileges. This includes government-sponsored discounts and requiring even the private sector of the economy to preferentially treat bumiputras with economic privileges and penalising companies who do not have a certain quota of bumiputra in employment. Further more, any discussion of abolishing the article is prohibited with the justification that it is seditious. This form of state-sponsored racial segregation is claimed as apartheid to opponents of the article. Supporters of the policy maintain that this is affirmative action for the bumiputra who had suffered during the colonial era of the history of Malaysia, using the concept of the Ketuanan Melayu that Malaysia belongs to the Malays. In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the keris (traditional Malay dagger) in defense of ketuanan Melayu, the social contract and Article 153. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ...

Northern Ireland

Main article: Segregation in Northern Ireland

Since the 16th century Plantation of Ulster, Loyalist Protestants and Irish Catholics have lived in a highly segregated state in northern Ireland, with large divisions existing today regarding education, housing, intermarriage and employment. A peace line in Belfast Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of the province. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ...


Yemen

In Yemen, the Arabic elite practices an unofficial form of racial segregation: the population is implicitly divided into the higher-class Arabic stocks and the lower-class black Ethiopians, the Akhdam people [2].


United States

Black-White segregation is declining fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas in the US. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[13] Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which Blacks and Whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[14][15]


Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[16] access to health care,[17] or even supermarkets[18] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[19] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. For the automotive term, see redline. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ...


Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood income, and the credit quality of local businesses.[20] Gregory D. Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry.[21] Workers living in American inner-cities have a harder time finding jobs than suburban workers.[22]


The desire of many whites to avoid having their children attend integrated schools has been a factor in white flight to the suburbs.[23] Recent studies in San Francisco showed that groups of homeowners tended to self-segregate in order to be with people of the same education level and race. [24] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been mostly replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[25] Today, many whites are willing, and are able, to pay a premium to live in a predominantly white neighborhood. Equivalent housing in white areas commands a higher rent.[26] By bidding up the price of housing, many white neighborhoods again effectively shut out blacks, because blacks are unwilling, or unable, to pay the premium to buy entry into white neighborhoods. Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American Apartheid"[27] White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...


In February 2005 U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. California (125 S. Ct. 1141) that the California Department of Corrections' unwritten practice of racially segregating prisoners in its prison reception centers — which California claimed was for inmate safety (gangs in California, as throughout the U.S., usually organize on racial lines)— is to be subject to strict scrutiny, the highest level of constitutional review. Strict scrutiny is the highest standard of judicial review used by courts in the United States. ...


Sociological research (Brown v. Board of Education)

In the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Chief Justice Earl Warren, writing for a unanimous court, said that "in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal... To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ...


The decision made clear that the justices were influenced in part by studies by Kenneth B. Clark showing that segregated education had a negative psychological effect upon black school children. Significant doubt was subsequently cast on these studies, especially Clark's "doll study." Black students in segregated schools were shown both black and white dolls and asked which one they liked better. A majority of black students preferred the white doll, which was believed by Clark to demonstrate lowered black self-esteem as a result of segregation. Clark, however, did not present to the court his own research which showed that black children in integrated schools were even more likely to choose the white doll than those in segregated schools. Though some blacks are even now socially aware that skin color does not matter in life decisions concerning enhancement (2006-2007). Kenneth Bancroft Clark (July 24, 1914–May 1, 2005), was an African American psychologist who along with his wife Mamie Clark founded the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem. ...


In Toronto, Canada, racial segregation of “Black-focused” public schools was being promoted by Canada's largest and most influential school board, the Toronto District School Board. [3] In 2005, controversy erupted when the Toronto District School Board's Equity Officer, Lloyd McKell, who is black himself, spoke in favour of “Black-focused schools”. The proposal brought about a media backlash; the School Board claimed to have no plans to act on this proposal, however this has been proven incorrect as this very same school board is now taking a lead role in implementing this proposal [4]. Similar controversy had taken place in the North York Board of Education in the 1980’s when the board attempted to turn Georges Vanier Secondary School into a black-only school. [5] Toronto District School Board, also known as TDSB, is the English-language public school board for Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The North York Board of Education was the primary school board for the former city of North York in Ontario, Canada. ... Georges Vanier Secondary School is a public high school located in Toronto, Ontario. ...


See also

Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Al Wefaq National Islamic Society is Bahrains most largest political society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... English as an additional language is used to refer to the learning of English by speakers of other languages. ... Defined as regions with limited to full self governance within sovereign countries which were created based on the demographic or ethnic composition of the particular area. ... // Forsyth County, Georgia v. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... The Group Areas Act of 1950 (Act No. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ... Muslim Mosque, Inc. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and were one of the dominant features of the countrys apartheid system. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Religious segregation involves the separation of people on the basis of religion. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment...

Notes

  1. ^ Principles to Guide Housing Policy at the Beginning of the Millennium, Michael Schill & Susan Wachter, Cityscape
  2. ^ http://www.thenation.com/doc/20040503/fonerkennedy
  3. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  4. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  5. ^ http://www.legislature.state.al.us/CodeOfAlabama/Constitution/1901/CA-245806.htm
  6. ^ New York Times "No Papers, No Rights" 2005
  7. ^ "DOMINICAN BORN HAITIAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST WINS 2006 RFK HUMAN RIGHTS AWARD" Press Release, RFK Memorial Center, accessed Sept. 28, 2007.
  8. ^ Amnesty International Dominican Republic Report 2006
  9. ^ http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2003/ling001/antihaitianismo.html
  10. ^ http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/2276.cfm
  11. ^ http://www.thepriceofsugar.com
  12. ^ http://dominicantoday.com/app/article.aspx?id=24051
  13. ^ Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan - Journal of Political Economy, 2004
  14. ^ SEGREGATION AND STRATIFICATION: A Biosocial Perspective Douglas S. Massey Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race (2004), 1: 7-25 Cambridge University Press
  15. ^ Inequality and Segregation Rajiv Sethi and Rohini Somanathan Journal of Political Economy, volume 112 (2004), pages 1296–1321
  16. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  17. ^ See: Race and health
  18. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  19. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  20. ^ Redlining Redux Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, 22–41 (2002)
  21. ^ Racial Profiling, Insurance Style: Insurance Redlining and the Uneven Development of Metropolitan Areas Journal of Urban Affairs 25 (4), 391–410.
  22. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities Yves Zenou and Nicolas Boccard 1999
  23. ^ http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761580651_3/Segregation_in_the_United_States.html#s15
  24. ^ Ap news article
  25. ^ ..
  26. ^ Kiel, K. A. and J. E. Zabel. "Housing Price Differentials in U.S. Cities: Household and Neighborhood Racial Effects." Journal of Housing Economics 5, 1996.
  27. ^ Massey, D. S. and N. A. Denton. American Apartheid. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Seattle, Washington cityscape Houses of Parliament, Sunset, 1902, by Claude Monet View of Delft (1660-1661) by Jan Vermeer A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a landscape. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1980. ...

References

  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L, White Power, White Pride: The White Separatist Movement in the United States, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001, 384 pages, ISBN 0-8018-6537-9.
  • Stokes, DaShanne. (In Press) "Legalized Segregation and the Denial of Religious Freedom"
  • Rural Face of White Supremacy: Beyond Jim Crow, by Mark Schultz. University of Illinois Press, 2005, ISBN 0-252-02960-7.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jefferson - Enlightenment: Brown v. Board of Education - Racial Segregation in Public Schools (1258 words)
The Topeka School system was segregated on the basis of race, and under the separate but equal doctrine, this arrangement was acceptable and legal.
Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racial[ly] integrated school system."
The Brown case signaled the end of "de jure" segregation in the United States, that is, segregation of public places that is mandated by law.
Racial segregation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2983 words)
Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.
Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race.
Many of their efforts were acts of civil disobedience aimed at violating the racial segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the fl part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding sit-ins at all-white diners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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